. The Michelson-Morley experiment. Invariance of the speed of light under the Lorentz transformation. Einstein’s interpretation of the Lorentz transformation. **Electromagnetism** James Clerk Maxwell, 1831-1879 James Clerk Maxwell united the phenomena of electricity and magnetism under the **theory** of **electromagnetism**, which is expressed through Maxwell’s equations as published in 1861/1862. Single integral with circle: closed loop Double integral with/

elements. Thomson’s experiments used a vacuum tube. Atomic Structure: Basic Concepts Topic 2 The Electron Because of Dalton’s atomic **theory**, most scientists in the 1800s believed that the atom was like a tiny solid ball that could not be broken up /2 Answer A. Chlorine B. Calcium C. Potassium Basic Concept Questions Topic 2 Question 3 Give an example for each type of **electromagnetic** energy listed below. A. Ultraviolet light B. Infrared light C. Visible light Answer Sample answers: A. ultraviolet light: part /

goal is to provide undergraduate engineering students with understanding of a specific engineering topic and FE **theory**, along with an ability to apply commercial FE software to typical engineering problems. The educational goal/Generating a Solution Analyzing the Solution Concluding the Session Further Reading and References 1. Overview of Computational **Electromagnetics** Engineering **Electromagnetics** The study of electrical and magnetic fields and their interaction Governed by Maxwell’s Equations (Faraday’/

rich set of elective courses permits students to concentrate in any sub-discipline of computer engineering including: computer systems; electronic circuits; networks; engineering applications; software, languages, and **theory**; and algorithms and mathematical tools. 9 **Electromagnetics** is all around us! In simple terms, every time we turn a switch on for electrical power or for an electronic equipment, every time we press a/

. These inconsistencies are resolved by assuming that the energies of light and matter are quantized (meaning values are restricted). Thus, the **theory** eventually developed into what we call quantum **theory**. In the case of **electromagnetic** radiation, we have to think of energy as being carried by a stream of particles called photons. 2 Quantum Effects and Photons The energy carried by each photon/

Clerk Maxwell He was a Scottish mathematical physicist. D.O.B: 1831-1879 Maxwell’s **Electromagnetic** **Theory** **Electromagnetic** **Theory** of light was put forward by James Clerk Maxwell in 1873. According to this **theory** light consists of fluctuating electric and magnetic propagating in the form of **electromagnetic** waves. But this **theory** fail to explain the photoelectric effect(occurs when photons of light produce free electrons). Maxwell determined/

chip cookie model” “Plum pudding model” “chocolate chip cookie model” Rutherford and the Nucleus Rutherford and the Nucleus This **theory** was replaced with another, more modern one Ernest Rutherford (1910) studied angles at which particles (nucleus of helium) / energy levels 2.3.4 Deduce the electron arrangement for atoms and ions up to Z=20 **Electromagnetic** radiation. **Electromagnetic** Radiation Most subatomic particles behave as PARTICLES and obey the physics of waves.Most subatomic particles behave as/

. The Michelson-Morley experiment. Invariance of the speed of light under the Lorentz transformation. Einstein’s interpretation of the Lorentz transformation. **Electromagnetism** James Clerk Maxwell, 1831-1879 James Clerk Maxwell united the phenomena of electricity and magnetism under the **theory** of **electromagnetism**, which is expressed through Maxwell’s equations as published in 1861/1862. Single integral with circle: closed loop Double integral with/

and experiments of Dalton, J. J. Thomson and Rutherford, and Bohr that established the bases of atomic **theory** and structure as matter consisting of atoms, each with a central positive nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. /probability distributions" that retain highly specific potential energy states, known because transitions between such states still result in **electromagnetic** radiation line spectra. Beyond the Bohr Model However, we cannot predict the energies from simple formulas when more /

, a dynamo is used to generate electricity to power a bicycle lamp … because a changing magnetic field generates an electrical current. **Electromagnetism** James Clerk Maxwell, 1831-1879 James Clerk Maxwell united the phenomena of electricity and magnetism under the **theory** of **electromagnetism**, which is expressed through Maxwell’s equations as published in 1861/1862. Single integral with circle: closed loop Double integral with/

