Ppt on cross-sectional study designs

Research Design Formulation MKTG 3350: MARKETING RESEARCH Yacheng Sun Leeds School of Business 1.

5 and 7) Observational and other data (Chapter 7) 30 Figure 3.5. Major Types of Descriptive Studies Descriptive Studies Consumer Perception And Behavior Studies Image Product Usage Advertising Pricing Market Characteristic Studies Distribution Competitive Analysis Market Potential Market Share Sales Analysis Sales Studies 31 Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Designs A cross-sectional design involves the collection of information from any given sample of population elements only once. In a longitudinal/


DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES Ahmed Mandil Prof of Epidemiology KSU College of Medicine.

hypothesis: small / large scale. Examples: case- studies; cross-sectional studies Analytical: used to test hypotheses: small / large scale. Examples: case-control, cross-sectional, cohort. Cross-sectional studies An “observational” design that surveys exposures and outcomes at a specified point in time (a cross-section of the population) time Study only exists at this point in time Cross-Sectional Design time Study only exists at this point in time Study population exposure present, outcome present exposure/


DPS 201 MARKED CROSSWALKS & ENHANCEMENTS. CASE STUDY: CROSSWALKS & ENHANCEMENTS (LAS VEGAS, NV) Problem and Background  High pedestrian crash rate due.

consider  Flags get stolen  Redistribution at corners  Neighborhood or business volunteers  Some flag holder designs are used as garbage cans PEDESTRIAN CROSSING FLAGS How many are involved with material specs, inspecting or installing? CROSSWALK MARKING MATERIALS ContinueSkip Less /Crosswalk Marking Field Visibility Study  http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/pedbike/10067/10067.pdf http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/pedbike/10067/10067.pdf  MUTCD Section 3B.18  http/


1 Clinical Study: Design and Methods. 2 “Systematic investigation towards increasing the sum of knowledge” (Chambers 20th Century Dictionary) “an endeavour.

on the question to be answered Type of design depends on the question to be answered 4 Formulating a Research Question Focused and specific Focused and specific What is the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface Antigen in Saudi Arabia? Cross-sectional study What is the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface Antigen in Saudi Arabia? Cross-sectional study What are the risk factors for hepatitis B infection? Prospective/


C ROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY Rashmi Gode Moderator-Dr. A. Mehendale 1.

A. Mehendale 1 F RAMEWORK Introduction Definition Design of cross sectional studies Steps of cross sectional studies Biases of cross sectional studies Uses of cross sectional study Advantages and disadvantages Comparison of other 2 / for rare disease AdvantagesDisadvantages 44 45 A DVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENT OBSERVATIONAL STUDY DESIGN Ecological study Cross sectional Case control cohort Probability of Selection biasNAmediumHighlow Recall biasNAhigh low Loss to follow up NA lowhigh confoundingHIGHmedium/


Chapter Three Research Design. 3-2 Chapter Outline 1) Overview 2) Research Design: Definition 3) Research Design: Classification 4) Exploratory Research.

Cross Sectional Design Longitudinal Design Time Cross Sectional vs. Longitudinal Designs Figure 3.6 Cross Sectional vs. Longitudinal DesignsFigure 3.6 Cross Sectional vs. Longitudinal Designs 3-17 Cross-sectional Designs Involve the collection of information from any given sample of population elements only once. In single cross-sectional designs/ of pester power effect, buying influence for various product categories studied 3-31 2. MEASUREMENT ERROR Difference between information sought and information/


Non-experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs: Jordan Schoenherr Carleton University Research Methods PSYC/NEURO2001 Mon and Weds 14:30-17:30 1.

; educational reform; changing social norms) and might exhibit changes for a reason other than our treatment 15 Issues with Cross-Sectional Design “Laws control the lesser man... Right conduct controls the greater one.” - Mark Twain Developmental Studies: A Survey of Methods 16 The classic cross-sectional design is likely that provided by Jean Piaget Starting from observations of the development of his own children (longitudinal), Piaget believed/


2006 Biostatistics Primary MMed (Anaesthesia). Writing a study protocol introduction research question current knowledge research hypothesis research.

not recommended in medical research grab or convenience sample only subjects who are available to the interviewer can be questioned Cross-sectional studies problems bias in the type of responders and non- responders exposures have to be determined by a retrospective history/2 ways e.g. by age-group and gender balanced and unbalance study designs a balanced design if there are equal numbers of observations in each group an unbalanced design if there are not equal numbers of observations in each group multiple/


