Ppt on combination of resistances organization

Antimicrobial Medications

pathogen Features of Antimicrobial Drugs Spectrum of activity Antimicrobials vary with respect to range of organisms controlled Narrow spectrum Work on narrow range of organisms Gram-positive only OR Gram-negative only Advantage: effects pathogen only Disadvantage: requires identification of pathogen Broad spectrum Advantage: Work on broad range of organisms Disadvantage : disruption of normal flora Features of Antimicrobial Drugs Effects of combinations of antimicrobial drugs Combination sometimes used/


BIOE 301 Lecture Three.

Therapy (HAART) Combination of three or more drugs Fusion inhibitors (2003) Subject of new research HAART HIV can rapidly mutate to quickly develop resistance to a single drug Resistance develops much more slowly to drug combinations Goal of HAART: Reduce viral/x Treat with Ethambutol x x x 1 in 106 organisms is resistant to ethambutol At 2 weeks, 25% chance of resistant organisms Not cured! Resistant to ethambutol! At 6 months, 60% chance Not cured! Resistance to ethambutol! At 2 years, 80% chance 999,/


Objectives Describe the rationale for the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs Provide core strategies to assist in the development and implementation.

data to optimize individual antimicrobial management Assists infection control efforts in the surveillance of resistant organisms and in the molecular epidemiologic investigation of outbreaks Critical role in the timely identification of microbial pathogens and the performance of susceptibility testing Responsibilities Analyze and present data at least once per year Use a sufficient number of isolates to assure accurate data Perform and report quantitative and qualitative susceptibility testing/


Antimicrobial Drug Therapy What do we do when the balance tips in favor of the invading microorganism?

caused by changes in a microorganism’s usual genetic makeup. Acquired resistance may be a trait associated with only some strains of a particular organism group or species. This type of resistance may be acquired by: Antimicrobial therapy  Successful genetic mutation(s)  Acquisition of genes from other organisms via gene transfer mechanisms (i.e., resistance plasmids)  A combination of mutational and gene transfer events.  Common pathways for intrinsic or acquired/


Arthritis Arthritis and rheumatic diseases are leading causes of pain and disability. Among adults in the United States ≥18 yr, 22.2% (49.9 million)

from the epithelial cells of organs and compose at least 80% of all cancers. Other cancers arise from the cells of the blood (leukemias), immune system (lymphomas), and connective tissues (sarcomas). The lifetime prevalence of cancer is one in/–6 repetitions with exercises involving each major muscle group) intensity in terms of bone loading forces. Time: 30–60 min · d−1 of a combination of weight-bearing aerobic and resistance activities. Type: Weight-bearing aerobic activities (e.g., tennis, stair climbing/


Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP Portland State University

soil fungus that promotes water/nutrient/CO2 exchange Bollworms thriving on Bt cotton in India Bt Plants Bt-resistant insects also noted in Puerto Rico and South Africa (moths) and U.S. (beetles) Monsanto /of XNA – xeno nucleic acid (complementary to DNA, yet structurally unique; works with xeno, or artificial, proteins) Protocells: Use of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Applications of Synbio Biofuels Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Organisms/


Sterilization, Disinfection and Antibacterial Agents Pin Ling ( 凌 斌 ), Ph.D. Department of Microbiology & Immunology, NCKU ext 5632

with ribosome function. Sulfonamides and trimethoprim block the synthesis of the folate needed for DNA replication Bacterial Resistance Bacteria can evolve resistance to antibiotics. Resistance factors can be encoded on plasmids or on the chromosome. Resistance may involve decreased entry of the drug, changes in the receptor (target) of the drug, or metabolic inactivation of the drug. Effects of Combination Therapy Combinations of antibiotics may act synergistically-producing an effect stronger than/


INTRODUCTION TO ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY (General Principles) OBJECTIVES: General principles of chemotherapy for other drugs govern antimicrobial chemotherapy.