Plancks constant. A single gamma ray photon, for example, might carry ~100,000 times the energy of a single photon of visible light.quantum **theory** of electromagnetismphotonselementary particlestransition of electronsenergy levelsblack- body radiation quantizedPlancks equationPlancks constant (continued) **Electromagnetic** radiation The effects of EMR upon biological systems (and also to many other chemical systems, under standard conditions) depend both upon the radiations power/

to lift and move heavy objects The crane used an **electromagnet** to move metal objects. hypothesis He had a hypothesis that plants need sunlight to be healthy. He checked his **theory** by comparing the plant on the left that had more /. Judges evaluate each person’s work and give prizes or awards to the top entrants. What do you know about **electromagnets**? An **electromagnet** is fueled by batteries. Background Information Science fairs are held throughout the country and are often sponsored by schools, counties or/

has a uniform temperature of 2.7K. The discovery of this radiation swayed many astronomers in favor of the Big Bang **theory**. Every **theory** involves assumptions, and the Big Bang is no exception; however, despite being proposed in the 1920s, the model has/ an acronym that stands for quasi-stellar, radio sources. Quasars are star-like objects that give off radio and x-ray **electromagnetic** waves. Scientists believe that quasars represent the earliest stages of galaxy formation… but why? A look back in time ??? To/

multiple of half the guide wavelength for both closed-ended and open-ended resonators. Its resonant frequency can be found with the help of transmission line **theory** using the dispersion relation of the waveguide. Field solutions and **electromagnetic** boundary conditions typically for a rectangular closed- ended waveguide resonator has yielded resonator length that is same as that predicted by the transmission line/

* 10 -7 m, what is its frequency? wavelength speed of light frequency C = 3 * 10 8 m/s 1.0 * 10 15 Hz Quantum **Theory** Beginning of 20 th century – wave model is almost universally accepted. Problem = **electromagnetic** radiation emitted from hot objects Can all light be described as continuous The energy of waves is continuous, or unbroken… When we look at/

4) The basis for the EM wave propagation is provided by Maxwells equations shown as following: 教育部顧問室光通訊系統教育改進計畫 高應大 副教授 吳曜東 編撰 2.1 **Electromagnetic** **Theory** for Optical Waveguide ( 2.4) ( 2.5) where is the dielectric permittivity and is the magnetic permeability of the /the following: (2.12) It can be expressed as the following 教育部顧問室光通訊系統教育改進計畫 高應大 副教授 吳曜東 編撰 2.1 **Electromagnetic** **Theory** for Optical Waveguide Considering planar waveguides, described by Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z), or optical fibers, /

cases Electro- statics Magneto- statics Electro- magnetic waves Kirchoff’s Laws Statics: Geometric Optics Transmission Line **Theory** Circuit **Theory** Input from other disciplines 6 Introduction to **Electromagnetic** Fields transmitter and receiver are connected by a “field.” 7 Introduction to **Electromagnetic** Fields When an event in one place has an effect on something at a different location, we talk about the events as being connected/

**THEORY** FOR ALL PHYSICS AND BEYOND C. Wei Xu, Virtumanity, USA The author grants this presentation redistributable as a whole freely for non-commercial use only. International Conference on Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, March 14-16, 2016 London, UK 1. YinYang Motion Equations 2. Horizon of Quantum Fields 3. Horizon of Macroscopic Densities 4. Horizon of Thermodynamics 5. Horizon of **Electromagnetic**/ Fields Yang Fields HORIZON OF **ELECTROMAGNETIC** FORCES **Electromagnetic** fields yields the field tensor/

12 nm Quantum Effects and Photons Planck’s Quantization of Energy (1900) According to Max Planck, when solids are heated, they emit **electromagnetic** radiation over a wide range of wavelengths. where h (Planck’s constant) is assigned a value of 6.63 x 10 -34/An electron in an atom can change energy levels by undergoing a “transition” from one energy level to another. The Bohr **Theory** of the Hydrogen Atom Bohr’s Postulates Bohr derived the following formula for the energy levels of the electron in the hydrogen /

Gases 1.3 Waves and Particles 1.4 Conservation Laws and Fundamental Forces 1.5 The Atomic **Theory** of Matter 1.6 Unresolved Questions of 1895 and New Horizons 1.1: Classical Physics of the 1890s Mechanics **Electromagnetism** Thermodynamics ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM THERMODYNAMICS MECHANICS CLASSICAL PHYSICS 1.1 CONSERVATION LAWS Triumph of Classical Physics: The Conservation Laws Conservation of energy: The total/

times from the interior walls until it is completely absorbed. black body The spectrum of **electromagnetic** radiation emitted by the black body (experimental result) is shown in figure 1. Experimental result Rayleigh -Jeans **theory** Wien’s **theory** Classical physics Figure 1 : Black Body Spectrum Rayleigh-Jeans and Wien’s **theories** (classical physics) failed to explain the shape of the black body spectrum or the/

