Ppt on chromosomes and genes labeling

Review Projects – 2013 Big Idea 3 Mr. Bennett. LO 3.1: The student is able to construct scientific explanations that use the structures and mechanisms.

D) distant sites in a chromosome controlling transcription of a gene E) having factors on one chromosome control genes on another gene Learning Log/FRQ-style Question: What are the differences between gene expression that can be regulated in eukaryotic cells and in prokaryotic cells? Why? What is a control point in gene expression? How can gene expression be applied to a population? Draw and label this hypothetical situation in a/


Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey.

phages outside the bacteria from the cells and their contents. 2 Mix radioactively labeled phages with bacteria. The phages infect the/genes for antibiotic resistance by conjugation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Male (donor) cell Origin of F replication Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and transfer of chromosome F factor (integrated) Recipient cell Only part of the chromosome transfers Recombination can occur Male (donor) cell Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and/


Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey.

phages outside the bacteria from the cells and their contents. 2 Mix radioactively labeled phages with bacteria. The phages infect the/genes for antibiotic resistance by conjugation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Male (donor) cell Origin of F replication Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and transfer of chromosome F factor (integrated) Recipient cell Only part of the chromosome transfers Recombination can occur Male (donor) cell Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and/


Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

for the sample from the heterozygote (III) is a combination of the patterns for the two homozygotes (I and II). Radioactively labeled probe for  -globin gene is added to solution in a plastic bag Probe hydrogen- bonds to fragments containing normal or mutant  -globin/ Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1 2 3 4 Cut the DNA from many copies of an entire chromosome into overlapping frag- ments short enough for sequencing. Clone the fragments in plasmid or phage vectors Sequence each fragment /


Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey.

phages outside the bacteria from the cells and their contents. 2 Mix radioactively labeled phages with bacteria. The phages infect the/genes for antibiotic resistance by conjugation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Male (donor) cell Origin of F replication Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and transfer of chromosome F factor (integrated) Recipient cell Only part of the chromosome transfers Recombination can occur Male (donor) cell Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and/


Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section A: DNA Cloning 1.DNA technology makes it possible to clone genes for.

sequence of nucleotides in the DNA. They have taken advantage of all the tools and techniques already discussed - restriction enzymes, DNA cloning, gel electrophoresis, labeled probes, and so forth. 2. Entire genomes can be mapped at the DNA level Copyright / of several thousand markers spaced throughout the chromosomes. –The order of the markers and the relative distances between them on such a map are based on recombination frequencies. –The markers can be genes or any other identifiable sequences in DNA,/


Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey.

phages outside the bacteria from the cells and their contents. 2 Mix radioactively labeled phages with bacteria. The phages infect the/genes for antibiotic resistance by conjugation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Male (donor) cell Origin of F replication Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and transfer of chromosome F factor (integrated) Recipient cell Only part of the chromosome transfers Recombination can occur Male (donor) cell Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and/


Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

for the sample from the heterozygote (III) is a combination of the patterns for the two homozygotes (I and II). Radioactively labeled probe for  -globin gene is added to solution in a plastic bag Probe hydrogen- bonds to fragments containing normal or mutant  -globin/ Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1 2 3 4 Cut the DNA from many copies of an entire chromosome into overlapping frag- ments short enough for sequencing. Clone the fragments in plasmid or phage vectors Sequence each fragment /


DNA Technology and Genomics. Why? Understand the way in which plants and animals, including humans, develop, function and evolve Investigate the molecular.

rather than days –uses several single-locus probes rather than one multi-locus probe –uses coloured fluorescent labels to visualise the STRs rather than radioactive labels so that each different STR allele can be identified by colour as well as by size –produces less/gender marker is the Amel locus that is present on both the X chromosome and the Y chromosome. The Amel gene on the X chromosome is just 107 base pairs long while that on the Y chromosome contains 113 base pairs. As a result, the gender of a /


EOC REVIEW QUESTIONS Biology. 1.An abiotic factor affecting the behavior and survival of such organisms as robins and violets is the A.population of rabbits.

plants and then A.mapped the loci of various genes B.analyzed the mathematical ratios of certain traits in the offspring C.microdissected the chromosomes of the offspring D.determined how many genes had mutated 149.The diagram represents a pair of homologous chromosomes. /196.Base your answer on the diagram which represents a biochemical process that occurs in a cell and your knowledge of biology. The organelle labeled Z represents a A.ribosome B.golgi body C.mitochondrion D.nucleus 197.In many placental /