: (1)R Determinant Plasmid for resistance mechanism (2)Resistant Transfer Factor (RTF) that is needed for conjugation. 3.Combination of the two plasmid is called R-Factor 4.Many Gram (-) organisms acquire resistance to multiple antibiotics by conjugation mechanism. Multiple drugs resistant Enterobacteriaceae became a serious world-wide problem. EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION THERAPY 1.Synergistic Effect: When two bactericidal antibiotics areused in combination. One of the two drugs must show at/


Module 2 (of 3): Antibiotic Review* Review of selected antimicrobials By Keith Teelucksingh, PharmD Infectious Disease Pharmacist, Kaiser Permanente Vallejo.

patients to C. difficile colitis Metronidazole Spectrum of activity Only covers anaerobic bacteria very little resistance, excellent activity Gram (+) and Gram (-) anaerobes Bacteriodes spp. Prevotella spp. Clostridium spp. (including C. difficile) Fusobacterium spp. Covers some parasitic organisms as well Metronidazole Used in C. difficile colitis Infections where anti-anaerobic coverage is desired or used in combination with other antibiotics which do not have anaerobic/


Part 1 Principles of resistance to antituberculosis drugs Module 10 1.

. 3.The critical concentration is the amount of drug in the medium that inhibits the growth of susceptible organisms but not that of the resistant mutants. 4.Primary drug resistance is defined as the presence of drug-resistant organisms in a previously untreated person. 22 Module review: take-home messages I Combined anti-TB therapy is the cornerstone of effective treatment and prevention of drug resistance. The first-line anti-TB drugs are/


Principles of Antimicrobial Use. Viruses, bacteria, other unicellular, and multicellular organisms in the environment can also live in the human body.

. For example, aminoglycosides can cause ototoxicity by interfering with membrane function in the hair cells of the organ of Corti. C. Superinfections Drug therapy, particularly with broad-spectrum antimicrobials or combinations of agents, can lead to alterations of the normal microbial flora of the upper respiratory, intestinal, and genitourinary tracts, permitting the overgrowth of opportunistic organisms, especially fungi or resistant bacteria. These infections are often difficult to treat. X. Sites/


James Stim, MD Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine, UICOM-R Board Certified in Nephrology Specialist in Clinical Hypertension September 12, 2012.

Resistance(SVR)  Resistance to blood flow through all of the systemic vasculature other than pulmonary  SVR determined by factors affecting vascular resistance in individual vascular beds Length and diameter of vessels Vascular network organization: parallel vs. series Physical characteristics of/Hyperlipidemia: Increased LDL, triglyceride  Hyponatremia: Due to combination of hypovolemia induced elevation of ADH, reduction in diluting capacity of the kidney, and increased thirst  Allergic reactions Skin /


UPDATE ON ESBLS AND CARBAPENEM RESISTANT ENTEROBACTERIACEAE Michael Costello, Ph.D. Technical Director – Microbiology ACL Laboratories.

CTX-M CTX-M Production of carbapenemases Production of carbapenemases KPC, NDM-1, others KPC, NDM-1, others Combinations of all of the above Combinations of all of the above NEED TO DISTINGUISH MECHANISMS OF CARBAPENEM RESISTANCE – WHY? KPC (increasing numbers) KPC (increasing numbers) Make all penicillins, cephalosporins, inhibitor combinations, aztreonam, and carbapenems resistant Make all penicillins, cephalosporins, inhibitor combinations, aztreonam, and carbapenems resistant Hyper AmpC (most common/


Inhibitors of bacterial protein synthesis. The five general mechanisms comprise (1) inhibition of synthesis of cell wall, (2) damage to cell membrane,

of that of azithromycin.  The structural modification within ketolides neutralizes the most common resistance mechanisms (methylase-mediated and efflux-mediated) that make macrolides ineffective.  The drug can be used in community-acquired pneumonia including infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms/and skin eruptions, which may occur alone or in combination; each disappears shortly after therapy is stopped. Inhibition of the cytochrome P450 system by erythromycin, clarithromycin, and /