Dr.-Ing. René Marklein - EFT I - SS 06 - Lecture 1 / Vorlesung 1 1 Biomedical **Electromagnetic** **Theory** ENT 215 Biomedical **Electromagnetic** **Theory** ENT 215 Program of Electronic Biomedical School of Mechatronic Engineering University Malaysia Perlis Aisyah Hartini Jahidin ahartini@unimap.edu.my Dr.-Ing. René Marklein - EFT I - SS 06 - Lecture 1 / /

quantum **theory** into the hydrogen spectrum explanation. Here are the postulates of Bohr’s **theory**. Atom has a number of definite and discrete energy levels (orbits) in which an electron may exist without emitting or absorbing **electromagnetic** radiation/position and momentum of an electron (or any other small particle). Detecting an electron requires the use of **electromagnetic** radiation which displaces the electron! Electron microscopes use this phenomenon The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Atom Consequently/

are described by two independent variables: wavelength and frequency Crest Crest = wavelength, Distance from crest to crest = c/ = frequency = Speed light / wavelength c = speed of **electromagnetic** radiation (3 x 108 m/s) 4/14/2017 Quantum **Theory** of The Atom Wave Nature of Light Wavelength – the distance between any two adjacent identical points (crests) in a wave (given the notation (lamba) Frequency/

recognized the discrete nature of exchanges of radiant energy and proposed the quantum **theory** of **electromagnetic** radiation. This **theory** states that energy is transferred in discrete packets called quanta or photons as discussed. The relationship between the/Planck recognized the discrete nature of exchanges of radiant energy and proposed the quantum **theory** of **electromagnetic** radiation. This **theory** states that energy is transferred in discrete packets called quanta or photons as discussed. The relationship /

Rays VISIBLE LIGHT Infrared Microwave Radio Waves **Electromagnetic** Radiation Kinds of Radiation are: Features of Waves Have repetitive motion/**Theory** says that light of any frequency should be capable of supplying enough energy to loosen an electron THIS WAS NOT THE CASE There was a minimum frequency that had to be met before the photoelectric effect would occur There was a minimum frequency that had to be met before the photoelectric effect would occur Albert Einstein 1905 – “**Electromagnetic**/

are not invariant under a Galilean transformation. Speed of the Light It was postulated in the nineteenth century that **electromagnetic** waves, like other waves, propagated in a suitable material media, called the ether. In according with this postulate/by measuring the speed of light or doing other electricity, magnetism, and optics experiments. Possible Solutions 1. Maxwells **theory** of electricity and magnetism was flawed. It was approximately 20 years old while Newtons mechanics was approximately 200 years /

Maxwell provided a mathematical **theory** that showed a close relationship between all electric and magnetic phenomena More of Maxwell’s Contributions **Electromagnetic** **theory** of light Kinetic **theory** of gases Nature of Saturn’s rings Color vision **Electromagnetic** field interpretation Led to /3 x 10 8 m/s, the known speed of light This provided evidence in support of Maxwell’s **theory** **Electromagnetic** Waves Produced by an Antenna When a charged particle undergoes an acceleration, it must radiate energy If currents in/

move further apart from each other. Evidence for the Big Bang **Theory** Light & **Electromagnetic** Radiation Doppler Effect (Doppler Shift) Evidence for the Big Bang? The **Electromagnetic** Spectrum 1665: Isaac Newton observed sunlight (white light) passing through a/s wavelength tell us? How powerful (how much energy) the radiation is What kind of radiation it is The **Electromagnetic** Spectrum Visible light: Red light = looooooooooooooongest, Violet light = shortest On the entire EM Spectrum, Radio waves: longest/

= hν E = energy h = 6.626 x 10 -34 J-s Unit: joule-second ν = frequency Planck’s **Theory** Using Planck’s **theory**, scientists can determine the temp of distant planets by measuring the λ of the **electromagnetic** radiation they emit Planck’s **Theory** Energies absorbed/emitted by atoms are quantized Means their values are restricted to certain quantities What would happen if a car’s/

