Ppt on computer programming languages

Chapter 4 Computer Languages, Algorithms and Program Development Berlin Chen 2003 Textbooks: 1. Kurt F. Lauckner and Mildred D. Lintner, "The Computer.

Textbooks: 1. Kurt F. Lauckner and Mildred D. Lintner, "The Computer Continuum," Prentice Hall, Second Edition, 2001. 2 How do computers know what we want them to do? 3 Outline What makes up a language and how do we use language to communicate with each other and with computers? How did computer programming languages evolve? How do computers understand what we are telling them to do? What are the/


Chapter 1 Computer Abstractions and Technology. Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 2 The Computer Revolution Progress in computer technology.

What is parallel processing Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 6 Understanding Performance Algorithm Determines number of operations executed Programming language, compiler, architecture Determine number of machine instructions/ 9 Avg. CPI = 9/6 = 1.5 Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 31 Performance Summary Performance depends on Algorithm: affects IC, possibly CPI Programming language: affects IC, CPI Compiler: affects IC, CPI Instruction set architecture: affects/


INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING Samuel kizito.

many computer programming languages and so the programmer will have to decide which one to use for solving a particular problem. These languages must be learnt just as Swahili, English or French etc. Levels of programming languagesProgramming languages are classified into five major categories: machine languages (first generation languages), assembly languages (second generation languages), third generation languages, fourth generation languages, and natural languages. Machine and assembly languages are/


Based on Deitel How To Program slides 1.  Computer use is increasing in almost every field  Computing costs have been decreasing dramatically due to.

(good for concurrency) and data-oriented coexists 13  Computer Architecture  Languages are developed around the prevalent computer architecture, known as the von Neumann architecture  Programming Methodologies  New software development methodologies (e.g., object-oriented software development) led to new programming paradigms and by extension, new programming languages 14 15  Fetch-execute-cycle (on a von Neumann architecture computer)  Program resides in memory, but executes in CPU initialize the/


Computer-Assisted Computer-Assisted Language Learning Language Learning Lectureted by Deng Gang

- programmers often chose to learn a high-level programming language such as BASIC to design materials from scratch. Other language teachers produced CALL materials using authoring programs such as Storyboard. Two other possible approaches to authoring were the use of authoring systems and authoring languages. An authoring system that has had a resounding influence across educational computing is HyperCard is a good example of how long/


Today and Tomorrow 12 th Edition Understanding Computers Chapter 13: Program Development and Programming Languages.

, 12th Edition 35 Programming Languages Programming language: A set of rules used to write computer programs –To write a program, you need appropriate software for the programming language you will be using Categories of programming languages –Low-level languages: Difficult to code in; machine dependent Machine language: 1s and 0s Assembly language: Includes some words and symbols Chapter 13 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 36 Programming Languages Chapter 13 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 37/


Chapter 13: Program Development and Programming Languages.

and codes used to write computer programs – To write a program, appropriate software for the programming language being used is needed Categories of Programming Languages – Types of programs they are designed to create Procedural languages or object-oriented languages – How evolved the programming language is Levels or generations Understanding Computers: Today and Tomorrow, 14th Edition 50 Programming Languages – Low-Level Languages (earliest programming languages) Machine language – Written at a very low/


Chapter 4: Computer Languages, Algorithms and Program Development How do computers know what we want them to do?

: Computer Languages, Algorithms and Program Development How do computers know what we want them to do? Computer Languages, Algorithms and Program Development n In this lecture: What makes up a language and how do we use language to communicate with each other and with computers? How did computer programming languages evolve? How do computers understand what we are telling them to do? What are the steps involved in building a program? Communicating with a Computer n/


Programming Language Prelim Period. Programming Language A programming language is a standardized communication technique for describing instructions.

