Ppt on diode transistor logic gates

Experiment 6 -- Digital Switching

the diode is in between we are in the active region. npn Common Emitter Characteristics IC = βIB VBE = 0.7 V VBE < 0.6 V Switch Model of the npn BJT Controls transistor Circuit that is switched Switch Remove the part of the circuit that controls the switch and consider two possible cases: Using the transistor as a switch Building logic gates with transistors Input Output/


ST11 – Transistor 1 Transistor Lecturer: Smilen Dimitrov Sensors Technology – MED4.

gate, the input impedance of the FET is extremely large (in the range of 10 10 –10 15 Ω). The large input impedance of the FET makes them an excellent choice for amplifier inputs. ST11 – Transistor 22 Transistor construction Transistors, like diodes, are produced using a variety of chemical processes. ST11 – Transistor/ clock - or more generally, switching, or logic circuit Only one transistor can conduct at a time When supply voltage, V CC is applied, one transistor will conduct more than the other due to /


Introduction to VLSI Circuits and Systems, NCUT 2007 Chapter 02 Logic Design with MOSFETs Introduction to VLSI Circuits and Systems 積體電路概論 賴秉樑 Dept. of.

 MOSFETs as Switches  Basic Logic Gates in CMOS  Complex Logic Gates in CMOS  Transmission Gate Circuits  Clocking and Dataflow Control Introduction to VLSI Circuits and Systems, NCUT 2007 p-n Junction  A junction between p-type and n-type semiconductor forms a diode  Current flows only in one direction anode cathode PN Introduction to VLSI Circuits and Systems, NCUT 2007 nMOS Transistor  Four terminals: gate (G), source (S/


1 Slides adapted from: N. Weste, D. Harris, CMOS VLSI Design, © Addison-Wesley, 3/e, 2004 MOS Transistor Theory.

Source and drain have capacitance to body (parasitic capacitance)  Across reverse-biased diodes  Called diffusion capacitance because it is associated with source/drain diffusion 23 Gate Capacitance  When the transistor is off, the channel is not inverted C g = C gb = /of a logic gate) 43 RC Values  Capacitance  C = C g = C s = C d = 2 fF/  m of gate width  Values similar across many processes  Resistance  R  6 K  *  m in 0.6um process  Improves with shorter channel lengths  Unit transistors  /


Advanced Topics In Solid State Devices EE290B Will a New Milli-Volt Switch Replace the Transistor for Digital Applications? August 28, 2007 Prof. Eli Yablonovitch.

(phase change) 9.Carbon Nanotubes  Similarly there are many ways to do logic. But there are not many ways to communicate: 1.Microwaves (electrical) 2./diode + + + - + VGVG MEMs switch Cryo-Electronics kT/q~q/C Cu solid electrolyte Electro-Chemical Switch giant magneto-resistance spintronics + An amplifying transistor as a voltage matching device: Small voltage in Large voltage out in out Amplification of weak signals has an energy cost! Amplification of weak signals has a speed penalty! ln{I} VgVg Gate/


EE365 Adv. Digital Circuit Design Clarkson University Lecture #4

TTL Digital Circuits Designed using “transistor-transistor logic” (remember EE341 ?) npn bipolar junction transistors Transistors operate in either cut-off mode no base current => no collector current saturated mode base current pulls VCE to ~ 0.2 v Lect #4 Rissacher EE365 A Simplified TTL NAND Gate Lect #4 Rissacher EE365 Schottky Transistors Addition of Schottky diodes between base and collector prevent saturation Schottky diode has lower forward bias voltage/


Copyright 2005 Curt Hill Gates and Low Level Digital Logic.

Typical gates can be constructed with just a transistor or few diodes From there we will see that things like an adder can be constructed from gates Copyright 2005 Curt Hill Gate Symbols We use a variety of symbols to diagram gate networks/logic boards –Bench was power supply Microprocessors have very much exploited this Copyright 2005 Curt Hill Technologies: Vacuum tubes Discrete transistors Small integrated circuits Large and very large integrated circuits Copyright 2005 Curt Hill History of computer gate/


Lecture 0: Introduction

p-type and n-type semiconductor forms a diode. Current flows only in one direction 0: Introduction nMOS Transistor Four terminals: gate, source, drain, body Gate – oxide – body stack looks like a capacitor Gate and body are conductors SiO2 (oxide) is /.6 mm long 0: Introduction Summary MOS transistors are stacks of gate, oxide, silicon Act as electrically controlled switches Build logic gates out of switches Draw masks to specify layout of transistors Now you know everything necessary to start designing/


