Ppt on child labour in pakistan

1 www.ilo.org/ipec International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour The ILO and its action against Child Labour International action to promote.

23 www.ilo.org/ipec International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour EU support for ILO action on child labour in the world EU action on the rights of children: June 2009 EU Forum was dealing with child labour Development and external aid: mainly Africa (ACP), EU- LAC social cohesion initative, some initiatives in Asia (e.g. Pakistan) EU trade and trade related policy: GSP and GSP plus/

THE IMPORTANCE OF FAMILY STUDIES Pakistan Council on Family Relations www.familyrelation.org.

→Guardians and Wards Act, 1890 →Dowry and Bridal Gifts (Restriction) Act, 1976 →Sharia Laws of Inheritance Child Labor Laws in Pakistan Some of the important child labor laws are: The Factories Act 1934 The West Pakistan Shops and Establishments Ordinance 1969 The Employment of Children Act 1991 The Bonded Labour System Abolition Act 1992 The Punjab Compulsory Education Act 1994 Functions of the Family Social needs/

THE IMPORTANCE OF FAMILY STUDIES Pakistan Council on Family Relations www.familyrelation.org.

→Guardians and Wards Act, 1890 →Dowry and Bridal Gifts (Restriction) Act, 1976 →Sharia Laws of Inheritance Child Labor Laws in Pakistan Some of the important child labor laws are: The Factories Act 1934 The West Pakistan Shops and Establishments Ordinance 1969 The Employment of Children Act 1991 The Bonded Labour System Abolition Act 1992 The Punjab Compulsory Education Act 1994 Functions of the Family Social needs/


of Punjab Prohibition of Employment of Children Act prepared in collaboration with ILO. (New Act) Provincial Committee on Child Labour Established. Child Labour ELIMINATION Child Labour ELIMINATION Combating Worst Form of Child Labour Project in 4 Districts District Coordination Committees on Child Labour (DCCs- CL) under the Chairmanship of DCOs notified in 4 districts. Rapid Need Assessment (RNA) Survey to assess worst forms of child labour conducted. 86 hazardous work environment locations identified by/


ago! This means that the work being done to stop child labour is truly creating positive change. But there is still much more to be done. Rugmark 300,000 children in India, Nepal and Pakistan are spending long days working in poor conditions. Through independent certification and educational programs, RugMark is working to end child labor in the South Asian carpet industry, but they can’t do/

What are countries in South Asia doing to meet the learning needs of Out-of-School Children? Urmila Sarkar, Regional Adviser-Education UNICEF Regional.

their children’s schooling and delaying their marriage – Pakistan Lady Health Worker Programme 1. Programmes, policies to address socio- cultural demand-side barriers Key gaps and recommendations:  Strengthen efforts to change cultural attitudes to child marriage  Put in place and enforce laws regarding age of marriage and child labour  More cross-sectoral approaches between education, health and child protection are needed, which requires coordination across Ministries/

American Style of Life [Constitution for the United States of America][1] We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish.

Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour,/States for Aid to Dependent Children Grants to States for Maternal and Child Welfare Public Health Work Social Security Board Taxes with Respect to Employment/S. routinely conducts warrantless searches.] Saudi Arabia and Pakistan operate under laws that allow the government to engage in widespread discretionary surveillance. War crimes [The U.S/

Strategy for Increasing India’s Share in Global Exports of Made-ups

Efforts was made to reduce all the cost elements such as labour cost, cost of materials etc. Compliance of Social and Labour Standards Adherence to compliances like social responsibility, child labour, health and safety, e.g. SA 8000 widely adopted by/ 11.5 5 to 6 7 10 Source: Texprocil Benchmarking Report Utility cost comparison Comparison with Competitors in 2012 Parameters India Bangladesh Indonesia Egypt China Pakistan Turkey Labour wages (US $ / month) 135 87 226 328 127 839 Power Rate (US cents / /


of the labour force in South Asian countries, reaching 97% in Bhutan Countries Contribution of Ag. to GDP (%) Ag. labour force as % of total labour force Poverty headcount/in nine people. (FDA Update October 25 , 2013) FDA Update: Nearly 600 Dogs Dead, Thousands Sickened in Connection to Chinese Jerky Treats By James Andrews | October 25, 2013 Every 21 seconds, a child/43 44 45 46 47 FOOD SAFETY ISSUES IN PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY Pesticide residues in cauliflower collected from Gujranwala Pesticides Range (mg//

Child Labor around the world and the companies that use them

About 14 million children are estimated to be directly involved in manufacturing goods, including: Carpets from India, Pakistan, Egypt Clothing sewn in Bangladesh; footwear made in India and the Philippines Soccer balls sewn in Pakistan Glass and bricks made in India Fireworks made in China, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, India, and Peru Surgical instruments made in Pakistan Mining and Quarrying Child laborers suffer extremely high illness and injury rates/

The Challenge of Child Labour in Asia Special Focus on the Philippines.