Graduate School of Information, Production and Systems, Waseda University 7. Minimum Spanning Tree Problem.

vertices  the other dimension for the degree value of each vertex It needs a matrix to represent a chromosome for a n vertex tree. The genes in the degree dimension take inclusively the integers from 1 to b the constrained degree value of all vertices./ tree data set output: chromosome step 1: Select any vertex (root vertex) in a labeled tree T, put it as the first digit in the vertex dimension of the permutation and its degree value as the first digit in the degree dimension, and let that vertex be the/


Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section A: DNA Cloning 1.DNA technology makes it possible to clone genes for.

sequence of nucleotides in the DNA. They have taken advantage of all the tools and techniques already discussed - restriction enzymes, DNA cloning, gel electrophoresis, labeled probes, and so forth. 2. Entire genomes can be mapped at the DNA level Copyright / of several thousand markers spaced throughout the chromosomes. –The order of the markers and the relative distances between them on such a map are based on recombination frequencies. –The markers can be genes or any other identifiable sequences in DNA,/


Classical Genetics - Objectives Identify and label parts of chromosomes Describe Mendel’s discoveries Perform genetic crosses Identify and perform a karyotype.

chromosomes Haploid Diploid _________ Cells that contain one-half the genetic information; sperm and egg in humans Gamete D. Genes and Dominance Let us say we are studying freckles. The blue gene is the gene for freckles. But the two genes are different! One gene codes for Freckles and is labeled ___. F The other codes for NO Freckles and is labeled/ union = Offspring = H. Pedigree Chart Recessive gene on X chromosome; affects males more than females. H. Pedigree and X-linkage Males with trait are: X r Y/


Fundamentals of Molecular Biology 4. 4 Fundamentals of Molecular Biology Heredity, Genes, and DNA Expression of Genetic Information Recombinant DNA Detection.

replication of DNA Heredity, Genes, and DNA Experimental support for semiconservative DNA replication: Meselson and Stahl grew E. coli in medium labeled with the heavy isotope/chromosome (YAC) vectors have yeast origins of replication and other sequences that allow them to replicate as linear chromosome-like molecules in yeast cells. Table 4.3 Vectors for Cloning Large Fragments of DNA Recombinant DNA Nucleotide sequencing aids the study of protein structure, gene sequences that regulate expression, and gene/


Daily Question #19 1.Your parents “came together” to create you. List 5 specific “traits” that people say have and specifically who (parent/ grandparent)

) Left hand side on the very top, label it “46=23” CHROMOSOMES Genetics Standard 2 Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a /and phosphate. c)Label the bases that are blank You’ve got the cutest little babyface! Bio technology has allowed us to determine or make an educated guess (very accurately I might add) about which traits will most likely get passed down to your children. There’s even an app for that! For example: CO-Students will explore DNA and Chromosomes in terms of genes and/


Chapter 6 Clinical Cytogenetics: The Chromosomal Basis of Human Disease.

green and the control DNA was labeled red. The figure demonstrates a lack of green signal and excess red signal, signifying a deletion of chromosome 22q11. Abnormalities of Chromosome number Polyploidy triploidy (69 chromosomes): lethal tetraploidy (92 chromosomes): lethal Abnormalities of Chromosome number Autosomal Aneuploid Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Nondisjunction of Sister Chromatids Down syndrome Cause trisomy of chromosome 21 by nondisjuction or translocation (maternal age effect) DYRK gene (a kinase/


Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey.

genes for antibiotic resistance by conjugation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Male (donor) cell Origin of F replication Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and transfer of chromosome F factor (integrated) Recipient cell Only part of the chromosome transfers Recombination can occur Male (donor) cell Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and/ phages outside the bacteria from the cells and their contents. 2 Mix radioactively labeled phages with bacteria. The phages infect the/


Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey.

phages outside the bacteria from the cells and their contents. 2 Mix radioactively labeled phages with bacteria. The phages infect the/genes for antibiotic resistance by conjugation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Male (donor) cell Origin of F replication Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and transfer of chromosome F factor (integrated) Recipient cell Only part of the chromosome transfers Recombination can occur Male (donor) cell Bacterial chromosome F factor starts replication and/


© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures by Kathleen Fitzpatrick Simon Fraser University Chapter 23 The Regulation of Gene Expression.

and males each have one active X chromosome per adult cell © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Methylation and restriction enzymes Evidence of connection of DNA methylation and gene inhibition comes from studies using the restriction enzymes HpaII and /are large protein-degrading structures, and the predominant proteases of the cytosol; they bind ubiquitin-labeled proteins and remove the ubiquitin The proteins are then fed into the central channel of the proteasome and their peptide bonds are hydrolyzed in/


Genetica per ScienzeNaturali a.a. 08-09 prof S. Presciuttini THE HEMOGLOBIN GENES AND THEIR DISFUNCTIONS Questo documento è pubblicato sotto licenza Creative.