(n) (if (<= n 1) (if (<= n 1) 1 (* n (factorial (- n 1))))) (* n (factorial (- n 1))))) ALGOL short for ALGOrithmic Language short for ALGOrithmic Language is a family of imperative computer programming languages originally developed in the mid 1950s is a family of imperative computer programming languages originally developed in the mid 1950s It was designed to avoid some of the perceived problems with FORTRAN and eventually gave/


COMP6411 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES Part 1: History of Programming Languages Joey Paquet, 2010-2013 1 Comparative Study of Programming.

that provides functional and object-oriented imperative language features Joey Paquet, 2010-2013 35 Comparative Study of Programming Languages ALGOL Joey Paquet, 2010-2013 36 Comparative Study of Programming Languages Algol ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language) is a family of imperative computer programming languages originally developed in the mid 1950s that greatly influenced many other programming languages. Joey Paquet, 2010-2013 37 Comparative Study of Programming Languages Some of the original designers or/


High School Computer Science Education: A five state study Stephenson, C. (2002). High School Computer Science Education: A five state study. JCSE Annual.

interested in graphics and Web applications. Extensive use of GUI features may actually interfere with the learning of core computer science concepts Programming Languages Taught in Grades 10, 11, and 12 The growing interest in Web pages may also explain the fairly / use of HTML in Grades 10–12. There is some debate as to whether Web scripting languages support the learning of core computer science concepts. Programming Languages Taught in Grades 10, 11, and 12 The popularity of C++ in all grades may be/


1/73 Java Software Solutions Chapter 1 Computer Systems.

discuss the appropriate use of white space. 55/73 Programming Languages Programming languages are often categorized into the following four classifications: 1. Machine Languages 2. Assembly Languages 3. High-Level Languages 4. Fourth-Generation Languages In order for a program to run on a computer, it must ultimately be expressed in that computer’s machine language. 56/73 From Machine Language to Assembly Language Each machine language instruction can accomplish only one simple task. For/


CS 152: Programming Language Paradigms February 3 Class Meeting Department of Computer Science San Jose State University Spring 2014 Instructor: Ron Mak.

members of your team so that when I send you your score, I can just do a “Reply all”. _ SJSU Dept. of Computer Science Spring 2014: February 3 CS 152: Programming Language Paradigms © R. Mak 18 Programming Language Abstractions  Two types of programming language abstractions: Data abstraction Control abstraction  Data abstractions Simplify the behavior and attributes of data. Examples: numbers, character strings, search trees  Control abstractions/


Learning Objectives Data and Information Six Basic Operations Computer Operations Programs and Programming What is Programming? Types of Languages Levels.

programmer may use it to structure the algorithms logic in writing. –It provides a relatively direct link between the algorithm and the computer program Learning Objectives Data and Information Six Basic Operations Computer Operations Programs and Programming What is Programming? Types of Languages Levels of Languages Translating OOED Steps of project Sayed Mahbub Hasan amiri 22 Pseudocode for Calculate Button Begin procedure Input Video Price Taxes = 0.07/


Visual Basic 2010 How to Program © 1992-2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

. © 1992-2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  The C programming language was developed in the early 1970s.  C first gained widespread recognition as the development language of the UNIX operating system.  C is a hardware-independent language, and, with careful design, it is possible to write C programs that are portable to most computers. © 1992-2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  C/


System Software. System software- A system software is a collection of system programs that perform a variety of functions i.e file editing, resource.

An interpreter, which is itself a program running on the computer, in effect simulates a computer whose machine language is the programming language in which the source program is written Computer System Software Processor Program 1 Data Results Execution of HLL program using an interpreter ASSEMBLER Elements of Assembly language Programming- An assembly language program is the lowest level programming language for a computer. It is peculiar to a certain computer system and is hence machine-dependent. When/


信息处理技术. Chapter 11: Computer Programming2 111Chapter 4: File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup 1Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail.

Some believe a fifth-generation language is a computer programming language based on a declarative programming paradigm Other experts feel fifth-generation languages are those that allow programmers to use graphical or visual tools to construct programs What about fifth-generation languages? Page 574 Chapter 11: Computer Programming21 The programming process begins with a problem statement that helps you clearly define the purpose of a computer program Program Planning: How does a programmer/


The Computer Continuum4-1 Computer Languages,. The Computer Continuum4-2 Computer Languages n In this chapter: What makes up a language and how do we.

