Ppt on chemical bonding and molecular structure

Chemical Bonds What is a chemical bond? Why do chemical bonds form? A chemical bond is a type of attractive force that forms between atoms. All atoms.

Bond Formation Type of Structure/and ionic cmpds Worksheet - names and formulas of cmpds names and formulas of cmpdsnames and formulas of cmpds Worksheet - empirical and molecular empirical and molecularempirical and molecular Worksheet - vocab (bonding) vocab (bonding)vocab (bonding) Activity – bonding PP bonding PPbonding PP Activity - molecular models activity - mole pattern Worksheet - errors in chemical formulas and nomenclature errors in chemical formulas and nomenclatureerrors in chemical formulas and/


Unit 2 Section 1 Notes. Lesson 1: Sniffing Around (Molecular Formulas) ChemCatalyst: 1. What do you think is happening when you smell something? 2. Why.

bonding and belong to one atom are referred to as lone pairs.  The HONC 1234 rule indicates how many electrons are available for bonding in atoms of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon. Check-In: The molecular formula C 4 H 10 O has seven different isomers. Draw the structural/ the starting ingredients you will be using in this lab? 2. Name something you will be doing to the chemicals in this experiment. Key Question: How can a molecule be changed into a different molecule by using chemistry? Objectives/


BASIC CHEMISTRY. Definition of Concepts Matter and Energy.

is a heterogeneous mixture that contains iron and many other elements CHEMICAL BONDS A chemical bond is an energy relationship between the electrons of the reacting atoms –NOT a physical structure Role of Electrons in Chemical Bonding Electrons occupy regions of space called / of whether the overall reaction is ultimately energy absorbing or energy releasing –One obvious way to increase molecular energy is to increase the temperature, but in living systems this would denature proteins Enzymes allow reactions/


Section 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding Section 2 Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds Section 3 Ionic Bonding and Ionic Compounds Section 4 Metallic.

, bond length, and bond energy.  State the octet rule.  List the six basic steps used in writing Lewis structures.  Explain how to determine Lewis structures for molecules containing single bonds, multiple bonds, or both.  Explain why scientists use resonance structures to represent some molecules.  A molecule is a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds.  A chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules is called a molecular/


I Chemical Bonding. Chemical Bond  attractive force between atoms or ions that binds them together as a unit  bonds form in order to…  decrease potential.

.1 Ionic Chemical Bond  attractive force between atoms or ions that binds them together as a unit  bonds form in order to…  decrease potential energy (PE)  increase stability I LEWIS DIAGRAMS Molecular Structure RULE  Remember…  Most atoms form bonds in order / To find total # of valence e - :  Add 1e - for each negative charge.  Subtract 1e - for each positive charge.  Place brackets around the ion and label the charge. C. POLYATOMIC IONS  ClO 4 - 1 Cl × 7e - = 7e - 4 O × 6e - = 24e - 31e - O O Cl/


Chapter 4: The Structure of Matter. Section 1: Compounds & Molecules What are compounds? When elements combine to form a compound, the compound has properties.

Structure of Matter Section 1: Compounds & Molecules What are compounds? When elements combine to form a compound, the compound has properties different from the elements that make it. ◦ NaCl Chemical Bonds Chemical bonds distinguish compounds from mixtures. ◦ Mixtures are made of _________substances that are placed together.  Each substance in the mixture keeps its own properties. Chemical Bonds/1. A compound made only of hydrogen and carbon 2. The simplest chemical formula of a compound that tells the /


Chapter 6: Chemical Bonds Section 2: Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds.

Chapter 6: Chemical Bonds Section 2: Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds  Define molecule and molecular formula.  Explain the relationships among potential energy, distance between approaching atoms, bond length, and bond energy.  State the octet rule.  List the six basic steps used in writing Lewis structures. Section 2: Covalent Bonding & Molecular Compounds Objectives:  Explain how to determine Lewis structures for molecules containing single bonds, multiple bonds, or both.  Explain why /


Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds Chemical Bonding.

Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds Chemical Bonding Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds Objectives Define molecule and molecular formula Explain the relationships among potential energy, distance between approaching atoms, bond length, and bond energy State the octet rule List the six basic steps used in writing Lewis structures Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds Objectives Explain how to determine Lewis structures for molecules containing single bonds, multiple bonds, or both Explain why /


CHEMICAL BONDING & MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. What is a Chemical Bond? It will take us the next two chapters to answer this question!