, workers’ and employers’ organizations. The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Started in 1992 with 6 participating countries, IPEC is now operational in 31 countries. It has become one of ILO’s largest technical cooperation programmes IPEC: A global movement n 1992: Brazil, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Thailand, Turkey n 1994: Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Tanzania n 1996/97: Argentina, Benin, Bolivia, Cambodia, Chile/

1 International Labour Standards relevant to employment security and closure of business in the context of post-MFA Tim De Meyer Specialist on International.

and ILO forced labour Conventions Mongolia, EU GSP preferences and ILO forced labour C. Singapore, US FTA (labour cooperation) and ILO C. 138 Thailand, EU GSP and “Thai Labour Standards” Thailand, US FTA and labour inspection (law enforcement) Pakistan, C. 138/ 2000, U.S. Customs issued a detention order against a Chinese-owned company in Mongolia, Dong Fang International, for the alleged use of forced child labour in the manufacture of textiles. Charges included employing workers as young as 14, requiring /

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Companies voluntary integrate care for social issues and environment in their business activities. CSR is good only as.

. price? Your chief buyer has received a quote from a Iraqi company for 5 dolars per jacket and from a unknown Pakistan-based company for 3 dolars per jacket. However, the Iraqi News Agency has recently reported on problems with child labour in the Pakistan garment industry. Your company has a reputation for excellent workplace practices. Which of the quotes would you recommend that your/

HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia-Pacific 1 Review in slides Women, Children, and Young People HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia-Pacific.

response questionnaires which is not yet included in the published report)www.aidsdatahub.org Afghanistan, DPRK, Fiji, Japan, Mongolia, Maldives, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Timor-Leste Lao PDR/ HIV + mother to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission, 2009 Source: www.aidsdatahub.org based on Towards Universal Access Health Sector/ distribution of pregnant women tested for HIV in the last 12 months and received the results- during ANC vs during labour and delivery, 2009 Source: www.aidsdatahub.org/

CSE Certified Software Experts. Introduction Conclusion Problems Of Child Labour Who Is a Child Labour? Health Hazard Different Sectors How Children.

sexual exploitation to Pakistan, and boys were trafficked to Gulf States to work as camel jockeys, says US Dept. of State. Children are forced to work in the most hazardous, unhygienic conditions, where they are vulnerable to many severe health problems. UNICEF states 14 percent of children between 5-14years are involved in child labour. HOW CHILDREN ARE EXPLOITED? PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR Child labour occurs even in developed countries/

Cooperation for Child Rights in the Asia Pacific Region 4-6 November 2010, Beijing Reforming Child Protection and Welfare Systems in Pakistan Presentation.

Excellency Mrs. Samina Khalid Ghurki Minister for Social Welfare & Special Education GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN Say Yes to Child Rights Movement in Pakistan (2002-04) Declaration of the Year 2004 as the Year of Child Welfare and Rights Juvenile Justice System Ordinance (JJSO 2000) Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance (2002) Child Labour Laws National Plan of Action for Children Achievements 1 Regional Consultation on Violence against/

The EU in a Global Perspective and the Demographic Challenges associated with the Second Demographic Transition Ron Lesthaeghe Gastner-Newman cartogram.