The Computer Continuum4-1 Computer Languages, The Computer Continuum4-2 Computer Languages n In this chapter: What makes up a language and how do we use language to communicate with each other and with computers? How did computer programming languages evolve? How do computers understand what we are telling them to do? What are the steps involved in building a program? The Computer Continuum4-3 Communicating with a Computer n Communication cycle One complete unit of communication/


Slide 1 Computer Confluence 7/e © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

text editor  A compiler  A debugger to simplify the process of locating and correcting errors  A variety of other programming utilities © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 19 Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 14 Programming Languages and Methodologies Machine Language and Assembly Language Machine language: the native language of a computer  Instructions for the four basic arithmetic operations, for comparing pairs of numbers, for repeating instructions, etc. are all binary/


Chapter 15 Program Development and Programming Languages.

of Program Development and Programming Languages  What is a computer program?  The program development life cycle  Step 1 – Analyze problem  Step 2 – Design programs  Step 3 – Code programs  Step 4 – Test programs  Step 5 – Formalize solution  Step 6 – Maintain programsProgramming languages and program development tools Summary of Program Development and Programming Languages (cont.)  Categories of programming languages  Object-oriented program development  Programming languagesProgram/


Concordia University Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering Click to edit Master title style COMPILER DESIGN Course description Project.

and Software Engineering A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a computer language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The name "compiler" is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly language or machine code) before execution time/


The Evolution of Modern Computing Introduction A Brief History of Computer Hardware A Brief History of Programming What is a Computer? Number Systems:

Department of Defense began a series of studies intended to support the development of a new programming language to be used by computer vendors and military programmers. The language, called Ada (after Ada Byron), was released by CII- Honeywell-Bull in 1979 /, together with the data, will solve the problem. The next step is to express this algorithm in a programming language so that the computer can execute it (carry out the instructions). This stage is sometimes referred to as coding. Because people other /


Chapter 2 Instructions: Language of the Computer.

arguments to $a0, … and calls main When main returns, do exit syscall Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 130 Loading a Program (ARM) Load from image file on disk into memory 1.Read header to determine segment sizes 2.Create /Compiler can achieve same effect as manual use of pointers Induction variable elimination Better to make program clearer and safer Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 156 ARM & MIPS Similarities ARM: the most popular embedded core Similar basic set/


Conditional Processing Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming Dr Adnan Gutub aagutub ‘at’ uqu.edu.sa [Adapted from slides of Dr. Kip Irvine:

2/55 Presentation Outline  Boolean and Comparison Instructions  Conditional Jumps  Conditional Loop Instructions  Translating Conditional Structures  Indirect Jump and Table-Driven Selection  Application: Sorting an Integer Array Conditional Processing Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming slide 3/55 AND Instruction  Bitwise AND between each pair of matching bits AND destination, source  Following operand combinations are allowed AND reg, reg AND reg, mem AND reg/


Connecting with Computer Science, 2e Chapter 14 Programming I.

21 Figure 14-2, An IDE makes software development easier High-Level Languages Structure of a Program Before writing a program in any language: –Know how the program should work –Know the language syntax Formal definition of how statements must be constructed in the programming language Learning a programming language is similar to learning a foreign language Connecting with Computer Science, 2e 22 Algorithms Help describe the method used to solve a/


UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Department of Computer Science and Engineering CSCE 330 Programming Language Structures Introduction and History Fall 2013.

: –Control flow –Data types –Subroutines and control abstractions –Data abstraction and object orientation Programming models (paradigms): –Imperative languages –Object-oriented languages –Functional languages –Logic languages –Concurrency UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Department of Computer Science and Engineering Disclaimer The slides are based on many sources, including several other fine textbooks for the Programming Language (PL) Concepts course The PL Concepts course covers topics PL1 through PL11 in/


Text Books: 1. Computer Science, A Structured Programming Approach using C, B.A. Forouzan and R.F. Gilberg, Third Edition, Thomson. 2. The C Programming.