Cross-Sectional Studies Narges Khanjani, MD, PhD, Fellowship in Environ Epi.

to assess utilization and effectiveness of service.  Development of hypothesis: Hypotheses on the causes of disease may be developed using data from cross-sectional study survey. Design of cross-sectional survey  The problem to be studied must be clearly described and a thorough literature review undertaken before starting the data collection.  Specific objectives need to be formulated.  The information has to be collected and data collection /


From Earth to Jupiter and beyond

Lyngvi, D. Agnolon, A. Peacock Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESA/ESTEC SCI-A Technology Reference Studies What they are: Technologically demanding and scientifically meaningful /design parameters Sail size ~40 × 40 m2 Characteristic acceleration 0.1 mm2/s Sail assembly mass ~85 kg Spacecraft mass GeoSail Technology Reference Study has recently started Conclusion Technology Reference Studies are a tool for the identification of critical technologies: Cross/


Front page Project Details Materials and Components Structural systems

metals -Can be rolled to any thickness down to foil thinner than tissue paper -There’s no limit to the different cross-sectional shapes in which aluminium may be extruded -Any method of joining can be applied to aluminium -Normally requires no form of/ for mast Adjustable mast and footing Connection detail of canvas to mast Previous Case Studies - Sydney Myer Music Bowl (Ref.30) (Ref. 29) The Sidney Myer Music Bowl was designed by Yuncken Freeman, with assistance from Bill Irwin, an engineer, and many other/


SIT094 – The Collection & Analysis of Quantitative Data Week 7 Luke Sloan Quantitative Research Design Week 7 Luke Sloan Quantitative Research Design.

like with like Mixed-Method Designs (Hybrid) Much more common than you might think… Use cross-sectional survey to identify case studies? Secondary analysis of longitudinal data to inform experimental hypothesis? Cross-sectional study to test how experimental results workout in the social world? Experimental design to confirm longitudinal hypotheses? Confirm case study observations with experiment to test hypothesis? Enhance a longitudinal study with a cross-sectional investigation for data not already/


Survey Sampling - 2 Survey Design. Specification of the research goals The most critical stage in designing any survey but often one of the most difficult.

age, period and cohort effects To establish the effect of a treatment e.g. a policy intervention by comparing periods before and after the introduction of the policy Designs for collecting longitudinal data Retrospective studiesCross sectional collection of historical information – Past events and transitions are recalled by respondents e.g. life time employment history Record linkage panels From data collected for administrative purposes/


Company Profile PCI PROJECTS CONSULTING INDIA (P) LTD 1

Design & Drawings & Cost Estimate Project Status : DPR submitted to MoSRT&H 3D Model The bridge at Dawki which is last in Indian settlement crossing over to Bangladesh on way to Sylhet. The Umngot river is contained in gorge section/60m Client: PWD Meghalaya Superstructure: Triangulated Steel Lattice girder Foundation: Raft Foundation Services Provided: Feasibility Studies, Detailed Engineering to include Design, Drawings and Cost Estimate Rehabilitation of Bridge over river Chenab at Akhnoor, J&K Length: /


Research designs and methods

England and France Problem of translating research instruments and finding comparable samples Includes multiple case studies Pages 72, 73 14 14 A comparative design Figure 3.5 Page 72 15 15 Evaluating comparative design The characteristics are identical to those of cross-sectional design, because the comparative design is essentially two or more cross-sectional studies carried out at the same point in time. Comparing two or more cases can/


Research: Design and Outcome

. (two or more diagnoses) In addition to true experimental designs, there are quasiexperimental designs; between, within, and mixed group designs; analogue designs; case studies; correlational methods; epidemiological methods; and longitudinal and crosssectional designs. Many of them are not mutually sole. Correlational designs can be either longitudinal or cross-sectional, or both. A study can include both between and within group designs. The experimental and quasi-experimental approaches can also use/


Study Designs in Epidemiologic

point in time (a cross-section of the population) Cross section al studies are some of the first studies completed because of ease and low cost time Study only exists at this point in time Cross-sectional Design factor present No Disease factor absent Study population factor present Disease factor absent Cross-sectional studies examine a point in time time Study only exists at this point in time Cross-sectional Studies Often used to study conditions that are relatively/


Designing Clinical Research Anita S. Kablinger, M.D. Associate Professor Departments of Psychiatry and Psychopharmacology.