, keeping open future. Emancipation: gender equity & better division of labour in family. Organisation & policy aspects re independence of young adults and reduction opportunity costs (child care facilities, schooling, allowances & benefits), housing opportunities. SDT Postponement/to gain importance. * Many populations still have high TFRs, and large countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Philippines, Indonesia, Mexico …will still produce a positive population growth momentum for several decades /

Child Labour In Cambodia

. The air is not safe to breath in Couldn’t go to school and get educated Happening in Eritrea, Somalia, Congo, Myanmar, Sudan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Cambodia, Yemen, Burundi and Nigeria. Dangerous jobs are •Working with dangerous chemicals in factories •working in mines •prostitution •selling drugs •fighting in conflict areas •working on plantations in hot climates Industrial Revolution Solution to child labour An estimate of 5.7 million children are/

Equity and Justice in Society: Protecting Rights of Children

the National Child Policy (2011). Child Rights Situation and Child Protection Status in Bangladesh: Contd. Child Trafficking; Bangladesh is a source country for human trafficking a quite big no. whom are children. UNICEF reports 200-300 children are bring trafficked to countries every month. Women and children from Bangladesh are transported to India and Pakistan, where they are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation or forced labour. More/


Emigration Ordinance 1979 Passport Act 1974 Foreigner’s Act 1946 Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) Abolition of Bonded Labour Act 1997 Child Protection Act 47 PROTECTION  All the fugitives involved in Human Trafficking are listed down in the Police Stations of FIA and Provincial Police forces for/without much food supplies. This is not only done by the host government but they are provided the same services in Pakistan by FIA at the Karachi Port and Taftan-Quetta with the help of some local NGOs. 49 PROTECTION  /

WORLD DAY AGAINST CHILD LABOUR Warning: Children in hazardous work Geneva events, 10 th June, 2011.

child labour and ensure that all children can go to school?” … Mr. A.N.M. Adyanthaya, Vice President - Indian National Trade Union Congress… “As representative of workers’ organizations, what are you doing to help protect exploited children?” …Mr. Haji Muhammad Javed, President of the Employers Federation of Pakistan/(SCAI)– Geneva –Classes 201 and 205 Two girls from a local school in Geneva read their appeal against child labour, written on the canvases hanging from the giant chair: Children from the /

Understanding ‘Learning’ in Pakistan: Building a Comprehensive Picture of School Functioning in Pakistan Monazza Aslam, Centre for the Study of African.

WHY’ in Pakistan Research further shows that even the most basic literacy and numeracy skills among adults in Pakistan: 1.Improve women’s access to more lucrative occupations; 2.Increase earnings for both men and women once in the labour market;/schooling participation and (b) student learning, in Pakistan. Apart from testing children at two points in time in order to measure gain in achievement, the survey will measure factors that might be behind poor child learning but which have hardly received research /

MOVING FROM THE MARGINS Mainstreaming persons with disabilities in Pakistan 1www.britishcouncil.ae Dr Maryam Rab, Director REMU.

with an overview of challenges and potential solutions to mainstreaming persons with disabilities in Pakistan. Overlooked and left on the margins 3 IndicatorWorldPakistan Total population7bn182.5m Size of labour force3bn62.4m Approximate number of persons with disabilities 1.05bn3.3m-27m / the burden on the government. 4. Inclusive education to reach all children and adults with disabilities Estimates put educating a child at a special school at PKR 30,000 (US$300), as opposed to PKR 2,000 (US$20) at/

By Jack.. An estimated 158 million children aged 5-14 are engaged in child labour - one in six children in the world.

production, coca- cola Mc. Donalds nestle adidas Gap Nike Over 70% of Nike soccer balls are made in pakistan, and other 3 rd world countries. Child labour has dropped dramaticly within the last 10 years, from 25% to 10% of all children. Some people find that child labour is good as it helps out the 3rd world countrys to gain more economy, but making children as/

3.2 What changes have taken place in the FLOW of GOODS and CAPITAL? 3.2b- TNCs control a substantial part of the global economy and have created a GLOBAL.

(1) Israel (1) Italy (10) Japan (26) South Korea Malaysia (1) Pakistan (4) Philippines (1) South Africa (1) USA (1) Honduras (7) Hong Kong (3) Malaysia (20) Macau (1) Moldova (4) Nicaragua (2) Pakistan (4) Paraguay (1) Peru (3) Philippines (2) Poland (1) Portugal (1/ the country where the HQ is (Nike= USA), if the TNC was based in the DEVELOPING COUNTRY more money would remain in that country  Sweatshops and child labour may occur as Nike does not manage factories itself. DEVELOPED COUNTRIES  Job losses /

Jean Claude Michelou Vice President ICA PIGJE Karachi, Pakistan June 9 2012.