4 ). Predict its structure and whether it has a dipole moment. Solution Atoms form a square planar structure With no dipole moment Exercise 14 Structures of Molecules with Multiple Bonds Predict the molecular structure of the sulfur dioxide molecule. Is this molecule expected to have a dipole moment? Solution V-shaped with a 120-degree bond angle With a dipole moment ONCE MORE WITH FEELING… Chemical Bonds Forces of attraction/


Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Table of Contents Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding Section 1 Introduction.

menu Objectives Compare a chemical formula for a molecular compounds with one for an ionic compound. Discuss the arrangements of ions in crystals. Define lattice energy and explain its significance. List and compare the distinctive properties of ionic and molecular compounds. Write the Lewis structure for a polyatomic ion given the identity of the atoms combined and other appropriate information. Section 3 Ionic Bonding and Ionic Compounds Chapter 6 Copyright/


1 Take out CLICKERS: “GO 41 GO” -or- “CH 41 CH” NEXT LECTURE:Monday, Nov. 9; Bring CLICKERS READ BLBM, Chapters 8 and 9 HOMEWORK #12:Ch. 8: #; Ch. 9: #

each element Sum of formal charges = total charge on molecule. Molecular Geometry: Lewis Structures (Rules) Chapter 8: Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Best Choice: All formal charges close to 0; and consistent with ENs… There are EXCEPTIONS! 3 (1) Count the number of valence electrons and electron pairs (Bond and Lone Pairs) (2) Draw a Lewis Structure (consider resonance structures, if needed…) (3) Identify regions of electron density around the/


Living By Chemistry Unit 2: SMELLS Molecular Structure and Properties.

You will be able to: describe the difference between structural formulas and molecular formulas recognize isomers Prepare for the Activity Work in groups of (three). Lesson 2 ChemCatalyst No. 2 1.What are the chemical formulas for Models 1 to 4? 2.Which models/O 2 You will be able to: apply the octet rule to predict bonding in molecules draw Lewis dot structures and structural formulas for molecules that contain double and triple bonds Prepare for the Activity Work in groups of four. Octet rule: Nonmetal /


AP CHEM 2 nd Semester 7-Bonding 8-Liq/Soln 9-Kinetics 10-Equilibrium 11-Acid-Base 12-Electrochem 13-Review.

= 2e - (“unshared” or “non-bonding pairs”) 2) single bonds = 1e - (“shared” or “bonding pairs”) 3) double bonds = 2e - 4) triple bonds = 3e - Now: Go to Overhead For 2 “non-equivalent” Lewis Structures, choose the one with: 1)formal charges closest to zero, 2)and the (-) formal charge is on the most electronegative atom Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Writing Lewis Structures Then assign formal charges.  For/


Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 1 st Ed. Nivaldo Tro.

uses valence electrons to explain bonding explains why some combinations of atoms are stable and others are not using Lewis Theory, we can draw models – called Lewis structures – that allow us to predict many properties of molecules such as molecular shape, size, polarity Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach4 Why Do Atoms Bond? World would be boring with only 91 stable elements! chemical bonds form because they lower the/


Chapter 12 Lecture Conceptual Integrated Science Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Bonds and Mixtures.

Science Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Bonds and Mixtures © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. This lecture will help you understand: Electron-Dot Structures The Formation of Ions Ionic Bonds Metallic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Molecular Polarity Molecular Attractions Most Materials Are Mixtures The Chemists Classification of Matter Solutions Solubility © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Electron-Dot Structures Atoms bond together through their electrons. To learn about/


II. Molecular Compounds. Covalent Bonding A major type of atomic bonding occurs when atoms share electrons.atoms As opposed to ionic bonding in which.

or triple bonds Lewis structures Draw a covalent bond for –H 2 0 –H 2 0 2 –CH 4 –CO 2 –CO Ch. 11 - Chemical Bonds III. Naming Molecular Compounds  Molecular Names  Molecular Formulas /Bonding - Crystal Lattice RETURN B. Types of Bonds Covalent Bonding - True Molecules RETURN B. Types of Bonds Diatomic Molecule Metallic Bonding - “Electron Sea” RETURN B. Types of Bonds C. Bond Polarity Most bonds are a blend of ionic and covalent characteristics. Difference in electronegativity determines bond type. C. Bond/


Chapter 9: The Basics of Chemical Bonding Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop.