, as are two forms of the  chain. In addition, both chromosome 11 and chromosome 16 carry pseudogenes, labeled  and . These pseudogenes are duplicate copies of the genes that did not acquire new functions but accumulated random mutations that render them nonfunctional. In addition, both chromosome 11 and chromosome 16 carry pseudogenes, labeled  and . These pseudogenes are duplicate copies of the genes that did not acquire new functions but accumulated random mutations that/


DNA Technology DNA Cloning. The mapping and sequencing of the human genome has been made possible by advances in DNA technology. Progress began with the.

chromosome containing the gene. Techniques for gene cloning enable scientists to prepare multiple identical copies of gene-sized pieces of DNA. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA technology makes it possible to clone genes for basic research and/ in the DNA. They have taken advantage of all the tools and techniques already discussed - restriction enzymes, DNA cloning, gel electrophoresis, labeled probes, and so forth. Entire genomes can be mapped at the DNA level /


Chapter 17. From Gene to Protein 2005-2006.

… Where are the genes? genes are on chromosomes in nucleus Where are proteins synthesized? proteins made in cytoplasm by ribosomes How does the information get from nucleus to cytoplasm? messenger RNA 2005-2006 nucleus transcription and translation RNA ribose sugar/of a secretory pathway Destinations: secretion nucleus mitochondria chloroplasts cell membrane cytoplasm Protein targeting Signal peptide address label start of a secretory pathway 2005-2006 Can you tell the story? RNA polymerase DNA amino acids/


From Gene to Protein.

of an organism’s genetic material. 5. In DNA, adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T), and guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C). General Vocabulary 1. gene 2. chromosome 3. chromosomal mutation 4. codon 5. double helix 6. frameshift mutation 7. messenger RNA mRNA 8. monosomy 9./ the following figure to explain how proteins are targeted for the ER. See page 343 in your text for the labeled figure. ER golgi export Polypeptide synthesis begins on a free ribosome in the cytosol Polypeptide synthesis begins on a free /


Designer Genes (C)-2014 National Bio Rules Committee Chairman

many functional-related genes are clustered and transcribed under the same types of regulation Lac & Trp Operons - examples of prokaryotic gene regulation Lac Operon The genes that code for the enzymes needed for lactose catabolism are clustered on the same chromosome in what is /Probes short, radioactive strands of DNA will pair up with complementing strands of DNA fragments that contain the labeled pieces will show up on an x-ray film Electrophoresis A process in which molecules (such as proteins, DNA, /


Recombinant DNA Technology

as eukaryotic genome projects. Yeast Artificial Chromosomes A linear chromosome, has centromere, telomeres, ARS (autonomously replicating sequence), selectable marker for yeast (uracil or tryptophan biosynthesis genes usually). Also has E. coli ori and selectable marker: you can grow the/ markers are co-dominant so you can accurately determine the genotype. Probe is a fragment of a cloned gene (labeled). Genomic DNA is cut with a restriction enzyme. Polymorphic sites: the restriction site is present in some /


Section T – Techniques in Cell and Molecular Biology.

a probe. FISH - (Fluoresence in situ hybridization) A process which vividly( 生动地 ) paints chromosomes or portions of chromosomes with fluorescent molecules. This technique is useful for identifying chromosomal abnormalities and gene mapping. A process which vividly( 生动地 ) paints chromosomes or portions of chromosomes with fluorescent molecules. This technique is useful for identifying chromosomal abnormalities and gene mapping. Recombinant DNA are molecules containing DNA sequences derived from more than/


Just the Facts Review Lesson. Concepts Covered 1. Sexually reproducing organisms make gametes (sex cells). gametes (sex cells). 2. Genes are stable, control.

also means they have only 1 copy of every gene. Genes on a chromosome are often depicted with letters. ‘A’ could represent the Bt gene and labels only one gene of thousands on that chromosome. A A Gene Pair Sometimes the two genes in a chromosome pair are the same. These chromosomes are homozygous for that particular gene. These genes can be labeled with the same letter and letter case showing they are the same version/