 Ensuring decent Working conditions  Gender Equity  Elimination of Child Labour  Environmental sustainability  Transparency and accountability  Monitoring and Evaluation /Africa Namibia South Africa Central Asia Afghanistan Tajikistan Kazakhstan Pakistan Eastern Asia China India Sri Lanka Burma Vietnam Thailand/ Human rights  Youth  Wages & Conditions  Safety conditions  Displacement of communities Child Labor in Mining  Human rights  Youth  Wages & Conditions  Safety conditions  Displacement /

Www.aidsdatahub.org HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia-Pacific Review in slides Regional overview slides Last updated: November 2014.

and Ministry of Health. (2010). Integrated Biological and Behavioral Survey 2009; 4) National AIDS Control Program, Pakistan. (2011). HIV Second Generation Surveillance in Pakistan - National Report Round IV 2011; 5) IBBS 2011 - Integrated Biological and Behavioral Survey; and 6) / PMTCT HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia-Pacific Latest!Latest! Mother-to-child transmission rates in women with low CD4 counts, during pregnancy, labour and breastfeeding 144 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on Kuhn,L/

CHILD SOLDIERS Denis Tryshak. Child Soldiers  The rise of child labor in the United States began in the late 1700s and early 1800s. When the Industrial.

Maplecroft, which ranks 197 countries, identifies Eritrea, Somalia, Democratic Republic of Congo,Myanmar, Sudan, Afghanistan, Pakistan,Zimbabwe and Yemen as the 10 places where child labor is most prevalent. WHAT DO WE AS CANADIANS DO TO PREVENT CHILD LABOUR  Its been some time now since the factory collapse in Bangladesh, a devastating and needless tragedy for countless people. The only good thing to come of/

1 Ethnic differences in womens labour market participation over the life course Angela Dale and Sameera Ahmed University of Manchester I am grateful to.

partner and youngest child <5, 1992-2005 15 How do we explain this? Role of qualifications Whether UK-born/educated Cultural constraints/ husband/ family- related preferences –Or whether husband UK-born? Labour market barriers/ discrimination Lack of jobs in local labour market Own /to gaining qualifications –left school at 14, no qualifications What they did was take me out of school and I went to Pakistan, and I got married at 16 I really wanted to study, go to college, have education, have a job, Ive/

Environment and Shelter post-disaster A presentation of options for the Shelter Meeting May 2012 Geneva Magnus Wolfe Murray Humanitarian Advisor, DFID-Pakistan.

to: 40m Pakistanis CO 2 / year 9 million cars CO 2 / year Social impact – bricks in Pakistan (Should we ignore this element?) 7 Child Labour Bonded Labour Ecological capital What value do we attach to local ecology? How can this be measured? Do your building/(average)8.50.125 CGI (iron sheet)390.7 Source: University of Bath, Embodied energy and carbon in Construction materials (2008) Applied to a project in Pakistan Post-2011 flooding, HANDS (local NGO) funded for 20,000 one room shelters Usually (e.g. /

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 1 COMSATS.

stakeholders (clients, consultants, contractors, subcontractors, suppliers, project employees etc.) are tied together in an (often very complex) system of contracts spelling out their obligations/responsibilities and entitlements. / Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 29  Use of Illicit Labour (i.e. Child, Bonded, Non-Documented)  Violation of Laws (e.g.: Contracts, Environmental, Safety)  Deception/

Child Labour By Fatima Majeed Class VIII-E What is Child Labour?

Child Labour? Cruelty is taking place all over the world, in different forms…but the worst amongst them is child labour. Children are being tortured in different ways and poverty annoys them as well… …a typical Pakistani earns barely $5 per day. Children as old as seven work in/not all, these innocent children stroll all day at markets to carry bags in order to get a few rupees per day. Whether its Karachi or any other corner of Pakistan, you will definitely find kids up to seven years old working hard all /

Contemporary Age. English Colonialism in India Problems in India Poverty Lack of religious tolerance Political division: India was a mosaic of over 500.

end of British Rule in India Causes Labour government in Britain Britain was economically ruined and financially dependent on the USA Feeling against imperialism was increasing among the British people English Influences in India Education Education Language Religion Hierarchy and EqualityHierarchy and Equality Independence of Pakistan and India: 14° and 15° August 1947 British Indians in the UK Indian people born in the UK who are of/


