Ppt on commercial use of microorganisms

Tulane University School of PH&TM Global Environmental Health Sciences.

in Water n Microorganisms in Food n Microorganisms in Waste n Microorganisms in Soil, the Nitrogen, Sulfur and Carbon Cycles n Management of Microorganisms in Health care facilities n *Control of Nosocomial Infections *CDC Manual for Infections *Universal Precautions *Disinfection techniques *Sterilization n ALGAE Chlorella FUNGI Basidiomycete BACTERIA Gram Negative Bacilli Environmental Microbiology Algae Algae Algae n Environmental Benefits n Algae uses photosynthesis to capture sunlight energy/


WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND POLLUTION CONTROL

addition to being used as a measure of the amount of organic pollutant in streams or lakes, the BOD is used as a measure of the strength of sewage. This is the most important parameters for design and operation of water pollution control plant. A strong sewage has a high concentration of organic material and a correspondingly high BOD. The complete decomposition of organic material by microorganisms takes time, usually/


A bit of Ch 9 and 28 Applied, Industrial and Biotechnical Microbiology Microbial manufacturing.

Microbial manufacturing Biotechnology Defined The Use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product. 1/5 th of the manufacturing Jobs in the Bay area are Biotechnology related. Microorganisms represent an almost limitless supply of enzymatic reactions May reduce the risks and complexities of industrial syntheses Is less expensive By-products are usually less toxic Used in environmental cleanup (In situ) Commercial production of Microorganisms Fermentation projects (Beer and/


1 Table Olive processing Professor Alsaed A.K. University of Jordan.

population by a factor of 10 12. Lethal rate: reciprocal of the number of minutes of heat exposure required 10 destruct a given microorganism at a specific temperature. 32 33 3.1.3. Other ingredients Other ingredients may be used such as: Water; /must be original and show no signs of deterioration giving reason to believe that the organoleptic conditions, or commercial value of the product contained might be subsequently affected, all other containers may be re- used providing they are in good condition./


24. Antibiotics Now most of the antibiotics were discovered from soil microorganisms especially in microorganism Streptomyces spp. Engineered genes into.

properties Gastric acid stability & oral absorbability Resistance to beta-lactamases 6-Aminopenicillanic Acid (6-APA) Chemical method: Use of hazardous chemicals - pyridine, phosphorous pentachloride, nitrosyl chloride Enzymatic method: Regio- and stereo-specific Mild reaction conditions /. Although the first important commercially produced antibiotic was discovered by chance, most present day antibiotics were discovered by systematic search. The soil is a vast repository of microorganisms and it is to the/


1 Exploring the biology of terrestrial life at increasing distances, durations, and generations from Earth 8/15/03 Submitted by Lynn D. Harper/NASA ARC/650-604-4930.

missions with human presence Capabilities: Biology module with automated, miniaturized science and life support Organisms: Microorganisms, human cells, nematodes, simple plants Capabilities: Mobile biology module with automated, miniaturized science and life /personnel will be emphasized. In addition to commercial collaborations, history shows that the potential for pharmaceutical, biomedical, and other spinoffs can be significant. In particular, the use of altered gravity as a model for aging could/


Petroleum Microbiology MCB Credits

of microorganisms that could respond to very small concentrates of petroleum vapour in the soil. Petroleum Production Drilling for petroleum is nearly always an unpredicted task. Geological and geophysical studies indicate the places where petroleum have accumulated. However, the chance that oil is actually present in those places is less than 10% That it is present in commercial/ plants use microorganisms to treat the generated wastes. Bioremediation: What is bioremediation? It is the use of biological /


Principles and Techniques of Instrument Processing and Sterilization

use. The antimicrobial activity does not disinfect the instruments; it merely prevents the microorganisms from multiplying. (Cont’d) What is the significance of solutions with enzymatic-activity capabilities? Which type of solution might be changed fewer times during the day in a high-volume dental office? Why? Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 38 Fig. 21-8 A commercial/


Vermiculture: Promote Global Worming! Julie Weisenhorn, Extension Educator Director, Master Gardener Program Department of Horticultural Science University.