The Human Genome Chapter 14.

genes Pedigree - chart that shows the relationships within a family Autosome - autosomal chromosome; chromosome that is not a sex chromosome sex chromosome - one of two chromosomes that determine an individuals sex; females have two X chromosomes; males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome Karyotype - set of photographs of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs Human Genome Chromosomes 21 and/reading and changing DNA sequences in an organism. Reading the Genetic Code DNA extraction Cutting and Labeling /


C E N T R F O I G A V B M S U Lecture 2 Microarray Data Analysis Bioinformatics Data Analysis and Tools.

aberrations may indicate: an oncogene or a tumor suppressor gene Is Smoothing Easy? Measurements are relative to a reference sample Printing, labeling and hybridization may be uneven Tumor sample is inhomogeneous Estimated / Chromosomal aberrations and Gene Expression Estimated time: 1 minute Breakpoint Detection Identify possibly damaged genes: These genes will not be expressed anymore Identify recurrent breakpoint locations: Indicates fragile pieces of the chromosome Accuracy is important: Important genes/


Session 6 Dynamics of Genomic Organization & Function in Living Cells I Background & Figures for: Zink et al., Hum Genet 102 (1998) 241-51. Structure and.

domains within individual chromosome territories. Cell is labeled in two channels for early- (red) and mid- or late- (green) S-phase replicating chromatin. Several generations following the labeling, segregation of the label allows to distinguish individual chromosome territories. Zink D/2 cells. Conclusion 2; Figures 3-6, Table1 Activation of gene cluster coincides with “opening” of its structure. Open chromatin structure persists while gene cluster is expressed Tsukamoto et al Nat Cell Biol 2000, Figure/


DNA Microarray Principles and Applications U-Vision Biotech Inc. 微晶生物科技 Chi-Meng Tzeng, Ph.D. 曾驥孟 博士.

(two channel system) Which genes are co-regulated? Regulation loops? 5mm 50~150  m cDNA microarray - Concepts E. coli chromosome PCR Gene AGene B Arrayer Gene AGene B Solid Surface Purification of mRNA Labeling during RT Gene AGene B 16 hr, 42/ NC A B C D E U-VISION Microbial Confidential Jan, 2002 Know-How (II) ( Phyto-cpds ID and Effects) Bioassay-guided functional fractionation Bioinformatic-analyzed pharmacomechanism Pharmacogenomic-based molecular studies Medicinal plants Hot water extraction (AF-Hot)/


Genetica per Scienze Naturali a.a. 03-04 prof S. Presciuttini 1. The laws of inheritance and the discovery of chromosomes 1866: Gregor Mendel publishes.

chromosomes at meiosis: genes are in pairs (so are chromosomes); the alleles of a gene segregate equally into gametes (so do the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes); different genes act independently (so do different chromosome pairs). After recognizing this parallel behavior, both investigators reached the same conclusion that the parallel behavior of genes and chromosomes suggests that genes are located on chromosomes/(Figure 8-3). When the 35 S-labeled phages were used, most of the radioactive /


DNA molecular testing and DNA Typing

probes to identify different forms. Establish a linkage between the markers and the occurrence of the disease. Which chromosome? Use in situ hybridization, where chromosomes are spread on a microscope slide, and hybridized with a labeled probe, results are analyzed by autoradiography. A 3H-labeled RFLP probe showed that CF gene is located on chromosome 7. Which chromosomal region? Search other RFLPs located on the chr. 7, to find/


Garrett and Grisham, Biochemistry, Third Edition Chapter 28 DNA Metabolism: Replication, Recombination, and Repair Biochemistry by Reginald Garrett and.

region within its chromosome. The heteroduplex DNA is composed of one strand that is genotypically XYZ (the + strand), and the other strand that is genotypically XyZ (the - strand). That is, the genotype of the two parental strands for gene Y is different (one is Y, the other y). Figure 28.19 The Holliday model for homologous recombination. The + signs and – signs label strands of like/