CHALLANGES WOMEN HAVE LOW PRESENCE IN THE WORK FORCE www.dawoodglobal.orgwww.ladiesfund.com 10 WOMEN DON’T GET TRUE MATERNITY LEAVE According to the Pakistan Labour Laws, women have a right to maternity leave but in most cases it is considered / 3%. When women are educated and can earn and control income, even more good results follow: infant mortality declines, child health and nutrition improve, agricultural productivity rises, population growth slows, economies expand and cycles of poverty are broken. KEY/

Labour Culture in Other Cultures Child Labour, Discrimination, Wages, Standards and Practices, Consideration of Indigenous Cultures.

and highly regulated Some companies want the skills, education and the happy workforce that entails Child Labour Child Labour is prevalent in many nations. The International Labour Organization reports the following estimates: Region#of active children between 5- 14 Asia122.3/in 2010 Botswana.60 Chile2.18 Ireland13.65(now 11.09) Japan8.36 Mexico.57 Pakistan.48 Thailand.80 Ghana.28 South Africa1.00 Standards/Practices Cultural norms in the workplace which differ: Lunch hours – Canada it is usually an hour, in/

Rome. Iqbal Masih was a young Pakistani boy who was sold as a child slave to a carpet factory at the age of four. At the age of 10, he.

middle of a busy road. It is assumed by many that he was assassinated by members of the "Carpet Mafia" because of the publicity he brought towards the child labour industry. This is why the school in Rome chose its name and it is also twinned with a school in Pakistan. Here are some pictures taken by Luca... http://www.siamobravi.it/flash/visitamark1.html

Rural Women’s Empowerment A Case Study of KNCU & BUNYAD Ms. Shaheen Attiq Ur Rahman Vice Chairperson BLCC-Pakistan.

589 learners were oriented on kitchen gardening  130 people were examined in camp by the Ministry of Population, Government of the Pakistan. The Sejong-Literacy, KNCU Computer Education Literacy Through Mobile Phone E-Learning/-Formal Primary/Basic Education for out of school children.  Expansion of enrolment & retention of students in schools.  Adopt A School Programme (Formal)  Reducing child labour through NFE approach  Community Learning Centers (CLC’s)  Training of Non-Formal and Formal Education/

 Introduction  Nature of the state and political system  Pakistan adopted typical Mercantilist approach  Political turmoil  Growth and Development.

.  Still agriculture is biggest sector in terms of labour force and constitutes 48% labour force. SZABIST KARACHI7  Apart from that there have been structural changes due to improvement in economic conditions.  According 1951 Census, 17% of West Pakistanis lived in areas designated as Urban. Now 40% live in cities and towns. SZABIST KARACHI8  Some Economist divides the Development of Pakistan Economy in what they call five epochs.  First/

MGT601 SME MANAGEMENT. Lesson 43 Pakistan & WTO – III.

 The exporters should maintain an effective interaction with their counterpart associations etc. in the importing countries. Any difficulties due to technological or economical limitations must be adequately/Pakistan but this again received below average 18 percent tariff reduction. Continued….  After the complete phase out of quota restriction is feared that developed countries would resort to use of NON-Tariff Barriers like imposing requirement of environment and labour standards and use of child labour/

International Labour Standards, Voluntary Initiatives & Social Dialogue in India C S Venkata Ratnam, IMI, India & Anil Verma, University of Toronto Canada.

Became an issue in Durham conference in 2001 Universal Floor and India n Freedom of association and right to collective bargaining – not ratified n No child labour – highest in India n No forced labour – persistent n /in Jallundhar – Initiative similar to Sialkot in Pakistan n SA 8000 Audit: 3 of 72 firms are Indian. Roughly half are Chinese n Commerce Ministry taking initiative in textiles n Worry about core labour standards becoming non-tariff barriers Attitudes of Social Partners in India n Reject labour/

Alfred Deakin Professor Jill Blackmore Deakin University

Development Index , IWD Beijing 1995 informed MDG Transnational advocacy groups e.g. Global Education Action zero child marriage; zero child labour; zero discrimination against girls; zero exclusion from education. Claims made upon the nation state and global forums/ due to cultural norms (Pakistan, India, Ghana, Nigeria and Nepal) take out loans which reducing household and other children’s opportunities (Ghana) Investment in academic girl’s education to become low paid teachers in LFPS (Lahore) Caste, /