 3b. Any negative charges are on the more electronegative atoms. Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 100 Drawing Good Resonance Structures 1.All must be valid Lewis structures 2.Only electrons are shifted  Usually double or triple bond and lone pair  Nuclei cant be moved  Bond angles must remain the same 3.Number of unpaired electrons, if any, must remain the same/


CHEMICAL BONDING & MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. What is a Chemical Bond? It will take us the next two chapters to answer this question!

4 ). Predict its structure and whether it has a dipole moment. Solution Atoms form a square planar structure With no dipole moment Exercise 14 Structures of Molecules with Multiple Bonds Predict the molecular structure of the sulfur dioxide molecule. Is this molecule expected to have a dipole moment? Solution V-shaped with a 120-degree bond angle With a dipole moment ONCE MORE WITH FEELING… Chemical Bonds Forces of attraction/


Molecular Biology and Biochemistry 1 “Science cannot solve the ultimate mystery of Nature. And that is because, in the last analysis, we ourselves are.

the mystery that we are trying to solve.” ( M. Planck ) Table of contents Introduction The genetic material Gene structure and information content The nature of chemical bonds Molecular biology tools The genome 2 Introduction  1 The main feature of living organisms is their ability of saving, using, and transmitting information Bioinformaticsaims at: Bioinformatics aims at: determining which information is biologically relevant deciphering how it is used/


Chemical Bonds We love them…we really do!. Exactly what are chemical bonds??? »Defined as: a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence.

: H 2 O and CO 2 »A chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules is called a molecular compound. Chemical vs. Molecular Formulas »Really, chemical formulas encompasses all the formulas involving chemicals (for all types of bonding). »Molecular formulas are types of chemical formulas that describe molecules held together by covalent bonds. »Really, chemical formulas encompasses all the formulas involving chemicals (for all types of bonding). »Molecular formulas are types of chemical formulas that/


Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. Chapter 15: HOW ATOMS BOND AND MOLECULES ATTRACT.

BOND AND MOLECULES ATTRACT Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley This lecture will help you understand: Electron-Dot Structures The Formation of Ions Ionic Bonds Metallic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Molecular Polarity Molecular Attractions Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Electron-Dot Structures Atoms bond/ that can participate in chemical bonding. Electron-Dot Structures Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education/


Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Table of Contents Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding Section 1 Introduction.

menu Objectives Compare a chemical formula for a molecular compounds with one for an ionic compound. Discuss the arrangements of ions in crystals. Define lattice energy and explain its significance. List and compare the distinctive properties of ionic and molecular compounds. Write the Lewis structure for a polyatomic ion given the identity of the atoms combined and other appropriate information. Section 3 Ionic Bonding and Ionic Compounds Chapter 6 Copyright/


Chapter 10 Molecular Structure: Solids and Liquids.

, double, or triple shared pair of electrons ●● ●●● Covalent Lewis Structures: Double and Triple Bonds Single Bond is a chemical bond where two atoms share one pair of valence electrons Single Bond is a chemical bond where two atoms share one pair of valence electrons Double Bond is a chemical bond where two atoms share two pairs of valence electrons Double Bond is a chemical bond where two atoms share two pairs of valence electrons Triple/


Chem I Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding Notes. Chemical Bond – a mutual attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the.

molecule of a molecular compound Atoms in molecules are joined by covalent bonds. Atoms in molecules are joined by covalent bonds. Bond length – The distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy. Bond length – The distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy. Bond energy – the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms. Bond energy – the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral/


Chemistry NCEA L2 2.4 Bonding, Structure and Energy 1.

and metallic bonding Molecular, ionic, metallic and covalent network substances Properties are limited to hardness (including malleability and ductility), electrical conductivity, melting and boiling points and solubility. Exothermic and endothermic reactions including energy changes associated with the making and breaking of chemical bonds, differing amounts of substances and/that could no longer be divided was known as an atom. The structure of the atom was unknown at this time. Democritus – Greek philosopher /


Molecular Orbital Theory (What is it??)  Better bonding model than valence bond theory  Electrons are arranged in “molecular orbitals”  Dealing with.