8 Memory Subsystem Contents 1. Classification 2. Architectures

)mask programmable PLA:(multiple) mask programmable FPLA:field programmable, bulky PAL:field programmable, less bulky (Multilevel Gate Array) MGA (Multilevel Gate Array) Associative Logic Matrix Pseudo-NMOS PLA Dynamic NMOS PLA NOR형 NAND형 T1 : product line precharge, input latch in/ connect at gates, find a permutation of gates and an assignment of nets to tracks, such that the number of tracks is minimized. 6. ROM(Read Only Memory) ROM cells Diode cell : consumes large power from WL Transistor(BJT) cell/


Gates and Logic Hakim Weatherspoon CS 3410, Spring 2011 Computer Science Cornell Universty See: P&H Appendix C.0, C.1, C.2.

Diodes p-typen-type PN Junction “Diode” Conventions: vdd = vcc = +1.2v = +5v = hi vss = vee = 0v = gnd 16 PNP Junction p-type n-type 17 Bipolar Junction Transistors /Logic Gates One can buy gates separately –ex. 74xxx series of integrated circuits –cost ~$1 per chip, mostly for packaging and testing Cumbersome, but possible to build devices using gates put together manually Integrated Circuits Or one can manufacture a complete design using a custom mask Intel Nehalem has approximately 731 million transistors/


Presented by: Joel S. Sagala. Introduction: Transistor is a solid state semiconductor device Transistor allows a variable current, from an external source,

generic name for the new invention, "transistor," coined by John R. Pierce, won an internal ballot. This is an abbreviated combination of the words “transconductance" or "transfer", and “varistor“ since device logically belongs in the varistor family, In / transistors. Power diodes are often connected between certain terminals depending on specific use. Insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) use a medium power IGFET, similarly connected to a power BJT, to give a high input impedance. Power diodes are/


Gates and Logic Hakim Weatherspoon CS 3410, Spring 2012 Computer Science Cornell Universty See: P&H Appendix C.2 and C.3 (Also, see C.0 and C.1)

v → insulator high v → conductor 16 Diodes p-typen-type PN Junction “Diode” Conventions: vdd = vcc = +1.2v = +5v = hi vss = vee = 0v = gnd 17 PNP Junction p-type n-type 18 Bipolar Junction Transistors Solid-state switch: The most amazing invention of/ 28 Example: Big Picture Computer System Organization and Programming platform from 10 years ago P- and N-transistors -> NAND and NOR gates -> logic circuit -> processor -> software -> applications (computers, cell phones, TVs, cars, airplanes, buildings, etc/


CSE477 L03 MOS Transistor.1Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2003 CSE477 VLSI Digital Circuits Fall 2003 Lecture 03: MOS Transistor Mary Jane Irwin ( www.cse.psu.edu/~mji.

after lecture CSE477 L03 MOS Transistor.3Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2003 Review: Fundamental Design Metrics  Functionality l Found On First Spin ICs/ASICs: -Functional Logic Error###################### 43% -Analog /diode + - VDVD I D (mA) V D (V) CSE477 L03 MOS Transistor.5Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2003 Review: Design Abstraction Levels SYSTEM GATE CIRCUIT V out V in CIRCUIT V out V in MODULE + DEVICE n+ SD G CSE477 L03 MOS Transistor.6Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2003 The MOS Transistor Polysilicon Aluminum CSE477 L03 MOS Transistor/


1. Introduction. Diseño de Circuitos Digitales para Comunicaciones Introduction Integrated circuits: many transistors on one chip. Very Large Scale Integration.

transistors on one chip. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI): bucketloads! Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor – Fast, cheap, low power transistors Today: How to build your own simple CMOS chip – CMOS transistors – Building logic gates from transistorsTransistor / forms a diode. Current flows only in one direction 0: Introduction5 Diseño de Circuitos Digitales para Comunicaciones nMOS Transistor Four terminals: gate, source, drain, body Gate – oxide – body stack looks like a capacitor – Gate and body/


Electronic memory & logic devices. Solid State Physics N N P P +- Transistors And diodes Logic gates Memory devices : Flip flops Flip Flop Flip Flop Flip.