Result: CASTINGS The Internal Earthworm Vermiculture & Vermicomposting Vermiculture is … “the culture of earthworms” Vermicomposting is … “using earthworms and microorganisms to convert organic waste into black, earthy-smelling, nutrient- rich humus.” - Mary Appelhof Why? Year-round compost & organic plant fertilizer Reduce, reuse, recycle Non-polluting Profitable commercial business Interesting for all ages Comparison of Composting Organic Matter Temperature –Compost bin = 130-160° F; 6-8 months/


Madam Noorulnajwa Diyana Yaacob School of Bioprocess Engineering.

ChitinaseFusarium sp.  Enzyme is an organic catalyst formed by a living cell. Useful enzymes are mostly obtained from plant and animal cells, microorganisms are now-a-days becoming excellent sources for industrial production of certain enzymes. Many microorganisms are known to excrete enzymes into their growth media; the enzymes are used during fermentation processes of various industries such as pharmaceutical, food, textile, etc. High yields and/


Copyright © 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Principles and Techniques of Instrument Processing and Sterilization Chapter 21.

enzyme activity. Other ultrasonic cleaning products have antimicrobial activity, which reduces the buildup of microbes in the solutions with repeated use. The antimicrobial activity does not disinfect the instruments; it merely prevents the microorganisms from increasing in number. Copyright © 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Fig. 21-8 A commercial all-purpose ultrasonic cleaner. (Courtesy Certol.) Fig. 21-9 An enzyme ultrasonic cleaner/


The results of the project "System analysis and forecasting in the field of science and technology" in "Biotechnology" Expert group: E.B Nikitin S.M. Mamadaliev.

for immunodiagnostic test systems. Creating genetically modified microorganisms for use in designing vaccines. Development and improvement of methods of cell selection of plants Development of methods for editing genomes of commercially valuable species to enhance productivity, resistance to diseases and adverse environmental factors. Improved methods of genomic selection of animals Modern methods for DNA genotyping, DNA analyzers of new generation Development of 5 new diagnostic test systems The creation/


Lesson 2: Slide 1 Food Safety for Child Nutrition Programs Department of Nutrition University of California, Davis.

on or in and feeds off of another living thing. pH: A symbol used to designate the acidity or alkalinity of a food. Lesson 2: Slide 14 Vocabulary Potentially hazardous foods (PHF): Foods that support the growth of microorganisms. Lesson 2: Slide 15 Vocabulary/ 2: Slide 119 Preventing Chemical Contamination from Metals Do not use metal mixing bowls for holding hot foods. Never store food in an open can. Use only commercial food service equipment. –Use those following NSF or UL standards. Lesson 2: Slide 120/


Authorship Franco G. Teves, Ph.D. Dipl. Phil. Acad. Microbiol. Director of Research MSU-IIT.

used in any industry shall be and used in any industry shall be industrially applicable. industrially applicable. (Sec. 27, IP Code) (Sec. 27, IP Code) Special Patentability Requirements for Biotech Inventions Priority Priority Sufficiency of Disclosure Sufficiency of Disclosure Deposition of microorganism (Budapest Treaty)(Rules 408 & 409, IP Code) Deposition of microorganism/potential commercial value must be decided before hand with regards to patent ownership Thesis outputs with potential commercial /


Department Department of Food Science and Technology The Science Behind Food Preservation: Dr. Renee Boyer Extension Specialist May 21, 2009.

heating in solids Conduction heating in solids Department Department of Food Science and Technology Time/Temperature Dependency Combination of both Combination of both Fullness of pack Fullness of pack Container size and material Container size and material Initial temperature of food Initial temperature of food Microorganisms presen Microorganisms presen WHEN CANNING ALWAYS USE A RECIPE FROM A REPUTABLE SOURCE!!! WHEN CANNING ALWAYS USE A RECIPE FROM A REPUTABLE SOURCE!!! Department Department/


Microbial Biotechnology Products from Microorganisms LECTURE 12: Biotechnology; 3 Credit hours Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB) National.

of Applied Biosciences (ASAB) National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Products from Microorganisms A number of commercially important compounds are produced from microorganism by biotechnology. That includes; Metabolites Enzymes Antibiotics Natural Rubber Fuels Plastics 1. Metabolites Two types of/in the environment by killing or inhibiting the growth of competitor microorganism 3. Antibiotics Antibiotics Cont.’s First antibiotic used was penicillin, discovered in 1929 by Alexder Fleming /