: Looks at different alternatives from a system’s point of view. 3.Design: It determines how the system will be built. Also provides the flowchart or algorithm for the program. 4.Coding: Implement the program using computer programming languages. 5.Testing: It ensures that the project works well without any errors. 6.Maintenance: Keeps the system/project working once it has been put into production/


Programming and Problem Solving With Java Copyright 1999, James M. Slack Introduction What is a Computer? Programming a Computer Types of Computer Systems.

actors of a play results in enjoyable entertainment Programming and Problem Solving with Java 27 Programming a ComputerProgramming languages  Very formal language with strict rules about spelling and grammar  Need write algorithm in a programming language before running the algorithm on the computer  Many programming languages  Will use Java in this course Programming and Problem Solving with Java 28 Programming a ComputerComputers understand machine language directly  Example: add 16 and 23 in/


Lec 5 Introduction to CPU Design. Introduction to CPU Design Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming slide 2 Outline  Introduction  Data.

of bits in the uPC.  Branch control field, k bits: contains various signals to control branching in microcoded control unit. Introduction to CPU Design Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming slide 53 Branching Controls Introduction to CPU Design Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming slide 54 Microcode Branching Example  Control word at address 200: Since the Mux Select bits are 00, the uPC incrementer is selected.  Control word/


10/13/2015Assoc. Prof. Stoyan Bonev1 COS220 Concepts of PLs AUBG, COS dept Lecture 01 Introduction to Concepts of Programming Languages Reference: R.Sebesta,

reserved.1-57Copyright © 2009 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.1-57 Influences on Language Design Computer Architecture –Languages are developed around the prevalent computer architecture, known as the von Neumann architecture Programming Methodologies –New software development methodologies (e.g., object-oriented software development) led to new programming paradigms and by extension, new programming languages Copyright © 2009 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.1-58Copyright © 2009 Addison-Wesley. All/


Chapter 4 Computer Software Slide 1 Well, Sort-of.

and used on any operating system Programmers are spared the burden of having to perform manual memory management. Your On-line quizzes are Javascripts Chapter 4 Computer Software Slide 24  Programming Languages  Web Languages OOP language an object-oriented programming language that is simple, secure and platform independent  Java Consists of small applets that can be connected and used on any operating system Programmers are spared the/


TIMELINE OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES Presented by: Lanz Christian Buyao.

developed around 1966-1969 at Edinburgh University, Scotland. IMP was a general-purpose programming language which was used heavily for systems programming. Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and programming environment. Language features include structured programming, reflection (the ability to modify the program structure during program execution), concatenative programming (functions are composed with juxtaposition) and extensibility (the programmer can create new commands/


1 Chapter 13 Understanding Computers, 11 th Edition 13 Program Development and Programming Languages TODAY AND TOMORROW 11 th Edition CHAPTER.

on devices, such as cars, ATM machines, consumer devices, etc. 34 Chapter 13 Understanding Computers, 11 th Edition Programming Languages Programming language: a set of rules used to write computer programs Programs are written using a programming software package for the selected programming language Categories of programming languages Low-level languages (difficult to code in; machine dependent) Machine language (1s and 0s) Assembly language (includes some words and symbols) 35 Chapter 13 Understanding/


Computer Programming (4800153-3) Department of Computer Science Preparatory Year 1433/1434 Prepared by Department of Computer Science, Preparatory Year.

Using C++ Introduction Prepared by Department of Computer Science, Preparatory Year 94 Programming Language Programming language is an artificial language that specifies instruction to be executed on a computer. This language consists of a set of commands, understandable by computer directly or after translating. Prepared by Department of Computer Science, Preparatory Year 95 Computer Languages: There are many types of computer languages, which can be categorized into the following four types:- a/


Basic Instructions Addressing Modes Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming Dr Adnan Gutub aagutub ‘at’ uqu.edu.sa [Adapted from slides of.