Solid State Physics N N P P +- Transistors And diodes Logic gates Memory devices : Flip flops Flip Flop Flip Flop Flip Flop Output Clock Input Output’ Input 2 Transistors Abstract Transistors have six salient features. First, they rapidly switch between two states in response to an input signal. Second, a small input voltage can control a large output voltage. Third, voltage /


Part B-1 TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS: Junction transistor, Transistor current components, Transistor as an amplifier, Transistor Construction, Detailed.

Transistors). It can be use as amplifier and logic switches. BJT consists of three terminal:  collector : C  base: B  emitter : E Two types of BJT : pnp and npn Transistor/diode, transistor can be construct like two diodes that connetecd together. It can be conclude that the work of transistor is base on work of diode. Transistor Operation The basic operation will be described using the pnp transistor. The operation of the pnp transistor/to as an IGFET because the gate is insulated from the channel. /


Chapter 2 Logic Functions and Gates. 2 Basic Logic Functions The three basic logic functions are: –AND –OR –NOT.

Diodes 64 Logic Gate Enable The input to a gate that allows the output to respond to other inputs. A logic LOW for an OR or NOR gate, a logic HIGH for an AND or NAND gate. 65 Logic Gate Inhibit The input to a gate that forces the output to ignore any other input. A logic HIGH for an OR or NOR gate, a logic LOW for an AND or NAND gate. 66 Logic Gate/ Circuit Package 82 Integrated Circuit Technology One common form is transistor- transistor logic, called TTL. The other common form is Complementary Metal-Oxide/


Electronic Circuits Laboratory EE462G Lab #7 NMOS and CMOS Logic Circuits.

V in How does this curve demonstrate zero static power consumption? NMOS Logic Inverter Circuit This circuit will be examined in the lab. Note the “diode- connected” NMOS transistor. Determine the TC of this connection. This ensures the operation is /logic circuits?  What factors determine the highest clock speed at which a logic gate can reliably be driven? PMOS TC Mfile Function function ids = pmos(vds,vgs,KP,W,L,vto) % This function generates the drain-source current values "ids" for % a PMOS Transistor/


Lecture 0: Introduction. CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 0: Introduction2 Introduction  Integrated circuits: many transistors on one chip.  Very Large Scale.

n-type semiconductor forms a diode.  Current flows only in one direction CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 0: Introduction7 nMOS Transistor  Four terminals: gate, source, drain, body  Gate – oxide – body stack looks like a capacitor –Gate and body are conductors /4th Ed. 0: Introduction45 Summary  MOS transistors are stacks of gate, oxide, silicon  Act as electrically controlled switches  Build logic gates out of switches  Draw masks to specify layout of transistors  Now you know everything necessary to start/


Gates and Logic Hakim Weatherspoon CS 3410, Spring 2012 Computer Science Cornell Universty See: P&H Appendix C.2 and C.3 (Also, see C.0 and C.1)

will build a processor (i.e. a logic circuit) Logic circuits Use P- and N-transistors to implement NAND or NOR gates Use NAND or NOR gates to implement the logic circuits Build efficient logic circuits 4 Better Switch One current controls another / low v → insulator high v → conductor 14 Diodes p-typen-type PN Junction “Diode” Conventions: vdd = vcc = +1.2v = +5v = hi vss = vee = 0v = gnd 15 PNP Junction p-type n-type 16 Bipolar Junction Transistors Solid-state switch: The most amazing invention of the/


Electronic Circuits Laboratory EE462G Lab #7 NMOS and CMOS Logic Circuits.

Logic Circuits Logic Device Nomenclature 5-Volt Positive logic: Logic gate circuitry where a 5V level corresponds to logic 1 and 0V level corresponds to logic 0.  Truth Table: Input-output description of gate in terms of logic symbols.  V IL : Highest input voltage guaranteed to be accepted as a logic/ curve demonstrate zero static power consumption? NMOS Logic Inverter Circuit This circuit will be examined in the lab. Note the “diode- connected” NMOS transistor. Determine the TC of this connection. This/


1.1 Introduction 1.2 Diode characteristics 1.3 Reverse Recovery characteristics 1.4 Power Diode Types- I)General Purpose ii)Fast Recovery Diode iii)Schottky.

depends on the manufacturing process and junction temperature.  When the cathode potential is positive with respect to the anode, the diode is said to be reverse biased. Under reverse biased condition, a small reverse current in the range of micro or mill/ as shown in fig.in the forward direction the yare similar to those of logic level bipolar transistor he only difference here is that the controlling parameter is the gate to sources voltage and the parameter seeing0 controlled is the drain current  2)the/


EECC341 - Shaaban #1 Lec # 19 Winter 2001 2-14-2002 Read Only Memory (ROM) –Structure of diode ROM –Types of ROMs. –ROM with 2-Dimensional Decoding. –Using.