Thermally Processed, Commercially Sterile Products Paul M. Uhler United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Office of Policy,

sealed so as to be airtight and to protect the contents of the container against the entry of microorganisms during and after processing. Questions Should a quantitative standard for the commercial sterility requirement be used, e.g.. 5-log reduction of Clostridium sporogenes or 10 -6 probability of remaining spores? Training All operators of processing systems for commercially sterile meat and poultry products and container closure technicians shall be/


Enzymes in Dairy Products. The concentration of proteins in milk grams/ liter % of total protein _______________________________________________________.

and peroxidase, but it permits lactic acid-forming microorganisms to survive, and lipases, proteases, and phosphatases are not affected for cheese making. The H 2 O 2 / catalase treatment cannot be substituted legally for pasteurization, since complete elimination of pathogens is not assured. Catalase is widely distributed among animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. Catalase for commercial use is obtained from animal liver, bacteria (Micrococcus/


K EEPING CLEANROOMS CLEAN : SELECTION AND USE OF DISINFECTANTS AND DETERGENTS Tim Sandle

is plated after the required contact time, and the surviving microorganisms enumerated T HE BASICS OF DISINFECTANT VALIDATION # 4 Quantitative suspension test The purpose of the quantitative suspension test is to evaluate the activity of a disinfectant against a range of microorganisms under conditions which more closely simulate practical use. The test consists of inoculating a prepared sample of the disinfectant under test in simulated ‘clean’ and ‘dirty’ conditions/


WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND POLLUTION CONTROL WMA 318 Prof. O. Martins and Dr O.Z. Ojekunle Dept of Water Res. Magt. & Agromet UNAAB. Abeokuta. Ogun State.

or from contamination by microorganisms that could cause gastro-intestinal illness, ear, eye or skin infections. Recreational water quality criteria are used to assess the safety of water to be used for swimming and other/ of the different sensory perception of individuals and because of the variability of local conditions. Commercial and sports fishing Water quality criteria for commercial and sports fishing take into account, in particular, the bioaccumulation of contaminants through successive levels of /


蚯蚓養殖與蚯蚓堆肥之應用 Vermiculture and Vermicomposting Promote Global Worming! Rewritten By Yung-song Chen, Department of Biotechnology and Animal Science, National.

: CASTINGS( worm feces) The Internal Earthworm Vermiculture & Vermicomposting Vermiculture is … “the culture of earthworms” Vermicomposting is … “using earthworms and microorganisms to convert organic waste into black, earthy-smelling, nutrient- rich humus.” Why? Year-round compost & organic plant fertilizer Reduce, reuse, recycle Non-polluting Profitable commercial business Interesting for all ages Comparison of Composting Organic Matter Temperature –Compost bin = 130-160° F (55 -71°C); 6/


Microbiological Assay of Antibiotics Pharmaceutical Microbiology-II PHR 203.

.5) O C for 2 hrs After incubation, add 0.5 ml of dilute formaldehyde Transmittance or Absorbance at 530 nm INDUSTRIAL MICROBILOGY  Industrial microbiology is an important area of applied microbiology. It refers to the use of microorganisms in commercial enterprise and Cheap raw materials are converted to valuable products through the metabolism of microbes. Microbes for this purpose could be exploited in different ways. For/


ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION. Air Pollution  Air –Necessary for Existence –Colorless, odorless mixture of gases –Quality of air varies in different.

process waste: Includes packaging, office and cafeteria wastes similar to domestic and commercial wastes. Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste  Solid wastes are grouped or classified in several different ways. These different classifications are necessary to/ waste will decompose due to the action of microorganisms.  At first the waste decomposes aerobically until the oxygen that was present in the freshly placed fill is used up by the aerobic microorganisms.  The anerobes take over producing methane/


Production Process Of Bio Fertilizers

adhesive should be used for better results. For problematic soils use corrective methods like lime or gypsum pelleting of seeds or correction of soil pH by use of lime. Ensure the supply of phosphorus and other nutrients. What would be probable reasons for not getting response from the application of bio fertilizers? On account of quality of product Use of ineffective strain. Insufficient population of microorganisms. High level of contaminants. On account of inadequate storage facilities/


Waterborne Pathogens and State-of-art Detection Methods

using this method Species and strain specific genetic diversity although genome sequencing and analysis is very useful when comparing phylogenetically distant taxa, it is also of interest to examine the genomes of very closely related microorganisms/ CCD camera Excitation source: xenon, halogen, laser Fluorescent Dye Labeling of: Oligonucleotides Peptide Nucleic acids (PNA) Near Infra Red Dyes: Available but no commercial labeling service available Idaho LightCycler Xenon Arc lamp (250-1000 continuous)/