information for difficult follow up -Physician, close friends, SSN, Medicare # Periodic contact and repeated follow-up efforts Chapter 8: Designing an Observational Study: Cross-sectional and Case-control Studies Cross-sectional Case-control Bias Cross Sectional Study Simultaneous measurements No follow up Cause and effect inferred Predictor and outcome designated Case Control Study One sample from cases (With outcome) One sample from controls (No outcome) Compares levels of predictor in cases vs/


Study Designs in Epidemiologic Research

observed prospectively, retrospectively, or currently Cross-sectional studies An “observational” design that surveys exposures and disease status at a single point in time (a cross-section of the population) time Study only exists at this point in time Cross-sectional Design factor present No Disease factor absent Study population factor present Disease factor absent time Study only exists at this point in time Cross-sectional Studies Often used to study conditions that are relatively frequent with/


Introduction to Epidemiology

(i.e. cross-sectional) Cross-sectional studies An “observational” design that surveys exposures and disease status at a single point in time (a cross-section of the population) time Cross sectional studies are some of the first studies completed because of ease and low cost Study only exists at this point in time Observational Studies and Timeframe Cross-sectional Design factor present No Disease factor absent Study population factor present Disease factor absent Cross-sectional studies examine a point/


Chapter Three. Figure 3.1. Relationship of Research Design to the Previous Chapters and the Marketing Research Process Focus of This Chapter Relationship.

data (Chapter 6) Figure 3.5. Major Types of Descriptive Studies Descriptive Studies Consumer Perception And Behavior Studies Image Product Usage Advertising Pricing Market Characteristic Studies Distribution Competitive Analysis Figure 3.5 Major Types of Descriptive Studies Figure 3.5 Major Types of Descriptive Studies Market Potential Market Share Sales Analysis Sales Studies Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Designs A cross-sectional design involves the collection of information from any given sample of/


Introduction to Patient Safety Research Presentation 10 - Understanding Causes: Cross-Sectional Survey.

to the incidents?  Who do they tell about the incidents?  How do they cope?  Do the change their practice as a result of the mistakes? Presentation # - Understanding Causes: Cross-Sectional Survey 8: Methods: Study DesignDesign: cross-sectional survey  Confidential, anonymous survey of physicians using free text and fixed response questions  Procedures: Survey mailed out and mailed backSurvey mailed out and mailed back If no reply, two/


The Research Process step 6: Elements of Research Design

a cross-sectional design. Time Horizon: Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Studies Example 6.25 A drug company desirous of investing in research for a new headache pill conducted a survey among headachy people to see how many of them would be interested in trying the new pill. This is a one-shot or cross-sectional study to assess the likely demand for the new product. Time Horizon: Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Studies Studying/


WITHHOLDING TAXES-CROSS BORDER ISSUES

- April, 2006 Cross Border Payments Withholding Tax Issues- Cross Border Issues Cross Border Payments Withholding Tax Issues- PART - A SECTION 9(1)(i)--BUSINESS CONNECTION - Issues Payments for supply and installation of equipment Payment of design and drawings alongwith / business or profession carried on by such person in India” IFA-RRC - April, 2006 Cross Border Payments Withholding Tax Issues- Cross Border Issues PART - C Case Study 5: ‘A’ Ltd. Project of ‘A’ Ltd. Contract to supply Personnels ‘A’/


Biostatistics and Research Design, #6350 1.Confounding 2.Study Design 10-11.

and inexpensive Disadvantages:Disadvantages: –subject to recall bias or missing information 10-11 Observational Study Design: Cross-Sectional Cross-sectional: –surveys, epidemiologic, prevalence studies –aims: describe or stage disease – data collected at one time (vs over time) –e.g., “Prevalence of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction” (Hom et al., Optom Vis Sci 67:710-712, 1990.) Cross Sectional Study: Q: What IS Happening? + exposure + outcome - exposure + outcome + exposure - outcome - exposure -outcome one/


10 August, 2010 Bradley M. Sherrill FRIB Chief Scientist

produce many of the light neutron rich nuclei Is used to study neutron rich nuclei since the products are “cooler” and fewer neutrons are evaporated than in fusion reactions. Large cross sections for production of some exotic isotopes Deep Inelastic Transfer Example R /construction ReA3 in operation by 2011 0.3-3.2 MeV/u for uranium Upgrade to ReA12 by adding cryomodules already designed and previously constructed 1.2-12 MeV/u for uranium Priority to fund outside the FRIB project Equipment Needs for FRIB/