Child protection minimum standards

9. Sexual Violence 10. Psychosocial distress and mental disorders 11. Children associated with armed forces or armed groups 12. Child labour 13. Unaccompanied and separate children 14. Justice for children Standards for Developing Adequate Strategies 15. Case Management 16. Community-based child protection mechanisms 17. Child-friendly spaces 18. Protecting excluded children Standards for Mainstreaming Economic Recovery 20. Education 21. Health 22. Nutrition 23/


COMPANY SPONSORED FUNDRAISERS? _____________________________ is an example of Wal-Mart violating the rights of children. What is CHILD LABOUR IN PRODUCTION or VIOLATING LABOUR LAWS OF EMPLOYEES? This part of the system involves exploiting natural resources. What is EXTRACTION? Production /this issue. What is CANADA’S SLAVE TRADE? This child labourer became famous for advocating children’s rights around the world. He was shot to death in his hometown of Muridke, Pakistan at the age of 12. Who is IQBAL MESIH/

Issues - “Child labourChild labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their.

Issues - “Child labourChild labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, /health-17045202 “The single biggest threat to human’s continued dominance on the planet is the virus.” Joshua Lederburg Ph.D Nobel Laureate Polio survives – Pakistan – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia- 25455069 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia- 25455069 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world/

The International Day of the Girl Child July 12, 2013 Innovating for Girls Education.

education Malala -Lived in Swat valley, Pakistan Jacqui Southey UNICEF NZ Malala Swat valley is Pakistan’s most beautiful valley. It is also called Switzerland of Pakistan. Jacqui Southey UNICEF NZ Taliban Sadly, militants in Swat, Pakistan, have destroyed 191 /Education has the power to change lives. Nazia – rescued from child labour, now a blossoming student. Jacqui Southey UNICEF NZ Returning to school is an important step in the post conflict healing process. Jacqui Southey UNICEF NZ Education is /


percentage point increases in enrollment and/or attendance. In its first year, the Food for Education programme in Pakistan helped increase school enrolment in schools by 28 per cent for girls and 22 per cent for boys. In South Africa, girls/transition, fragility and others) ? Adolescence and Youth Development Early marriage Increased risk for HIV/AIDS Gender discrimination Child labour Under and unemployment Increased costs of services – ex: secondary school Traffic-related accidents, gang-violence, risky /

Newborn Survival and Maternal Health: a key to child survival

resuscitation Emergency obstetric care to manage complications such as obstructed labour and hemorrhage Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes# Corticosteroids for preterm labour# Emergency newborn care for illness, especially sepsis management and / Care (Common in all areas) (through Lady Health Workers) Perinatal mortality trends (Hala, Pakistan) Perinatal mortality trends (Hala, Pakistan) Conclusions Improving newborn health and care is critical to attaining the MDG targets for child survival To do/

Jewel in the Crown - India Today, what is India? (source 2007 CIA World Factbook) Socially About 1.1 billion people…second most populous country in the.

calls for division of India into two separate states: Muslim and Hindu. It is also called the Pakistan Resolution or the Two Nation Theory. In 1942, Quit India began. Gandhi urged Indians to act as an independent people and not follow / a Tier 2 Watch due to limited actions against child labour, forced labour and sexual exploitation. India is a Tier 2 Watch due to limited actions against child labour, forced labour and sexual exploitation. Jewel in the Crown - India Green Revolution The Indian government was/

Early Childhood Education in Pakistan How long can we ignore the foundations? Amima Sayeed January 29, 2013.

trend of disrespecting child’s views and independence Economic pressures, forced and hazardous labour Family disharmony, experience of abuse In –school Children Hazardous physical environment Instruction not interaction or engagement If at all, unaware and ill- equipped teachers Labeling, profiling, bullying – set up for early failure Damning emphasis on writing & discipline! Monolithic systems Kills the innate creative potential and diversity ECE in Pakistan: What we/

Child Friendly Counselling, Complaints, and Reporting Mechanisms: Are they for Migrant, Stateless, Refugees, Asylum Seekers, and Trafficked children, too?

on flow of people across borders Highly unregulated, informal, and in many instances exploitative labour relations Challenges to the fragile child protection structures both traditional and present 10 Trafficking, physical and /in Thailand Thousands of stateless children or children without nationalities live in Thailand, many from ethnic communities at the border areas and increasingly, from generations of undocumented migrants Conflicts in neighbouring countries (e.g.,Myanmar) and elsewhere (e.g.,Pakistan/

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