Sterilization, Disinfection and Antibacterial Agents Pin Lin ( 凌 斌 ), Ph.D. Departg ment of Microbiology & Immunology, NCKU ext 5632

with ribosome function. Sulfonamides and trimethoprim block the synthesis of the folate needed for DNA replication Bacterial Resistance Bacteria can evolve resistance to antibiotics. Resistance factors can be encoded on plasmids or on the chromosome. Resistance may involve decreased entry of the drug, changes in the receptor (target) of the drug, or metabolic inactivation of the drug. Effects of Combination Therapy Combinations of antibiotics may act synergistically-producing an effect stronger than/


Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC1 2 METAL JOINING Even the simplest object is an assembly of components Complex ones - greater number of parts- subassemblies.

Benardos receives permission from the Russian Government to organize production in 1885 for "The production of this plant is based on welding and brazing / Ryan monoplane fuselage was manufactured with welded steel alloy tubing. Soviet Union production of Resistance Welding machines at Elektrik Works called the "AT-8" and the "ATN/ Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC308 Gas Mixtures Different combinations of welding processes and materials require different combinations of welding gases. The graphic on the left shows/


Principles of Infectious Diseases S.A. ZIAI Pharm D., PhD. Associate Professor at Pharmacology Dept.

is drug resistanceOrganisms that produce extended-spectrum (ESBL) or amp C β-lactamases may be unresponsive to β-lactam therapy despite associated in vitro susceptibility …  Superinfection also may play a role in the unsuccessful treatment of infection  If R.G.’s ceftriaxone-treated Serratia pneumonia subsequently worsens and a tracheal aspirate returns positive for P. aeruginosa, then supercolonization and, perhaps, superinfection have occurred.  Combination Therapy/


Clinical Microbiology Preface Clinical microbiology studies the molecular bases and the pathogenic agents of infectious diseases for the development of.

teicoplanin are the alternative agent in patients allergic to penicillin or for organisms with high-level penicillin resistance. Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin have in vitro activity against enterococci (levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin are more active than ciprofloxacin) Quinupristin/dalfopristin (a combination of streptogramins A and B) has a broad spectrum of activity against enterococci, also novel oxazolidinones and glycylglycynes show potent activity against/


Management of Serious MRSA Infections. DNA Staphylococcus aureus MRSA mecA gene Cell Membrane Enzymes: Abnormal Penicillin Binding Protein (PBP2a) Β-Lactam.

19 20 21 Days after hospitalization Microbiology of the Oropharynx HAP/VAP: Etiology Late OnsetEarly Onset Risk Factors for Resistant Organisms Group 1: Core Organisms Group 1: Core Organisms Group 2: Core plus MDR Group/ vs Combination HAP/VAP: Empiric Therapy *Pseudomonas aeruginosa *Acinetobacter species *Citrobacter freundii *Enterobacter cloacae *Morganella morganii * Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Gram (-) rods: Combination Therapy To obtain synergy To prevent development of resistance To /


Chemical Control of Microbes Disinfectants Antiseptic Preservatives.

of antimicrobial agents have no useful sporicidal action with exception of ***aldehydes ***hypochlorites ***some peroxygens Physical methods of sterilization Fungi- === vegetative form—sensitive ===spores ---more resistant Viruses ===enveloped ===non enveloped Relative resistance of microbes Highest resistance –Bacterial endospores Moderate resistance/viruses, spores, T.B. ==insoluble in water --combination of iodine & an organic molecule (solubilizing agent=surfactant) ==iodine released gradually iodophores/


Control of Cardiovascular Function, Disorders of Blood Flow and Blood Pressure, Hyperlipidemia, and Artherosclerosis 1.