1 Microarrays Naomi Altman Dept. of Statistics and PSU March 7, 2007.

region (UTR) which is unique to the gene. http://biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Bi ology_124/Summaries/T&T.html Chromosome promoter 7 cDNA RNA is much less stable than DNA. To preserve the exon sequence, and for printing microarrays, reverse transcription is used in/bilder/micro_method_large.jpg Spotted arrays are printed on coated microscope slides. 2 RNA samples are converted to cDNA. Each is labelled with a different dye. 14 Format of an Affymetrix Array http://cnx.rice.edu/content/m12388/latest/figE.JPG 15 /


The impact of agricultural biotechnology on environment and food security Marijan Jošt Agricultural College at Križevci, Croatia 1st International Summer.

chromosomes: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Human n = 23 2n = 46 chromosomes Corn n = 10 2n = 20 chromosomes Ray n = 7 2n = 14 chromosomes Human chromosoms: Gene action – protein synthesis _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Vector and gene/ Labeling ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A right of consumer /


Molecular Biology Fourth Edition Chapter 5 Molecular Tools for Studying Genes and Gene Activity Lecture PowerPoint to accompany Robert F. Weaver Copyright.

gives a set of simple patterns 5-31 In Situ Hybridization: Locating Genes in Chromosomes Labeled probes can be used to hybridize to chromosomes and reveal which chromosome contains the gene of interest –Spread chromosomes from a cell –Partially denature DNA creating single-stranded regions to hybridize to labeled probe –Stain chromosomes and detect presence of label on particular chromosome Probe can be detected with a fluorescent antibody in a technique called fluorescence/


[II] Molecular Techniques for Studying Gene Expression Basics of recombinant DNA technology Methods used to monitor the expression of genes RT-PCR vs.

and genes required to regulate their own replication  Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vector (up to 1000 kb): it contains all the elements of yeast chromosome i.e., elements for replication of the chromosome during S phase, segregation of chromosome, telomeres, genes for selection and/ sequence by PCR or by labeling the DNA and applying to a tiling array to detect genome wide interactions Assigned Reading [II] 1.Restriction Enzymes: a background paper 2.Recombinant DNA and gene cloning 3.Nobel lecture by /


Chapter 8: Recombinant DNA Technology and Molecular Cloning.

Phages Cosmids New generation vectors: Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) Plasmids are named with a system of uppercase letters and numbers, where the lowercase “p” stands for/gene of interest. Using an identified cDNA to locate a genomic clone Labeling of probes A probe must be labeled, i.e. chemically modified in some way which allows it, and anything it hybridizes to, to be detected. Radioactive and nonradioactive labeling/


Topics Concept 5.5: Nucleic Acids: What are the parts of a nucleotide? Compare RNA and DNA. Understand how DNA is polymerized (5’ to 3’). How does DNA.

chromosome and DNA? Why do cells divide? Why do chromosomes replicate? Concept 16.2: What did the Messelsohn-Stahl experiment tell us? Explain semiconservative. Why does replication cause a leading and lagging strand? Concept 17.1: How does information in a gene/together by DNA ligase DNA polymerase must work in the direction away from the replication fork. Drawings of DNA Replication Labels: DNA polymerase, helicase, ligase, sugar, phosphate, deoxyribose, nitrogenous base, hydrogen bond, nucleotide, A, G, C/


Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint TextEdit Art Slides for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and.

the sample from the heterozygote (III) is a combination of the patterns for the two homozygotes (I and II). Radioactively labeled probe for  -globin gene is added to solution in a plastic bag Probe hydrogen- bonds to fragments containing normal or mutant  /Benjamin Cummings Figure 20.13 Whole-genome shotgun approach to sequencing Cut the DNA from many copies of an entire chromosome into overlapping frag- ments short enough for sequencing. Clone the fragments in plasmid or phage vectors Sequence each /


 Viruses infect organisms by –binding to receptors on a host’s target cell, –injecting viral genetic material into the cell, and –hijacking the cell’s.

Head DNA Tail Tail fiber Figure 10.1B The Hershey-Chase experiment Phage Bacterium Batch 2: Radioactive DNA labeled in green DNA Radioactive protein Centrifuge Phage DNA Empty protein shell Pellet The radioactivity is in the liquid. /that regulate DNA replication and gene expression in living cells.  Bacteria are also valuable but for different reasons. –Bacterial DNA is found in a single, closed loop, chromosome. –Bacterial cells divide by replication of the bacterial chromosome and then by binary fission/


LO 3.6: The student can predict how a change in a specific DNA or RNA sequence can result in changes in gene expression. SP 6.4: The student can make claims.