How to Design and Interpret Observational Outcomes Studies in Cardiovascular Disease Nathan D. Wong, PhD, FACC Professor and Director Heart Disease Prevention.

asked? (a brief background, review of the literature, and aim / hypothesis should be stated) 2.What type of study was done? (experiment, clinical trial, observational cohort or cross-sectional study, or survey) Critical Appraisal (cont.) 3. Was the design appropriate for the research? Clinical trial preferred to test efficacy of treatments Cross-sectional study preferred for testing validity of diagnostic/screening tests or risk factor associations Longitudinal cohort/


RESEARCH DESIGN Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics 2010.

–Pure vs quasi experimental –Laboratory vs real world Observational: no manipulation of study factor –Descriptive vs analytic –Prospective vs retrospective Types of study design Analytic Experimental Non-experimental Observational Randomizes Clinical Trial Non-randomized Clinical Trial Cohort Case-control Cross-sectional Descriptive Grounded theory Case report Quantitative Qualitative Ethnography Phenomenology Cross-sectional Study Population DM Obese (+) Obese (-) Non dM Sample Exposure A Case control With/


Cross-Sectional, Cohort and Case-Control Studies HSS4303B – Intro to Epidemiology.

most easy to most difficult: 1.Cross-sectional study 2.Cohort study 3.Case-control study 4.Experimentation Types of Observational Studies CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY – A slice of what’s happening RIGHT NOW – Good for measuring prevalence Cross-Sectional Studies example: – People who currently live/: Is smoking associated with lung cancer? Study design: Choose a group of people with and without lung cancer and compare them for their history of smoking. Case-Control Studies Example: Question: Is getting a tetanus /


Research Study Design and Statistical Methods for Cardiology Nathan D. Wong, PhD, FACC Professor and Director Heart Disease Prevention Program Division.

of the literature, and aim / hypothesis should be stated) 2.What type of study was done? (experiment, clinical trial, observational cohort or cross-sectional study, or survey) Critical Appraisal (cont.) 3. Was the design appropriate for the research? Clinical trial preferred to test efficacy of treatments (e.g., HPS simvastatin trial) Cross-sectional study preferred for testing validity of diagnostic/screening tests or risk factor associations (e.g/


Multivariate ANOVA: Advanced Designs

, the students are able to measure the variability that exists between stores. *The Mathematical Calculations section will explain that while this is a block design, the ANOVA is identical to a 2-factor ANOVA with no interaction term. One F-test/ effect is used to calculate MSE. In this study each flower is the unit and the average is just the observed result for that flower. Calculating Crossed Vs. Nested Effects EXAMPLE 2: We can visualize the design structure of any balanced model with a Hasse diagram/


Wabash Pedestrian Bridge Design For Riverfront Development Committee INC. and The City of Terre Haute.

-RAS Modeled with and without the proposed bridge Used 2 downstream cross sections and 7 upstream cross sections Proposed Bridge Cross Section #1 Cross Section #2 Cross Section #3 Cross Section #4 Cross Section #5 Cross Section #6 Cross Section #7 Cross Section #8 Wabash Pedestrian Bridge Design Hydraulic Study Modeled with bridge deck above floodplain Arch piers modeled as vertical piers for simplicity Cross Section #2 Wabash Pedestrian Bridge Design Hydraulic Study W.S. elevation change less than 0.14 ft/


December 3-4, 2003/ARR 1 Maintenance Studies for 3-Field Period and 2-Field Period Configurations Presented by A. R. Raffray Major Contributors: X. Wang.

at the largest cross-section (at 0°) and the smallest cross-section(at 60°). This allows toroidally sliding the VV sectors into the coils of the field period. There is some flexibility in designing the shape of the VV within the following cross section constraints: -It / low priority effort on estimating minimum size reactor for application of such as scheme -Effort could be expanded if system study results point to larger reactor (>10 m) 8 sectors for 2-field period configuration December 3-4, 2003/ARR /


Research Statistics Lecture Series

or administrative units. Temporal comparisons Combines geographic and temporal comparisons Time-series studies. Cross-Sectional Study Cross-sectional studies typically conducting a medical survey in a community or defined population – orthopedic hospital. Key steps in conducting a cross-sectional medical survey are: To identify the base population To choose a sampling design and sampling frame for selecting the study participants To measure exposure (spine fusion) and health outcome status (post-operative/


Designing Clinical Research Global Health Clinical Scholars Program, 2006 George W. Rutherford, M.D. Institute for Global Health.