58 Perfusion of Organs 59 Perfusion of Organs Tissue blood flow to a given organ is regulated on a minute-to-minute basis in relation to tissue needs Neural mechanisms regulate cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance (BP) /diuretics  hyperkalemia Potassium supplements  hyperkalemia 292 ACE Inhibitors Additional Information 293 ACE Inhibitors Additional Information Can be combined with a thiazide diuretic All are oral except for enalaprilat, which is IV only Patients with renal impairment may/


Health and Environmental Consequences of Genetically- Modified Foods and Biopharming Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP Portland State University Oregon Physicians.

in Iowa, Johnsongrass and maretail in multiple states Glyphosate (Roundup)-resistant palmer amaranth (pigweed) in MO and GA, ryegrass in/of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Protocells: Use of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Applications of Synbio Biofuels Biofuels Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Organisms designed to produce fuel directly Organisms/


Multidrug-resistant Organisms in Health Care Settings Sherman J. Alter, M.D. Division of Infectious Disease The Children’s Medical Center of Dayton Department.

of resistant organisms Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25:584-99 32 Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) CID 2007:44 159-177 Antibiotic stewardship: methods to control antimicrobial use to prevent or control antimicrobial resistance Optimal use of all antimicrobials (e.g., incorporate practice guidelines) Selective removal, control, or restriction of antimicrobial agents or classes Rotational or cyclic antimicrobial utilization Use of combination/


Chapter 18 Direct Current Circuits. Sources of emf The source that maintains the current in a closed circuit is called a source of emf The source that.

2 + R 3 + … R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + … The equivalent resistance of a series combination of resistors is the algebraic sum of the individual resistances and is always greater than any of the individual resistance The equivalent resistance of a series combination of resistors is the algebraic sum of the individual resistances and is always greater than any of the individual resistance Equivalent Resistance – Series An Example Four resistors are replaced with their equivalent/


Macrolides, Lincomycins &Vancomycins Section 3 Yun-Bi Lu, PhD 卢韵碧 Dept. of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University

gentamicin and tobramycin.Treatment of G-bacillary infections which resistance to gentamicin and tobramycin. Most strains resistance to amikacin found is also resistance to other aminoglycosides.Most strains resistance to amikacin found is also resistance to other aminoglycosides. combination with  -lactams, produce a synergistic bactericidal.combination with  -lactams, produce a synergistic bactericidal. Amikacin 3. Adverse reactions i) Ototoxicity (cochlea > vestibular organ) ii) Nephrotoxicity (may be/


HYPERTENSION Navdeep Singh Marivic Zerrudo. INTRODUCTION The heart is a hollow muscular organ that is somewhat pyramid and lies within the pericardium.

organ damage, only nine patients would require such BP reduction to prevent one death. R ESISTANT HYPERTENSION Refers to patients with blood pressures persistently >140/90 mmHg despite taking three or more antihypertensive agents, including a diuretic, in reasonable combination and at full doses. Resistant or difficult-to-control hypertension is more common in patients >60 years than in younger patients. C AUSES OF RESISTANT/


Health and Environmental Consequences of Genetically- Modified Foods and Biopharming Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP Portland State University Oregon Physicians.

in Iowa, Johnsongrass and maretail in multiple states Glyphosate (Roundup)-resistant palmer amaranth (pigweed) in MO and GA, ryegrass in/of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Protocells: Use of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Applications of Synbio Biofuels Biofuels Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Organisms designed to produce fuel directly Organisms/


Health and Environmental Consequences of Genetically- Modified Foods and Biopharming Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP Portland State University Oregon Physicians.

electric lights) Genetically-Modified Foods 70-93% herbicide-resistant 70-93% herbicide-resistant 94% soybeans 94% soybeans 70% corn 70%/of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Protocells: Use of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Applications of Synbio Biofuels Biofuels Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Organisms designed to produce fuel directly Organisms/


CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS. Actions of antibacterial drugs on bacterial cells.