15/55 Next...  Operand Types  Data Transfer Instructions  Addition and Subtraction  Addressing Modes  Jump and Loop Instructions  Copying a String  Summing an Array of Integers Basic Instructions & Addressing Modes Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming slide 16/55 ADD and SUB Instructions  ADD destination, source destination = destination + source  SUB destination, source destination = destination – source  Destination can be a register or a memory location  Source/


Chapter 1 Instructions: Language of the Computer Rabie A. Ramadan

? Why do we have different architectures? Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 5 6 What is Computer Architecture? Functional operation of the individual HW units within a computer system, and the flow of information and control among them. Technology Programming Language Interface Interface Design (ISA) Measurement & Evaluation Parallelism Computer Architecture: Applications OS Hardware Organization 7 Computer Architecture Topics Instruction Set Architecture Pipelining, Hazard Resolution/


Stack and Procedures Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming Dr Adnan Gutub aagutub ‘at’ uqu.edu.sa [Adapted from slides of Dr. Kip Irvine:

its beginning  ENDP to mark end of procedure  A typical procedure definition is procedure_name PROC... ; procedure body... procedure_name ENDP  procedure_name should match in PROC and ENDP Stack and Procedures Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming slide 20/46 Documenting Procedures  Suggested Documentation for Each Procedure:  Does: Describe the task accomplished by the procedure  Receives: Describe the input parameters  Returns: Describe the values returned by/


Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 5 th Edition Chapter 8: Advanced Procedures (c) Pearson Education, 2006-2007. All rights reserved. You may.

. Receives: ECX = count. Returns: EAX = sum Stack frame: View the complete programcomplete program Web siteWeb site ExamplesExamples Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers 5/e, 2007. 40 Calculating a Factorial (1 of 3) int function factorial(int n/process is called static linking Web siteWeb site ExamplesExamples Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers 5/e, 2007. 67 Advantages Large programs are easier to write, maintain, and debug when divided into separate source code/


Visual Basic 2010 How to Program.  Welcome to Visual Basic 2010.  Computers process data, using sets of instructions called computer programs. 

will write much of the GUI code for you.  The C programming language was developed in the early 1970s.  C first gained widespread recognition as the development language of the UNIX operating system.  C is a hardware-independent language, and, with careful design, it is possible to write C programs that are portable to most computers.  C++, developed in the early 1980s, provides several features that/


Topics this week Computer Programming Computer Programming Programming Life-Cycle Phases Programming Life-Cycle Phases Creating an Algorithm Creating an.

cout << “Both false! ”; } Programming in C++ Lecture 2c Elements of a Program Overview of Lecture Overview of Computers & Programming Overview of Computers & Programming Assembly language vs. C/C++Assembly language vs. C/C++ Compiled vs. interpreted languagesCompiled vs. interpreted languages Procedural programming vs. Object-oriented programmingProcedural programming vs. Object-oriented programming Elements of a Program Elements of a Program StatementsStatements FunctionsFunctions VariablesVariables Types/


UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Department of Computer Science and Engineering CSCE 330 Programming Language Structures Introduction and History Fall 2012.

: –Control flow –Data types –Subroutines and control abstractions –Data abstraction and object orientation Programming models (paradigms): –Imperative languages –Object-oriented languages –Functional languages –Logic languages –Concurrency UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Department of Computer Science and Engineering Disclaimer The slides are based on many sources, including several other fine textbooks for the Programming Language (PL) Concepts course The PL Concepts course covers topics PL1 through PL11 in/


CS 152: Programming Language Paradigms January 27 Class Meeting Department of Computer Science San Jose State University Spring 2014 Instructor: Ron Mak.