Clinical Scholars Program, 2006 George W. Rutherford, M.D. Institute for Global Health Lecture topics Wednesday 6 September 2006 1.The research question 2.Study populations and sampling 3.Variables and measurements 4.Study design I: cross-sectional studies, case-control studies 5.Study design II: cohort studies and experiments Lecture topics Wednesday 13 September 2006 6.Statistical inference 7.Sample size calculations 8.Ethical conduct of research 9.Questionnaire/


Design options in epidemiologic research

Comparison of three analytic strategies Cohort Case-control Choice of strategy Advantages & disadvantages of different observational study designs Relative ability of different types of study to prove causation Cross-Sectional Studies Advantages Cheap and quick studies. Data is frequently available through current records or statistics. Ideal for generating new hypothesis. Cross-Sectional Studies Disadvantages The importance of the relationship between the cause and the effect cannot be determined. Temporal/


Chapter Three. 1. Research Design Definition 2. Types of Basic Research Designs 3. Exploratory Research 4. Descriptive Research 5. Causal Research 6.

data (Chapter 6) Figure 3.5. Major Types of Descriptive Studies Descriptive Studies Consumer Perception And Behavior Studies Image Product Usage Advertising Pricing Market Characteristic Studies Distribution Competitive Analysis Figure 3.5 Major Types of Descriptive Studies Figure 3.5 Major Types of Descriptive Studies Market Potential Market Share Sales Analysis Sales Studies Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Designs A cross-sectional design involves the collection of information from any given sample of/


STROBE Statement STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology Iveta Simera The EQUATOR Network Centre for Statistics in Medicine,

overview of clinical research: the lay of the land. Lancet 2002; 359; 57-61. STROBE 8 STROBE Statement Guidance on how to report observational studies well (which is rare!) –Focus on 3 main study designs: cohort, case-control, cross-sectional studies Published in Oct 2007: short paper and E&E Adopted by many journals Find it on: www.equator-network.org www.strobe-statement.org 9/


Types of study designs: from descriptive studies to randomized controlled trials Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, PhD, MD, MAS Associate Professor of Medicine.

- gynecology clinics. Hypertension. 2011 Apr; 57(4):717-22. Hierarchy of Study Types?? Descriptive Case report Case series Survey Analytic Observational Cross sectional Case-control Cohort studies Experimental Randomized controlled trials Strength of evidence for causality between a risk factor and outcome A study type of every budget, purpose and research question NAME THAT STUDY DESIGN! Abstracts from the New England Journal of Medicine Plasma Natriuretic Peptide/


Types of study designs: from descriptive studies to randomized controlled trials Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, PhD, MD Associate Professor of Medicine and of.

+ D Research Question What are the risk factors for heart failure? Great idea, but how do you get started….  Observations in clinical practice  Moving from descriptive to analytic studies  What is feasible? Study Design #1  Cross-sectional study  National Health and Nutrition Exam Survey (NHANES)  Outcome: “have you been told by a doctor that you have heart failure?”  Multiple possible predictors (demographic, behavioral, other CV risk/


3-1 © 2007 Prentice Hall Chapter Three Research Design.

Prentice Hall A Classification of Marketing Research Designs Single Cross- Sectional Design Multiple Cross- Sectional Design Fig. 3.1 Research Design Conclusive Research Design Exploratory Research Design Descriptive Research Causal Research Cross-Sectional Design Longitudinal Design 3-7 © 2007 Prentice Hall Exploratory /program been thoroughly evaluated and determined to be in line with company practices? In this study, only one idea generated from the brainstorming session made it past all the listed /


Types of study designs: from descriptive studies to randomized controlled trials Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, PhD, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine and of.