aminoglycoside and an antipseudomonal penicillin for pseudomonal infections) Likely emergence of drug-resistant organisms if a single drug is used (eg, tuberculosis). Although drug combinations to prevent resistance are widely used, the only clearly effective use is for treatment of tuberculosis. Likely emergence of drug-resistant organisms if a single drug is used (eg, tuberculosis). Although drug combinations to prevent resistance are widely used, the only clearly effective use is for/


Psychotherapy. Therapy Comes in Many Forms Many sources and types of treatment are available Many sources and types of treatment are available There are.

self-disclosure, or toward control Some Arab cultures resist emotional exploration Some Arab cultures resist emotional exploration Such cultures are more likely to /of Behavior Therapy The techniques of behavior therapy include operant conditioning, modeling, and counterconditioning The techniques of behavior therapy include operant conditioning, modeling, and counterconditioning A therapist will use whatever combination of techniques is needed to help a client A therapist will use whatever combination of/


Health and Environmental Consequences of Genetically- Modified Foods and Biopharming Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP Portland State University Oregon Physicians.

electric lights) Genetically-Modified Foods 70-93% herbicide-resistant 70-93% herbicide-resistant 94% soybeans 94% soybeans 70% corn 70%/of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Protocells: Use of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Applications of Synbio Biofuels Biofuels Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Organisms designed to produce fuel directly Organisms/


SULFONAMIDES Dr. Rajendra Nath Professor. SULFONAMIDES First effective chemotherapeutic agents to be employed systemically for the prevention & cure of.

.( Phase III trials are going on for oral use ) QUINOLONES -First Quinolone, Nalidixic acid was isolated as a byproduct of the synth. of Chloroquine & mainly used for UTI. (Bactericidal against most G-ve organisms except Pseudomonas Less active against G+ ve organisms. There is rapid development of resistance. It acts by ↓ DNA gyrase & is bactericidal. QUINOLONES It is mainly used as a urinary antiseptic as a/


THERAPEUTIC USES OF ANTIBIOTICS Dr. S. A. ZIAI Associate Professor Department of Pharmacology Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.

gentamicin in combination are effective as a short-course (i.e., 2-week) regimen for uncomplicated native-valve streptococcal endocarditis TOBRAMYCIN  Antimicrobial activity, PK properties, and toxicity profile are very similar to gentamicin  Preferred AG for treatment of serious infections caused by P. aeruginosa AMIKACIN  Broadest spectrum of antimicrobial activity  Resistant to many AG-inactivating enzymes  In hospitals where gentamicin-and tobramycin-resistant organisms are prevalent/


Health and Environmental Consequences of Genetically- Modified Foods and Biopharming Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP Portland State University Oregon Physicians.

in Iowa, Johnsongrass and maretail in multiple states Glyphosate (Roundup)-resistant palmer amaranth (pigweed) in MO and GA, ryegrass in/of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Protocells: Use of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Applications of Synbio Biofuels Biofuels Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Organisms designed to produce fuel directly Organisms/


DRUG THERAPY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Classification of infectious diseases  According to onset and duration  According to location  According to item.

use of the combination for treatment of suspected pseudomonal infection.  Adjustments for renal insufficiency are made based on the penicillin component. The carbapenems are structurally related to beta-lactam antibiotics. Ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem are licensed for use in the USA. Imipenem has a wide spectrum with good activity against many gram- negative rods, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gram-positive organisms, and anaerobes. It is resistant/


Health and Environmental Consequences of Genetically- Modified Foods and Biopharming Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP Portland State University Oregon Physicians.

in Iowa, Johnsongrass and maretail in multiple states Glyphosate (Roundup)-resistant palmer amaranth (pigweed) in MO and GA, ryegrass in/of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Protocells: Use of combinations of inanimate chemicals to create “protocells” (life without DNA) Applications of Synbio Biofuels Biofuels Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Synbio organisms which break down biomass into fuel Organisms designed to produce fuel directly Organisms/


Understanding business organizations Note this presentation will not replace the book at any rate.