14-2002 Internal Structure of Transistor ROM R0R1R2R3 +5 V /D3 /D2 /D1 /D0 Transistor 1 No transistor 0 w3 Replace diodes with MOS transistors Change decoder to active-high outputs 1000 EECC341 - Shaaban #8 Lec # 19 Winter 2001 2-14-2002 VDDVDD Floating gate Active-high word lines Active/ Lec # 19 Winter 2001 2-14-2002 Classic DRAM Organization EECC341 - Shaaban #22 Lec # 19 Winter 2001 2-14-2002 Logical Diagram of A Typical DRAM EECC341 - Shaaban #23 Lec # 19 Winter 2001 2-14-2002 64K x 1 DRAM word line bit/


Lecture 4: Nonideal Transistor Theory

cutoff? Simulated results What differs? Current doesn’t go to 0 in cutoff 4: Nonideal Transistor Theory Leakage Sources Subthreshold conduction Transistors can’t abruptly turn ON or OFF Dominant source in contemporary transistors Gate leakage Tunneling through ultrathin gate dielectric Junction leakage Reverse-biased PN junction diode current 4: Nonideal Transistor Theory Subthreshold Leakage Subthreshold leakage exponential with Vgs n is process dependent typically 1.3/


Chapter 5 – Field-Effect Transistors (FETs)

fabricate /lower manufacturing cost Simpler circuitry for digital logic and memory Inferior analog circuit performance (lower gain) Most digital ICs use MOS technology Recent trend: more and more analog circuits are implemented in MOS technology for lower cost integration with digital circuits in a same chip Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) Device Structure Four Terminals: Gate, Drain, Source, Body Unlike the BJT, the MOSFET/


BASIC ELECTRONICS.

Diode Transistor CONTENTS Resistor Capacitor Diode Transistor Resistor A resistor is a two-terminal passive electronic component. It is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor/ connected with logic low voltage then it short circuit both emitter and collector (SWITCH ON). Practically used As a switch As an amplifier For realizing logic gates IC’S /


EE 3110 Microelectronics I Suketu Naik 1 Course Outline 1. Chapter 1: Signals and Amplifiers 2. Chapter 3: Semiconductors 3. Chapter 4: Diodes 4. Chapter.

Chapter 3: Semiconductors 3. Chapter 4: Diodes 4. Chapter 5: MOS Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) 5. Chapter 6: Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) 6. Chapter 2 (optional/.g. diode)  Now we turn our attention to three-terminal devices  They are more useful because they present multitude of applications: signal amplification, digital logic, memory/ – when positive v GS is applied, an electric field develops between the gate electrode and induced n-channel – the conductivity of this channel is affected by/


Oxford University Publishing Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033) Chapter #4: Diodes from Microelectronic Circuits.

Another Application, Diode Logic Gates  Q: How may diodes be used to create logic gates?  A: Examples of AND / OR gates are shown right.  Refer to next slide. Figure 4.5: Diode logic gates: (a) OR gate; (b) AND gate (in a positive-logic system). Oxford University/. hard limiter  Q: How are limiter circuits applied?  A: Signal processing, used to prevent breakdown of transistors within various devices. Figure 4.30: Hard vs. Soft Limiting. Oxford University Publishing Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. /


Lecture 3: Nonideal Transistor Theory. CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 4: Nonideal Transistor Theory2 Outline  Nonideal Transistor Behavior.