Maxwell provided a mathematical **theory** that showed a close relationship between all electric and magnetic phenomena More of Maxwell’s Contributions **Electromagnetic** **theory** of light Kinetic **theory** of gases Nature of Saturn’s rings Color vision **Electromagnetic** field interpretation Led to /3 x 10 8 m/s, the known speed of light This provided evidence in support of Maxwell’s **theory** **Electromagnetic** Waves Produced by an Antenna When a charged particle undergoes an acceleration, it must radiate energy If currents in/

all electric and magnetic phenomena. Section 21.8 More of Maxwell’s Contributions **Electromagnetic** **theory** of light Kinetic **theory** of gases Nature of Saturn’s rings Color vision **Electromagnetic** field interpretation – Led to Maxwell’s Equations Section 21.8 Maxwell’s / 3 x 10 8 m/s, the known speed of light. This provided evidence in support of Maxwell’s **theory**. Section 21.9 **Electromagnetic** Waves Produced by an Antenna When a charged particle undergoes an acceleration, it must radiate energy. – If currents /

(Z, R)Ohm (Z, R) Complex ImpedanceConcealed TEM wave Real number line Symmetric number line TEM wave, TEM step??? 43 Reforming **Electromagnetic** Units, Equations, and Concepts: An Extension of Ivor Catt’s **Theory** Three **theories** of electricity- “N”, “H”, and “C” Housecleaning **electromagnetic** **theory** The voltage of the photon A capacitor is a transmission line. An inductor is a transmission line. The TEM Waveguide The/

reciprocal vectors associated with the cell. After: Lee et al.. IEEE Trans. Microwave **Theory** and Techniques, 1992. pp. 346-352, © 1992 IEEE. Numerical **Electromagnetics** LN11_Local Subcell zakeri@nit.ac.ir 26 /31 Unstructured grids are composed of arrays/ divider and its planar generalized Yee model. Source: Gedney and Lansing, IEEE Trans. Microwave **Theory** Tech., 1996, pp. 1393-1400, © 1996 IEEE. Numerical **Electromagnetics** LN11_Local Subcell zakeri@nit.ac.ir 29 /31 A variety of methods have been proposed/

**Electromagnetic** Waves Chapter 23 **Electromagnetic** **Theory** Theoretical understanding Well developed by middle 1800’s Coulomb’s Law and Gauss’ Law explained electric fields and forces Ampère’s Law /.2 Light as an EM Wave, cont. Maxwell answered the question of the nature of light – it is an **electromagnetic** wave He also showed that the equations of electricity and magnetism provide the **theory** of light EM Waves in a Vacuum Remember that mechanical waves need a medium to travel through Many physicists searched for/

Hertz’s Results Hertz hypothesized the energy transfer was in the form of waves (now known to be **electromagnetic** waves) Hertz confirmed Maxwell’s **theory** by showing the waves existed and had all the properties of light waves (with different frequencies and wavelengths)/close to 3 x 10 8 m/s, the known speed of light, which provided evidence in support of Maxwell’s **theory** **Electromagnetic** Waves Produced by an Antenna When a charged particle undergoes an acceleration, it must radiate energy If currents in an ac/

transfer occurred between them Heinrich Rudolf Hertz 1857 – 1894 Hertz’s Results Hertz hypothesized the energy transfer was in the form of waves (now known to be **electromagnetic** waves) Hertz confirmed Maxwell’s **theory** by showing the waves existed and had all the properties of light waves (with different frequencies and wavelengths) Hertz measured the speed of the waves from the transmitter/

.B C.C D.D Section 5-1 Section 5.1 Assessment What is a particle of **electromagnetic** radiation with no mass called? A.beta particle B.alpha particle C.quanta D.photon End of Section 5-1 Section 5-2 Section 5.2 Quantum **Theory** and the Atom Compare the Bohr and quantum mechanical models of the atom. atom: the smallest/

1 Chapter 3 **Electromagnetic** **Theory**, Photons and Light September 5,8 **Electromagnetic** waves 3.1 Basic laws of **electromagnetic** **theory** Lights are **electromagnetic** waves. Electric fields are generated by electric charges or time-varying magnetic fields. / power I·4 r 2 = constant, I E 0 2 E 0 1/r. 10 3.3.3 Photons The **electromagnetic** wave **theory** explains many things (propagation, interaction with matter, etc.). However, it cannot explain the emission and absorption of light by atoms (black body radiation,/

travel through space. –Visible light, X rays, and radio waves are all forms of **electromagnetic** radiation. (See Animation: **Electromagnetic** Wave)(See Animation: **Electromagnetic** Wave) .Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 7/Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 7–20 Quantum Mechanics Bohr’s **theory** established the concept of atomic energy levels but did not thoroughly explain the “wave-like” behavior of /

continuous spectrum of colors. The **electromagnetic** spectrum includes all forms of **electromagnetic** radiation.**electromagnetic** spectrum Section 5-1 The /**electromagnetic** waves have both wave and particle properties. Matter emits and absorbs energy in quanta. E quantum = hν Study Guide 1 Section 5.1 Light and Quantized Energy (cont.) Key Concepts White light produces a continuous spectrum. An element’s emission spectrum consists of a series of lines of individual colors. Study Guide 2 Section 5.2 Quantum **Theory**/