Diversity of Prokaryotes

use of different compounds to obtain energy required for the organism, allow for occupation in diverse habitats, creating diversity among microorganisms ocean hot springs mud Review of Terms chemotroph transfer energy from one compound to another through the process of oxidation-reduction reactions phototroph uses/Eukaryotic Microorganisms algae protozoa fungi helminths Algae unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular can be microscopic or macroscopic cell walls are made of cellulose, a commercially /


INTRODUCTION TO FOOD SCIENCE II 1204

used to make yogurt. Saccharomyces cerevisiae- used to make bread Penicillium-used to make cheese Bad Microbes Salmonella-in raw poultry and meat. E coli 0157:H7- found in meat and vegetables. Campylobacter- found in poultry Listeria monocytogenes- in ready-to-eat foods. Growth Rates of Microorganisms/ and marbling (intramuscular fat flecks). Young- Prime, Choice, Select, Standard Old- Utility, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, Canner Some carcasses are yield graded to predict cutout yield. Poultry Processing /


Infections by Bio-aerosols. Objectives The objectives of this activity are to enable the learner to: 1. Understand prevention at the source of aerosols.

commercial affiliation to the audience. Any and all commercial products or services displayed or advertised at the AOHP 2014 National Conference do not constitute endorsement by the Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare (AOHP). Aero-Biology & Bio-aerosols Aerobiology is the study of the processes involved in the movement of microorganisms/100%. The respirators must fit well. Seal must be checked before each use, except for some loose-fitting models (e.g., powered air-purifying /


INTRODUCTION TO FOODBORNE PATHOGENS 1120

microorganisms that may be in foods, in actuality, our food supply is safer than any other country in the world and safer than any other time in the history of mankind. The number of cases of foodborne illnesses caused by pathogens can be drastically reduced through the use of/never diagnosed. Read the slide IMPORTANCE The CDC estimates that 78% of pathogen outbreaks occur as a result of poor food handling practices in commercial and institutional establishments while only 22% occur due to food handling /


Microorganisms and Microbiology

), and ethanol. Biotechnology is the use of microorganisms in industrial biosynthesis, typically by microorganisms that have been genetically modified to synthesize products of high commercial value. Various microorganisms can be used to consume spilled oil, solvents, pesticides, and other environmentally toxic pollutants. Historical of Microbiology Robert Hooke was the first to describe microorganisms (Figure 1.8). Microscope used by Robert Hooke to see microorganisms in 1664 Bluish color mold growing/


Artificial Feed in Fish Culture

animal and, possibly, fish growth by affecting the microbial flora population in the gut of the animal. Probiotics may be a single species of microorganisms or a mixture of species. The concept behind their use is that the species of microorganisms present in the supplement colonizes the gut and out competes detrimental species of microorganisms, thus limiting their numbers and allowing the animal (fish) to avoid wasting metabolic energy/


Intracanal medicaments Nilesh Deshpande JR-II Department of pediatric and preventive dentistry 1.

following cleaning and shaping with RC preparation NaOCl than with NaOCl alone. EDTA-c (commercial name) Quaternary ammonium compound to EDTA + Cetavlon which has greater germicidal acitivity and disinfecting/use is not widespread. 60 Mechanism of action: Disruption of cellular metabolic pathways of microorganisms: -Inhibition of cells, protein synthesis. -Inhibition of DNA synthesis. Use: a)Management of endodontically involved teeth with large periapical abscess. b)Recommended as pressure irrigation of/


CATEE PRESENTATION– DECEMBER 18, 2013 DIANA D. GLAWE, PHD, PE, LEED AP ENGINEERING SCIENCE DEPARTMENT COLLECTING & USING CONDENSATE ON SITE.

the temperature of the surface is below the point at which moisture in the air forms liquid droplets (i.e. dew point) AIR HANDLING UNIT (AHU) (Source: San Antonio Condensate Collection and Use Manual for Commercial Buildings. Pending/pipe Reservoirs/Tank Pumps Fixtures CONDENSATE WATER QUALITY - MICROORGANISMS Legionella bacterium is primary concern for condensate use if aerosol is possible Comingling with other water sources adds microorganism possibilities No fecal matter expected in condensate alone /


Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria on pathogens in foods Why succesful? How succesful? Prof.Dr. Dilek Heperkan Istanbul Technical University,

microorganisms. Antibiotics; On the other hand, acute diarrhea due to the loss of normal intestinal microbiota, drug-resistant strains and chronic toxicity due to widespread use of antibiotics are well known negative effects of antibiotics. Pesticides; The risks of toxic residues in foods, as well as contamination of soil and water due to the use of/lactis) has been used successfully as an effective biopreservative in some dairy products for decades. Nisin is currently used commercially as a food /


CHEMEXC AMERICAN BIOTEC. Who are we ? VISION MISION Group of companies that work in research, development, manufacture and commercialization of bio pesticides.

CHEMEXC AMERICAN BIOTEC Who are we ? VISION MISION Group of companies that work in research, development, manufacture and commercialization of bio pesticides for Green Agriculture. Contribute to global agriculture, /Its a group of microorganisms that rapidly colonize the soil and produce antibiotics that protect the roots of the crops. Tehy also produce enzymes and vitamins that help maintain a healthy soil. Best if also used as preventive treatment. M.E. M.E. TM (EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS) FUNGICIDE / /


Microbiological control of medicines in pharmaceutical manufacturing and pharmaceutical companies. Fundamentals of biotechnology and genetic engineering.

of particles or microorganisms per m 3 of clean room air  Europe : 5 μm particle dia viable microorganisms Grade A : 0 < 1 B : 0 5 C : 2,000 100 D : 20,000 500  USA : class 100 (grade A/B), class 10,000(grade C), class 100,000 (grade D) Factors affecting the clean room condition  Use of/ It is the “blue” of blue genes that is why the commercial importance. 2- Chemicals: Indigo dye An interesting ecological relationship between bacteria and plants involves the role of Pseudomonas syringae which produce a /


Protection of biotechnology innovations in Brazil Leonor Galvão de Botton, Ph.D. AIPLA Spring Meeting May, 2013.

useful. The protection shall afford its holder the right to commercial reproduction on the territory of Brazil, third parties being prohibited during the term of protection from producing for commercial purposes, offering for sale or marketing propagating material of/ substances Use of gene, protein or compound X isolated from nature (non-therapeutic) Modified microorganisms/ microorganism cells Modified animals/plants or their cells Processes of modifying and producing microorganisms Processes of modifying /


Microbiological Hazards of Apple Juice/Cider LeeAnne Jackson, Ph.D. Science Policy Analyst Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

with HUS Apple Juice/Cider Escherichia coli O157:H7 (cont’d) w 1996 - Washington, California, Colorado, British Columbia - commercially produced unpasteurized apple juice - 70 ill, 14 with HUS, one death w 1996 - Washington, Church function - unpasteurized / water used to rinse apples which was coliform-positive Juice Processing Issues  Pressing/squeezing/grinding of fruits and vegetables w Bruises / injury w Transfer of microorganisms by insects Juice Processing Issues Pressing/squeezing/grinding of fruits/


Food Bacteria Groups. Food temperature Both heating and cooling food can change its susceptibility to microorganisms, and therefore its ability to stay.

refrigerator at a temperature from 0°C to 3°C will slow the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, but wont stop it entirely. Storing Food Separately Freezing Many different types of food are quickly frozen in factories to maintain high standards of freshness and safety. Products are stored in commercial freezers at between - 18°C and -29°C. Home freezers store products at -18/


Commercial biotechnology Learning objectives: To be able to explain the advantage of using microorganisms for industrial processes.To be able to explain.

Commercial biotechnology Learning objectives: To be able to explain the advantage of using microorganisms for industrial processes.To be able to explain the advantage of using microorganisms for industrial processes. To be able to describe the screening procedures carried out to identify the most suitable microorganisms for a particular process.To be able to describe the screening procedures carried out to identify the most suitable microorganisms for a particular process/


B. NOVEL METHODS OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION.

control food poisoning and spoilage microorganisms in these new food habitats, while keeping loss of product quality to a minimum, a hurdle technology approach is advocated which involves the educated selection and use of a set of preservative factors that can adequately/ routinely subject foods to the necessary pressures. However, in recent years there has been renewed scientific and commercial interest in the process. High-pressure High-pressure is generally a semi continuous bulk process for liquid foods/


SECONDARY METABOLITES 1. Metabolites are involved in the growth of organisms through the process of metabolism. The metabolism is referred to as the sum.