0 in cutoff CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 4: Nonideal Transistor Theory22 Leakage Sources  Subthreshold conduction –Transistors can’t abruptly turn ON or OFF –Dominant source in contemporary transistorsGate leakage –Tunneling through ultrathin gate dielectric  Junction leakage –Reverse-biased PN junction diode current CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 4: Nonideal Transistor Theory23 Subthreshold Leakage  Subthreshold leakage exponential with V gs  n is/


Modern VLSI Design 2e: Chapter 3 Copyright  1998 Prentice Hall PTR Topics n Electrical properties of static combinational gates: –transfer characteristics;

logic families. logic 1 logic 0 unknown V DD V SS VHVH VLVL Modern VLSI Design 2e: Chapter 3 Copyright  1998 Prentice Hall PTR Logic level matching n Levels at output of one gate must be sufficient to drive next gate/source or drain to the substrate due to diode formed by junction. n General form of leakage current is given by diode law: –I l = I l0 (/: –off-chip; –long wires on-chip. n Sizing up the driver transistors only pushes back the problem - driver now presents larger capacitance to earlier stage/


Lecture 4: Nonideal Transistor Theory. CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 4: Nonideal Transistor Theory2 Outline  Nonideal Transistor Behavior.

0 in cutoff CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 4: Nonideal Transistor Theory23 Leakage Sources  Subthreshold conduction –Transistors can’t abruptly turn ON or OFF –Dominant source in contemporary transistorsGate leakage –Tunneling through ultrathin gate dielectric  Junction leakage –Reverse-biased PN junction diode current CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 4: Nonideal Transistor Theory24 Subthreshold Leakage  Subthreshold leakage exponential with V gs  n is/


Oxford University Publishing Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033) Chapter #4: Diodes from Microelectronic Circuits.

Another Application, Diode Logic Gates  Q: How may diodes be used to create logic gates?  A: Examples of AND / OR gates are shown right.  Refer to next slide. Figure 4.5: Diode logic gates: (a) OR gate; (b) AND gate (in a positive-logic system). Oxford University/. hard limiter  Q: How are limiter circuits applied?  A: Signal processing, used to prevent breakdown of transistors within various devices. Figure 4.30: Hard vs. Soft Limiting. Oxford University Publishing Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. /


McGraw-Hill 5-1 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Electronics Principles & Applications Eighth Edition Chapter 5 Transistors.

Preview It is possible to test transistors out-of-circuit using an ohmmeter. The E-B and C-B junctions act as diodes during ohmmeter testing. The C-E/characteristic curves Drain Source Gate McGraw-Hill 5-45 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) Operation and structure /and analog features and are covered in more detail in subsequent chapters. Control input (logic 0 or 1) Input signal Output signal The MAX4649 is an integrated circuit (IC/


Objective Describe the specification of the various logic ICs with emphasis on fan-in, fan-out, input and output characteristic. Verify the common technical.

characteristic. Verify the common technical specification of TTL and CMOS logic families. 1. Basic Characteristics Digital ICs are a collection of resistors, diodes, and transistors fabricated on apiece of semiconductor material (usually silicon). Digital ICs are categorized according to their circuit complexity as measured by the number of equivalent logic gates packaged within. ComplexityNumbers of gates Small-scale integration (SSI)Fewer than 12 Medium-scale integration/


Ch 3. Digital Circuits 3.1 Logic Signals and Gates (When N=1, 2 states)

Gate : Opposite of an AND gates output –NOR Gate : Opposite of an OR gates output Black-box representationTruth table –Timing diagram show how the circuit might respond to a time-varying pattern of input signals Lag Input Output 3.3 CMOS Logic Not expected to occur except during signal transition High resistance : Off Transistor Low resistance : On Transistor/.8 CMOS Logic Families High-speed CMOSHigh-speed CMOS, TTL compatible 3.9 Low-Voltage CMOS Logic and Interfacing Clamp overshoot Clamp diode To Clamp /


邏輯電路設計 Logic Circuit Design 教師:賴薇如

與1? 如何用analog的實體來進行0與1的運算? Ex: 如何可以做到 1+1=10 的目的? 那一些最容易實作出的運算元件? 換言之是最基本的運算? Answer: AND, OR, NOT, NOR, NAND and XOR logic gates. Switching Devices (1/2) Two-state devices: the output can assume only two different discrete values. Example of switching devices: relays, diodes, transistors, CMOS. volt On Drain 5 Gate 4 logic 1 Transistor A relay can assume tow states - closed or open – depending on whether power is applied to/


Experiment 2 Lab 5 Outline

0.045 micron soon Technology The type of the transistor (unipolar vs. bipolar) The number of supporting electronic components (resistors, diodes, capacitors, etc.) The number of inputs The more inputs, the larger the gate is ~3*PL ~5*PL CS 2204 Fall/Schottky) 74F (Fast) We will use it from time to time CS 2204 Fall 2008 Experiment 1-2 Lab 5 Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) Unused gate input It can be left unconnected (floating) From documentation point of it is confusing If the designer leaves the company /


Logic Circuit Design Teacher : Wei-Ru Lai ( 賴薇如 ) Office: 2307 Telephone:2431 Lab: 3412 Telephone:2414-35.