.B C.C D.D Section 5-1 Section 5.1 Assessment What is a particle of **electromagnetic** radiation with no mass called? A.beta particle B.alpha particle C.quanta D.photon End of Section 5-1 Section 5-2 Section 5.2 Quantum **Theory** and the Atom Compare the Bohr and quantum mechanical models of the atom. atom: the smallest/

plates, then I d = dq/dt This is equal to the conduction current through S 1 Fig 24.2 10 James Clerk Maxwell 1831 – 1879 Developed the **electromagnetic** **theory** of light Developed the kinetic **theory** of gases Explained the nature of color vision Explained the nature of Saturn’s rings Died of cancer 11 24.2 Maxwell’s Equations, Introduction In 1865, James/

**theory**, which is based on Quantum Mechanics. Light is also known as “**electromagnetic** radiation” **Electromagnetic** wave Behavior of light are well-explained by thinking of light as an **electromagnetic** wave. Wave = periodic disturbance propagating through space. “Periodic” means repeating. “**Electromagnetic**/blue Which color of light corresponds to higher frequency? A. red, B. blue Which type of **electromagnetic** radiation corresponds to longer wavelength? A. microwave, B. x-ray Longer wavelength x-rays, ultraviolet /

3. All atoms of one element are exactly alike, but are different from atoms of other elements. Dalton’s atomic **theory**, led most scientists in the 1800s believed that the atom was like a tiny solid ball that could not be broken / form, visible light. All of these forms of radiant energy are parts of a whole range of **electromagnetic** radiation called the **electromagnetic** spectrum. The **Electromagnetic** Spectrum Electrons and Light The spectrum of light released from excited atoms of an element is called the /

energy in small, specific amounts called quanta Quantum the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom 11 **Electromagnetic** radiation. 12 1905 Albert Einstein Expanded on Planck’s **theory** by introducing the idea that **electromagnetic** radiation has a dual wave-particle nature Light displays many wavelike properties, it can also be thought of as a stream of particles/

of light = 3.00 x 108 m/sec Long wavelength --> small frequency Short wavelength --> high frequency Dr. S. M. Condren **Electromagnetic** Radiation Long wavelength --> small frequency Short wavelength --> high frequency increasing frequency increasing wavelength Dr. S. M. Condren Fireworks Dr. S. /. S. M. Condren Atomic Line Spectra and Niels Bohr Bohr’s **theory** was a great accomplishment. Rec’d Nobel Prize, 1922 Problems with **theory** — **theory** only successful for H. introduced quantum idea artificially. So, we go/

Predicts voltages and currents using the concept of electric and magnetic field. Importance of **electromagnetic** **theory** EMLAB 10 Basic laws – Maxwell equations 1.**Electromagnetic** phenomena are explained by the four Maxwell equations. 2.Through the equations, electric field / are current density vector J and charge density. Maxwell equations Solution (free space) EMLAB 11 **Electromagnetic** **theory** Electric field (E) Magnetic field (H) Electro-magnetic field (E,H ) Sources (q, J) Material (ε, μ) Mathematics/

the eye, which can be transmitted from one place to another at a finite velocity **Theory** of Light •Two complimentary **theories** to explain how light behaves and the form by which it travels: Particle **Theory** Wave **Theory** Particle **Theory** • Release of a photon **Electromagnetic** spectrum and Energy longest Planck’s Quantum **Theory** In 1900, German Physicist Max Planck proposed: “Radiant energy may only be absorbed or emitted/

lenses, while a refracting telescope uses mirrors. Tools of Astronomy Section Assessment 2. What are the categories of **electromagnetic** radiation? **Electromagnetic** radiation includes visible light, infrared and ultraviolet radiation, radio waves, microwaves, X rays, and gamma rays. Tools/this conclusion. The Moon History of the Moon Tectonics on the Moon? History of the Moon Formation **Theories** The capture **theory** proposes that as the solar system was forming, a large object ventured too near to the forming /

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