, and the more privileged members who control, manage and coordinate them Conflicts can be revealed in a number of ways: formal and informal, organized and unorganized, group or individual Struggle and resistance Organizations as we know them are inherently inegalitarian structures involving, as basic elements, processes of superordination and subordination. These two features serve as the basis for conflict between the least advantaged and most/


Management of Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial Infections ANA ALVAREZ, MD, FPIDS ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA.

OF FLORIDA COLLEGE OF MEDICINE- JACKSONVILLE Goals and Objectives At the end of this talk, listeners should better understand 1. The epidemiology & evolution of antibacterial resistance and possible solutions 2. Management of resistant Gram positive organisms: the current options 3. Management of resistant Gram negative organisms/ UTI ◦IV option available in Europe for cSSSIs ◦Compared to linezolid Possible Combinations for CRE Colistin PLUS tigecycline Colistin PLUS aminoglycoside IV (if susceptible) ◦May/


Nematology Section SYNOPSIS Characteristics & classification of PPN intropics Important PPN of arable and permanentcrops in the tropics Principles and.

Use of natural enemies/other organisms to control nematodes: (i) Trichoderma spp. (ii) Dactylella spp. (iii) Mycorryhza Host-Plant Resistance Resistant varieties are one of the important components of nematode management and can easily be combined with other control methods. In the field, however, crop resistance to nematodes can eventually break down. Therefore, plant resistance breeding programmes continuously select new varieties to replace older ones. Nature of resistance: 1. Horizontal resistance is/


Combination vs. Monotherapy in treatment of Carbapenem Resistant Acinetobacter baumanii (CRAB) infections Senior Talk Alina Iovleva Content Expert: Dr.

/randomized studies Vancomycin10-15 mg q12 In vitro synergy nephrotoxicity ??? (probably no benefit) Monotherapy Vs Combination therapy Studies Drugs Bugs Sites of infection Patients Summary Evidence is inconclusive and hard to interpret Common issues : Multiple compared antibiotics and different sites of infections Heterogeneous organisms and mechanisms of resistance Small number of patients, few randomized studies Late therapy Is monotherapy truly monotherapy? Patients often co-infected with other/


BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS September 2013. BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Penicillins  Narrow-spectrum penicillins  Penicillinase-resistant penicillins (Antistaphylococcal.

resistant to hydrolysis by beta- lactamases but they are hydrolyzed by metallo-beta- lactamases. Penicillins/Resistance 2. Modification of target PBPs Alteration in target PBP is responsible for methicillin resistance in staphylococci and penicillin resistance in pneumococci and enterococci. These resistant organisms/ for infections that are resistant to other available drugs. Penicillin resistant pneumococci Enterobacter infections Pseudomonas infections (should be combined w/ aminoglycoside.  Most/


WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND POLLUTION CONTROL WMA 318 Prof. O. Martins and Dr O.Z. Ojekunle Dept of Water Res. Magt. & Agromet UNAAB. Abeokuta. Ogun State.

solubility is reduced in more concentrated salt solutions). The corrosion of numerous metals in a wide range of saline waters is reported in the following Table. The combination of high conductivity and oxygen solubility is at a maximum at this/ be somewhat resistant to the sewage disinfection processes. (A virus is an extremely small pathogenic organism that can only be seen with electron microscopes). To decrease the amount of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in sewage, usually some form of advanced sewage /


DETERMINATION OF RESISTANCE OF F1 COTTON HYBRIDS BY INOCULATION WITH DIFFERENT VIRULENT ISOLATES OF THE FUNGUS VERTICILLIUM DАHLIAE KLEBAHN Аbboskhon Маrupov,

on genotype reaction of hybrids to the introduction of other pathogenic fungal organisms when the isolates of the pathogen were studied. The hybrid combination L-155 х С-5621 is characterized by phenotypic dominance to susceptibility to isolate-28 at the level of the parents, and as observed by the degree of staining in the cut stalk with super dominance toward the more resistant parent С-5621. Similar/


Chapter 18 Direct Current Circuits. Sources of emf The source that maintains the current in a closed circuit is called a source of emf The source that.