Devices (1/2) 4 Two-state devices: the output can assume only two different discrete values. –Example of switching devices: relays, diodes, transistors, CMOS. logic 0 logic 1 volt 1 2 3 4 5 0 On Off Unknown Gate Source Drain Transistor Switching Devices (2/2) A B F 0 0 +V 0 +V +V +V 0 +V +V +V 0 4 Connecting several switching devices/


VLSI Design Introduction. Outline Introduction Silicon, pn-junctions and transistors A Brief History Operation of MOS Transistors CMOS circuits Fabrication.

to lightly-doped semiconductor forms poor connection called Schottky Diode Use heavily doped well and substrate contacts/taps (or ties) Inverter Mask Set Top view Transistors and wires are defined by masks Cross-section taken along/Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors Summary MOS Transistors are stack of gate, oxide, silicon and p-n junctions Can be viewed as electrically controlled switches Build logic gates out of switches Draw masks to specify layout of transistors Now you know everything necessary to/


EE 334 Midterm Review. Diode: Why we need to understand diode? The base emitter junction of the BJT behaves as a forward bias diode in amplifying applications.

varies. Demonstration of Zener diode as a voltage regulator The large value of V CE decreases the effective base width W. Since I S is inversely propositional to W, which cause increase in I C. Bipolar NOR logic gate Example 3.11 Determine current/reversal between input and output Uses: for matching low impedance circuit to high impedance circuit Chapter 5 Field-Effect Transistors The MOS Transistor Polysilicon Aluminum It is to be noted that the V DS measured relative to the source increases from 0 to/


© Digital Integrated Circuits 2nd Combinational Circuits EE141 1 Combinatorial Logic Circuits.

B © Digital Integrated Circuits 2nd Combinational Circuits EE141 64 Pass-Transistor Logic Adapted from © Digital Integrated Circuits 2nd EE14165 Pass-Transistor Logic Adapted from © Digital Integrated Circuits 2nd EE14166 Example: AND Gate Bottom ensures low impedance path B=1 and A=1 /to Out. CLCL Clk B A Out MpMp MeMe Signal levels above VDD may cause the normally reverse-biased junction diodes become forward-biased causing electrons to be injected into the substrate: a) possible latch-up, b) other nodes/


VLSI Design Introduction. Outline Introduction Silicon, pn-junctions and transistors A Brief History Operation of MOS Transistors CMOS circuits Fabrication.

to lightly-doped semiconductor forms poor connection called Schottky Diode Use heavily doped well and substrate contacts/taps (or ties) Inverter Mask Set Top view Transistors and wires are defined by masks Cross-section taken along/Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors Summary MOS Transistors are stack of gate, oxide, silicon and p-n junctions Can be viewed as electrically controlled switches Build logic gates out of switches Draw masks to specify layout of transistors Now you know everything necessary to/


CSET 4650 Field Programmable Logic Devices Dan Solarek Introduction to CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor.

4 N-Channel MOSFET Transistors With no voltage between the gate terminal and the substrate, there are two junctions between the two N regions and the P region. This acts like two oppositely connected diodes, and no current can/ CMOS 19 Properties of NMOS and CMOS Logic Gates No current flows through the gate unless the input signal is changing High input impedance High fan-out Sandwich structure of MOS transistor creates capacitor between the gate and substrate High input capacitance Slows transition/


Transistors Three-terminal devices with three doped silicon regions and two P-N junctions versus a diode with two doped regions and one P-N junction Two.

which forms a “back-to-back” diode with the n region, as shown in the electrical representation. The transistor is in its OFF state. NMOS Transistors FET PMOS NMOS vs. PMOS - Operation/ NMOS vs PMOS INPUTNMOS High “1”ON Low “0”OFF INPUTPMOS High “1”OFF Low “0”ON NMOS Inverter What happens when V in is “high” ? i.e. logic level “1” What happens when V in is “low” ? i.e. logic level “0” 100011110100111010001110 INPUTOUTPUT High “1” Low “0” CMOS Inverter CMOS “Gate/


Low-Power CMOS Logic Circuit Topic Review 1 Part I: Overview (Shaw) Part II: (Vincent) Low-Power Design Through Voltage Scaling Estimation and Optimization.