for clinical use Other considerations: –Development of methods to control production of antibiotic –Development of new applications –Development of marketing and distribution system –Financing of business 41 The classical method for searching for antibiotics By random search in the soil. Although the first important commercially produced antibiotic was discovered by chance, most present day antibiotics were discovered by systematic search. The soil is a vast repository of microorganisms and/


발효공학 (Fermentation Technology) KNUmbl Dr.Salah El-Deen Mohamed Abo Aba King AbdulAziz University Faculty of science Biological Science Dept., Biotechnology.

transformation by cells of a compound added to the fermentation medium of a commercially valuable compound) Microbial Biotechnology 2016-06-22 KNU Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory 11Fermentation Aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms are cultured under /use of bacteria that produce chemicals that kill these contaminated bacteria are used as an additive in fermentation to prevent contamination of fermented food. 3- microorganisms also are important source of food additives such as enhancing the flavor of/


Question of the Day Of the following, which is the best example of a point source of water pollution? Factory effluent Storm water Acid precipitation Agricultural.

particles and microorganisms are allowed to settle out, forming secondary sludge. Use aeration basins, settling tanks and sand filters Use aeration basins, settling tanks and sand filters Tertiary This includes a variety of biological, chemical and physical processes used to /Organics, Mercury Do Not Eat the Fish Mississippi RiverChlordane, other Organics Mercury Do Not Eat the Fish, Commercial Fishing banned by TWRA Nonconnah CreekChlordane, other Organics Do Not Eat the Fish, Advisory ends at Horn Lake/


Antimicrobial agents PHG Definitions Antibiotic: Chemicals that are produced by microorganisms that have the capacity to inhibit (static) the.

case of production of tetracycline using Sterpt. aureofaciens, addition of mercaptothiazole (inhibits chlorination of tetracycline) to avoid production of chlortetracycline (highly irritant and very difficult to separated from tetracycline) and increase tetracycline production. 35 Commercial Production of Antibiotics Isolation and purification of antibiotics: Most of antibiotics are released into the culture medium except nystatin, amphotericin B and griseofulvin remain inside the microorganism cells they/


Microbiological Methods

area (in mm2) by counting the number of squares in a dish. If using a commercial plate counter, touch each colony on the plate with the pen, and the cumulative number of colonies will appear on the display. Summary Different media are used to culture microorganisms, be certain that you are using the appropriate media for your organism. Always use sterile technique to prevent contamination. Choose the type/


Microbiological Methods

area (in mm2) by counting the number of squares in a dish. If using a commercial plate counter, touch each colony on the plate with the pen, and the cumulative number of colonies will appear on the display. Summary Different media are used to culture microorganisms, be certain that you are using the appropriate media for your organism. Always use sterile technique to prevent contamination. Choose the type/


Introduction to Fruits and Vegetables 1122

field soil and surface microorganisms but also fungicides, insecticides and other pesticides. Skin removal-There are numerous methods of removing the skins from vegetables ranging from a hot alkaline soak that softens the skin to the use of steam under pressure./Fruit is pressed or ground to yield the juice. Clarification- Resulting juice may contain small particles of pulp and other debris. Typically, commercial enzymes are added to the juice to digest the suspended particles. Then the juice is centrifuged /


Microbiology of Waste Treatment/ Biodegradation of Pollutants Biology 422, Fall 2012 Michael D. Aitken Department of Environmental Sciences & Engineering.

be useful in an engineered process Every organism has a unique range of conditions under which it will grow or at least survive Environmental systems are likely to be characterized by relatively few dominant species and a large number of low-abundance species Open environments permit the growth of heterogeneous communities –wastes typically are heterogeneous mixtures of organic and inorganic compounds therefore a diverse community of microorganisms/


Biocidal Product Active substance and preparations containing one or more active substances, in the form which are supplied to the user, intended to destroy,

or arrests growth of microorganisms with the inherent intent to mitigate or prevent disease. as bacteria, yeast, fungi, and viruses. Antiseptic Classification 1. Personal use antiseptics: 1.1 Personal domestic use antiseptics. 1.2. Personal commercial use antiseptics. 2. Professional use antiseptics: 2.1. Food premises antiseptics. 2.2. Professional healthcare use antiseptics.   Personal use antiseptics Personal domestic use antiseptics Personal domestic (or household) use antiseptic products are those/


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