2 + R 3 + … R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + … The equivalent resistance of a series combination of resistors is the algebraic sum of the individual resistances and is always greater than any of the individual resistance The equivalent resistance of a series combination of resistors is the algebraic sum of the individual resistances and is always greater than any of the individual resistance Equivalent Resistance – Series An Example Four resistors are replaced with their equivalent/


BACTERIA AND MYCOBACTERIA Infectious Diseases. Classification by Susceptible Organism A microbe is a unicellular or small multicellular organism. Microbes.

of Action Antimicrobial drugs work in a variety of ways: – Inhibit organism’s cell wall synthesis – Disrupt organism’s cell wall permeability – Inhibit of protein synthesis of organism – Inhibit of nucleic acid synthesis of organism – Inhibit of metabolic pathways of organism (antimetabolites) – Inhibition of/increased risk of infections should be immunized. Pathophysiology: Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) Enterococcus – a gastric infection - is generally treated with a combination of antibiotics: /


Optimisation of combination therapy for treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alex Cochrane Bristol Centre for Antimicrobial Research and Evaluation University.

resistance? Is there clinically significant reduction in resistance? Unknown Unknown Initial Study Antimicrobials Antimicrobials Piperacillin Tazobactam Piperacillin Tazobactam Gentamicin Gentamicin Organism Organism Bloodculture isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bloodculture isolate of/196mg/lABCDE 28mg/lFGHIJ 1mg/lKLMNO nilPQRS Growth control Results Monotherapy Results Combination therapy Combinations for reduction of development of resistance: 24 hours Gentamicin Concentration 15mg/l4.5mg/l0.5mg/l 0./


Wall & Ceiling Linings.

coalesce to form a solid film. Paints based on this type of binder are commonly known as plastic or latex paints and the resins used include PVA, acrylic, polyurethane or combinations of these. They are often referred to as emulsion paints. Solvent-based/and, in the case of animal glues, are susceptible to attack by micro-organisms even with the addition of fungicides. The one exception is bituminous adhesives which are based on bitumen or coal tar. This group has good resistance to water and many chemicals/


4 Self-Study Modules on Tuberculosis

of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Tuberculosis Disease Treatment of TB Disease (4) Treatment must contain multiple drugs to which organisms are susceptible Treatment with a single drug can lead to the development of drug-resistant TB Module 4 – Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Tuberculosis Disease Preventing Drug Resistance (1) Drug resistance/ prescribed He has drug-resistant TB and the regimen he has been prescribed is not adequate to treat his TB A combination of the two factors listed /


8 and 9 Control of Microorganisms in the Environment and

and vaporized hydrogen peroxide Combine with and inactivate DNA and proteins Evaluation of Antimicrobial Agent Effectiveness Complex process regulated/of molecule is the b- lactam ring essential for bioactivity many penicillin resistant organisms produce b- lactamase (penicillinase) which hydrolyzes a bond in this ring Penicillins… Mode of action blocks the enzyme that catalyzes transpeptidation (formation of cross-links in peptidoglycan) prevents the synthesis of complete cell walls leading to lysis of/


30 Years of Impact: President’s Postdoctoral Fellowship Program.

in dynamic landscapes are strongly influenced by soil erosion and sedimentation. We determined the contribution of physical isolation of organic matter (OM) inside aggregates, chemical interaction of OM with soil minerals, and molecular structure of SOM in controlling storage and persistence of SOM in different types of eroding and depositional landform positions. By combining density fractionation with elemental and spectroscopic analyses, we showed that SOM in depositional settings/


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