CMOS Logic Circuit Topic Review 14 3.Leakage Power Dissipation: Reverse diode leakage current & subthreshold current (Reverse diode leakage current) Low-Power CMOS Logic Circuit /Logic Circuit Topic Review 20 Circuit-Level Measures: XOR logic CMOS circuit Pass-gate logic The capacitance is a function of the number of transistors that are required to implement a given function Low-Power CMOS Logic Circuit Topic Review 21 Mask-Level Measures: The parasitic gate and diffusion capacitances of MOS transistors/


Chapter 11 Logic Gate Circuitry. 2 Basic Logic Families TTL – transistor-transistor logic based on bipolar transistors. CMOS – complementary metal-oxide.

a Schottky barrier diode to create a Schottky transistor. Allows transistors to avoid deep saturation and to switch faster. Uses less power than standard TTL. 88 Speed-Power Product One measure of logic circuit efficiency. Uses worst-case values of propagation delay and power dissipation per gate. Expressed in picojoules (pJ). See Table 11.15 in the textbook. 89 CMOS Logic Families Metal-Gate CMOS (rarely used/


Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 7 - 1 Chapter 7 Complementary MOS (CMOS) Logic Design Microelectronic Circuit Design Richard C. Jaeger.

Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 7 - 53 CMOS Latchup The configuration of these bipolar transistors create a positive feedback loop, and will cause the logic gate to latchup as shown to the left By using heavily doped material where R n/Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap 7 - 55 CMOS Latchup Once the circuit has entered the latchup state, both transistors saturate, and the voltage across the structure collapses to one diode drop plus one saturation voltage. V = V EB +V CESAT = V BE + V ECSAT (8.27/


. FUTURE of MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGIES FROM SINGLE TRANSISTORS to INTEGRATED IMAGERS NEWS from INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING Washington, 2-5.

LOGIC count rate ~ 10 11 cm -2 . PHOTON COUNTING IMAGER WINDOW DISCRIMINATOR ANALOG OUTPUT SIGNAL 17200 e - UPPER COMPARATOR 16400 and LOWER 6300 e - . RADIATION HARDNESS FOUND WAY TO GET 1-10 MGy for TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS IMAGERS ?? . RADIATION EFFECTS GATE THRESHOLD SHIFT ionization in gate/ our PIXEL DETECTORS CCD NOW COMPETITIVE due to CAMERAS . SILICON TECHNOLOGY VERY FAST DIODES FOR HIGH FREQUENCY FIBER OPTICS . FAST DIODE IBM : Si on SOI Fast Fourier Transform VERTICAL TRENCHES . CCD IMAGING MULTIPLE /


EE3601-14 Electronics Circuit Design 1 14.1Digital Logic Gates 14.2nMOS Logic Families 14.3Dynamic MOS Logic Families 14.4CMOS Logic Families 14.5TTL Logic.

Q 1 conducts 3. I B2 flows out of Q 2 4. Q 2 opens then I C2 R C2 no drop 5. Y = 1 (high= 5V) TransistorTransistor Logic (TTL) TTL Inverter gate, how it works 6. A = 0 is inverted to Y = 1 3. But PN junction current from Base to Collector of Q 1 (I D1 = / Y 00onoff on1 (5V) 01onoff on1 (5V) 10onoff on1 (5V) 11offon off0 (0V) This gate works faster because of Q 4 When it is “on” has no resistive delay. Q 4 Acts as a switch (no delay) Diode at the Emitter of Q 4 When it is “on” has an extra drop of 0.7V /


EE534 VLSI Design System Summer 2004 Lecture 12:Chapter 7 &9 Transmission gate and Dynamic logic circuits design approaches.

transistors required to implant a given logic function, often at the cost of reduced robustness and extra power dissipation Ratioed Logic Review: Load Lines of Ratioed Gates Other logic styles  Transmission gate logic  Pass-transistor logic l NMOS transistors used as switches l Other variants: -Complementary pass-transistor logic (CPL) -Swing-restored pass-transistor logic Transmission Gate Logic/cause the normally reverse bias junction diodes of the precharged transistor to become forward bias. Clock /


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