. Operators could flip switches to enter these codes, called machine language, into memory. _ SJSU Dept. of Computer Science Spring 2014: January 27 CS 152: Programming Language Paradigms © R. Mak 21 Machine Language  Machine language programming was tedious and error prone. SJSU Dept. of Computer Science Spring 2014: January 27 CS 152: Programming Language Paradigms © R. Mak 22 Assembly Language  Assembly language: a set of mnemonic symbols for instruction codes and memory/


The Computer Continuum4-1 Chapter 4: Computer Languages, Algorithms and Program Development How do computers know what we want them to do?

-1 Chapter 4: Computer Languages, Algorithms and Program Development How do computers know what we want them to do? The Computer Continuum4-2 Computer Languages, Algorithms and Program Development n In this chapter: What makes up a language and how do we use language to communicate with each other and with computers? How did computer programming languages evolve? How do computers understand what we are telling them to do? What are the steps involved in/


Page 1 Data Structures in C for Non-Computer Science Majors Kirs and Pflughoeft Overview of the c Programming Language An Overview of the C/C++ Programming.

long register return short while signed sizeof static struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile new release Page 4 Data Structures in C for Non-Computer Science Majors Kirs and Pflughoeft Overview of the c Programming Language The C++ Programming Language Developed by Bjarne Sroustrup at Bell Labs during 1983-1985. and and_eq asm bitand bitor catch class const_cast continue default delete dynamic_cast explicit export/


Overview of a Computer System Fundamentals of Programming Chapter 1.

as D 7) Print on the computer screen the result stored in D Programming Language Programming Language is the language used in writing a set of instructions for the computer to follow. Timelines of Popular Computer Programming Languages Timelines of Popular Computer Programming Languages Assembler Name: Assembly Language Created: 1956 – 1963 By: IBM Language type: low level Timelines of Popular Computer Programming Languages Timelines of Popular Computer Programming Languages Lisp Name: Lisp Created: 1956 By/


Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Living in a Digital World.

from a loss Programming Languages and Program Development Tools A computer program is a series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks – Created by a programmer using a programming language Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition Chapter 11 32 Pages 435 - 436 Figure 11-12 Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Machine language is the first generation of programming languages Only language the computer directly recognizes Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2010 Edition/


1 Module 12 Computation and Configurations –Formal Definition –Examples.

The crux of these proofs are algorithms which behave as follows: –Input: 1 or 2 programs from a given computational model –Output: A third program from the same computational model that accepts/describes a third language which is a combination of the languages accepted/described by the two input programs 204 Comparison L 1 intersect L 2 L1L1 L2L2 LFSA M3M3 M1M1 M2M2 FSA’s LNFA LFSA/


UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Department of Computer Science and Engineering CSCE 330 Programming Language Structures Introduction and History Fall 2014.

: –Control flow –Data types –Subroutines and control abstractions –Data abstraction and object orientation Programming models (paradigms): –Imperative languages –Object-oriented languages –Functional languages –Logic languages –Concurrency UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Department of Computer Science and Engineering Disclaimer The slides are based on many sources, including several other fine textbooks for the Programming Language (PL) Concepts course The PL Concepts course covers topics PL1 through PL11 in/


Basic Concepts Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming Instructor: Maram Alsahafi [Some of the contents Adapted from slides Dr Adnan Gutub,

an Assembler?  How is Assembly related to High-Level Language? Basic Concepts Computer Organization and Assembly Language slide 7/43 A Hierarchy of Languages Basic Concepts Computer Organization and Assembly Language slide 8/43 Assembly and Machine Language  Machine language  Native to a processor(CPU): executed directly by hardware  Instructions consist of binary code: 1s and 0s  Assembly language  A programming language that uses symbolic names to represent operations, registers and/


Chapter 1 Introduction. 2 Chapter 1 Objectives Know the difference between computer organization and computer architecture. Understand units of measure.

DLL. 491 8.4 Programming Tools Assembly language is considered a “second generation” programming language (2GL). Compiled programming languages, such as C, C++, Pascal, and COBOL, are “third generation” languages (3GLs). Each language generation presents problem solving tools that are closer to how people think and farther away from how the machine implements the solution. 492 8.4 Programming Tools Keep in mind that the computer can understand only the/


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