1900. ANSWER KEY – LO 3.30 The section labeled A in the figure is the lytic cycle, and the section labeled B is the lysogenic cycle. Based on the two/has it’s own diverse genetic code. Meiosis also only allows one of each chromosome within the gametes produced, doing so at random from the homologous pairs. By /that changes a “fit” phenotype or a natural disaster, changes in the gene pool can alter gene frequencies and can cause speciation. Multiple Choice: Which of the following would NOT characterize/


© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. / A Pearson Education Company / Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Chapter 3 Fundamentals of Mapping and Sequencing Basic principles.

Jersey 07458 Mapping I  Mapping is identifying relationships between genes on chromosomes  Just as a road map shows relationships between towns on highway  Two types of mapping: genetic and physical © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. / A Pearson/Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Sequence detection  To detect products of sequencing reaction  Include labeled nucleotides  Formerly, radioactive labels used  Now, fluorescent labels used  Use different fluorescent tag for each nucleotide  Can run all four bases in /


Cell Growth & Division: Mitosis. I. Chemical Pathways Cell Growth and Division A. Limits to Cell Growth (two main reasons why cells divide) 1. DNA “Overload”

and fertilization It’s easy to see how genes located on different chromosomes assort independently, but what about genes located on the same chromosomes? Wouldn’t they generally be inherited together? The answer to these questions, Thomas Hunt Morgan first realized in 1910, is yes ! D. Linkage and Gene Maps 1. Gene Linkage- genes on same chromosome/spindle. The structures labeled B in Figure above are called a.centromeres. b.centrioles. c.sister chromatids. d.spindles. The structures labeled B in Figure /


Tools of Human Molecular Genetics. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL DNA AND RNA SEQUENCES Two fundamental obstacles to carrying out their investigations of the.

molecules. Base pairing between the individual: poly- nucleotide strands is broken down, and the chromosomes unpack to a certain extent,. exposing segments of DNA normally enclosed within their strture in situ hybridization with radioactively labelled probes has been used to position a number of genes on the human cytogenetic map. As an alternative to radioactive labelling, a fluorescent marker can be attached to the probe/


Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

for the sample from the heterozygote (III) is a combination of the patterns for the two homozygotes (I and II). Radioactively labeled probe for  -globin gene is added to solution in a plastic bag Probe hydrogen- bonds to fragments containing normal or mutant  -globin/ Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1 2 3 4 Cut the DNA from many copies of an entire chromosome into overlapping frag- ments short enough for sequencing. Clone the fragments in plasmid or phage vectors Sequence each fragment /


Planner Aug 23 C: Cell Parts Label and Explain H: cell analogy NBTC 2.What’s on the left 3.What’s on the right 4-5. Save Fred 6-7. Questioning 8-9 Traits.

Planner Aug 23 C: Cell Parts Label and Explain H: cell analogy NBTC 2.What’s on the left 3.What’s on the right 4-5. Save Fred 6-7. Questioning 8-9 Traits Lab 10-11 Microscope 12-13 Cells Bellwork- Set Up… page 13 for cell notes The Inside Story Label the cell parts Cell Nucleus Chromosomes Gene Pair DNA Inside a city/


Lecture 2 Microarray and a-CGH Data Analysis Bioinformatics Data Analysis and Tools C E N T R F O R I N T E G R A T I V E B I O I N F O R M A T I C S V.

gene. One-dye arrays (usually with radioactive label) show the absolute expression level of each gene. Two-dye arrays (fluorescent label only) can indicate the relative expression level of the same gene in two samples that are labelled with different colours and/Expression RNA –In Cytoplasm –Different per cell cDNA on slide Measure Gene Expression CGH Data Clones/Chromosomes  Copy#Copy# Algorithms for Smoothing Array CGH data Kees Jong (VU, CS and Mathematics) Elena Marchiori (VU, CS) Aad van der Vaart (/


© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline 26.1 Mapping the Human Genome 26.2A Trip Along a Chromosome 26.3Mutations and Polymorphisms 26.4Recombinant DNA.

many clones of each area of the genome; ultimately they were cut into 500-base long pieces and modified with fluorescently labeled bases that could be sequenced by high-speed machines. The sequences were reassembled by identifying overlapping /segments (introns). Chromosome 22 was the first to have all of its nonrepetitive DNA sequenced and mapped. The chromosome map identified 49 million bases containing 693 genes, with an average of 8 exons and 7 introns per gene. Chromosome 22 carries genes known to be /


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