):331-3. Great idea, but how do you get started….  Interesting, novel, and relevant, but…  You only have 25,000 dollars to start investigating this question.  What is feasible? Study Design #1  Cross-sectional study of UCSF medical students taking USMLE Step 2  Questionnaire administered when registering for USMLE 2 Primary predictor: self-report of >3 cans Red Bull per week Primary outcome: Score on/


THE RESEARCH PROCESS. 1. CONCEPTUAL PHASE 2. THE DESIGN AND PLANNING PHASE 3. THE EMPIRICAL PHASE 4. THE ANALYTIC PHASE 5. THE DISSEMINATION PHASE PHASES.

point of time and try to concurrently evaluate exposure (risk factors ) and outcome (diseases) in a population. Collection of data  Questionnaire (include every information of interest)  Risk factors  Investigators Cross-sectional Study Design Selection of study population -target appropriate population -acquire a “representative” sample -Sampling definitions -sampling unit: person, patient, household -Sampling frame: list of all sampling units -Sample: all sampling units chosen rule: each/


Teaching Registrars Research Methods Study design Landon Myer PhD Senior Lecturer, Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health, UCT.

Q in detecting condition Z Broad categories of options in study design Cross-sectional Case report / case series Case-control Cohort Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) Broad categories of options in study design Cross-sectional Case series Case-control Cohort Randomised Controlled Trial Descriptive Analytic Diagnostic ? Broad categories of options in study design Cross-sectional Case report/series Case-control Cohort RCT Observational designs: investigator is only observing distribution of variables (risk/


1 Measurement of production cross section of Z boson with associated b-jets and Evaluation of b-jet energy corrections using CMS detector at LHC Aruna.

1 event : 1 MB 100 events / second (stored in tape) Detector Components (I) 9 Magnet : The choice of magnetic field is key to the design of any HEP detector in collider experiments. CMS Magnet : Superconducting Solenoid Field strength : 3.8 Tesla, Length : 13 m, Inner R = 2.95/ pair out of 3 b-Jets from 2 nd Top 56 Summary  The process, Zbb, Z -> has been studied aiming for the first LHC data. The cross section of this process can be measured with first 100 pb-1 of data within 30% uncertainty.  Zbb, Z-> /


Epidemiologic Methods Fall 2010 First 5 Lectures Overview of Study Design (today) Disease Occurrence I and II Disease Association I and II.

= 1.0 (95% CI = 0.9 - 1.2) No loss to follow-up info (Sulkowski, JAMA, 2002) Cross-Sectional Study Design Cross-Sectional Design Measures Prevalence Measures prevalence of disease at one point in time. Two types: –Point prevalence: Do you currently have a backache? / tibia in postmenopausal women with fractures. JBMR 2010 Case control study using prevalent cases Cross-Sectional Study Design Case Control Key Concept #4 Incident sampling of both cases and controls is preferable to prevalent sampling “Nested”/


Descriptive Analytical Case report Case series Cross section Ecological Case control Cohort Observational Experimental Study Designs Animal Experiment.

to test for presence of a valid statistical association Not a true epidemiologic design. Cross-sectional studies An “observational” design that surveys exposures and disease status at a single point in time (a cross-section of the population) time Study only exists at this point in time Cross-sectional Design time Study only exists at this point in time Study population No Disease Disease factor present factor absent factor present factor absent Prevalence/


SAROD 20031 Aerodynamic Design Optimization Studies at CASDE Amitay Isaacs, D Ghate, A G Marathe, Nikhil Nigam, Vijay Mali, K Sudhakar, P M Mujumdar Centre.

duct is derived from the Mean Flow Line (MFL) MFL is the line joining centroids of cross- sections along the duct Any cross-section along length of the duct is normal to MFL Cross-section area is varied parametrically Cross-section shape in merging area is same as the exit section SAROD 200342 MFL Design Variables - 1 Mean flow line (MFL) is considered as a piecewise cubic curve along the/


CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY. 2. 1. Define the problem 2. Specify the objectives 3. Select design or type of study 4. Select study population 5. Collect data.

Case-Control Cohort Experimental Clinical Trials Community Trials 5 Relative strength of various study designs (based on level of evidence for a cause & effect relationship) Strength Design Strong Clinical trial Cohort study Case control study Cross sectional Case series Weak Case report Ecological studies Cross-sectional studies Retrospective cohort study Prospective cohort study Case control study Randomized controlled trial Statistically stronger More limited answers Statistically weaker Broader answers/


Study Designs in Epidemiologic Research Basic Epidemiology.

what is related to disease and may be causing it –formally test these hypotheses Study designs direct how the investigation is conducted What designs exist to identify and investigate factors in disease? Study Designs Case report Case series Descriptive Epidemiology Descriptive RCT Before-After study Cross-sectional study Case-Crossover study Case-Control study Cohort study Analytic Ecologic study Timeframe of Studies Prospective Study - looks forward, looks to the future, examines future events, follows a/


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