difference  No partial charges Dipoles  Bond Dipoles  Charge separation within the chemical bond  Only applies to a specific chemical bondMolecular Dipole  Charge separation among WHOLE molecule  Includes ALL chemical bonds  Equal to bond dipole in a diatomic molecule (ex. HCl, HI) Example 1: HClExample 1: HCl What about polyatomic molecules ? Distinguishing between Polar/Nonpolar Molecules 1)Draw Lewis Structure 2)Identify polar bonds 3)Determine molecular shape 4)Draw dipoles Example/


© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Catherine MacGowan Armstrong Atlantic State University Lecture Presentation Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical.

the metal cations – Sea of electrons Explains the properties of metals and their alloys Explains the properties of metals and their alloys What Is Metallic Bonding? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Molecular C 2 H 2 O 4 EmpiricalCHO 2 or (CHO 2 ) n=2 Structural Types of Chemical Formulas © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. A molecular formula represents the composition of the substance. EXACT It indicates the EXACT/


VALENCE ELECTRONS & BONDING VALENCE ELECTRONS Valence electrons: found in the outermost shell of an atom determines the atom’s chemical properties. So.

attention on the concepts of distance, time, velocity, and acceleration. Chemical Bonding Physical Science Chemical Bonds When two or more atoms attach to each other, they form a chemical bond Compounds are any two elements chemically bonded –Water –Sugar –Salt –And almost all other substances!!!! Electrons are responsible for the type, strength, and size of a chemical bond Lewis Structures Bohr-Rutherford diagrams are large and difficult to show relationships between multiple atoms Lewis diagrams/


© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Lecture Presentation.

. Bond Enthalpy and Bond Length We can also measure an average bond length for different bond types. As the number of bonds between two atoms increases, the bond length decreases. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Hwk: page 334 - 338 : Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. LESSON 5 9-1: Molecular Shapes 9-2: VSEPR Model Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Molecular Shapes Lewis Structures show bonding and/


Chemical Bonding the chemical vessel of the tree of life.

the physical & chemical properties of molecular (covalent) substances. All molecules have a symmetrical shape because the bonds & atoms are arranged with equal distances separating atoms that are NOT bonded to each other. WHY? A repulsive force exists between e - pairs in molecules. How do molecules get their shapes? Valence e - surrounding an atom may be shared in pairs OR left unshared. Both bonded and unbonded e/


Chapter 10TMHsiung ©2014Slide 1 of 80 Chapter Ten Chemical Bonding II : Molecular Shapes, Valence Bond Theory, and Molecular Orbital Theory.

1 of 80 Chapter Ten Chemical Bonding II : Molecular Shapes, Valence Bond Theory, and Molecular Orbital Theory Chapter 10TMHsiung ©2014Slide 2 of 80 1.Artificial Sweeteners: Fooled by Molecular Shape 2.VSEPR Theory: The Five Basic Shapes 3.VSEPR Theory: The Effect of Lone Pairs 4.VSEPR Theory: Predicting Molecular Geometries 5.Molecular Shape and Polarity 6.Valence Bond Theory: Orbital Overlap as a Chemical Bond 7.Valence Bond Theory: Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals/


Chemical Bonding. Do Now Define a compound. What is a compound made of? What are some examples of compounds?

molecular formula indicates the number and kind of atoms in a particular molecule. Formula vs. Shape Sucrose and Sucralose have similar shapes, so both stimulate nerve receptors of the tongue and your brain interprets them as sweet. However, sucrose and sucralose have different chemical formulas, so they are processed by the body differently. (sugar substitute) SHAPES OF MOLECULES A structural formula indicates two- dimensional arrangement of the bonds and/


Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding. 8Bonding Theories Bonding theories predict how atoms bond together to form compounds They predict what combinations.

shell), while sulfur must gain two electrons to obtain an octet. The compound that forms between sodium and sulfur requires two sodium atoms to every one sulfur atom. The Lewis structure is: The correct chemical formula is Na 2 S. Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared When nonmetals bond with other nonmetals, a molecular compound results. Consider HF H needs 1 electron to attain noble gas status/


Ionic Compounds and Covalent Compounds. Ionic and Metallic Bonding.

that of a neon atom Formation of Cations Using electron dot structures, you can show the ionization more simply Formation of Cations /bonds Diatomic molecule - a molecule consisting of two atoms - Example: O 2 Molecules and Molecular Compounds molecular compound - compound composed of molecules Molecular compounds tend to have relatively lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds Example: Molecules and Molecular Compounds Molecular Formulas Molecular formula- chemical formula of a molecular/


Chemoinformatics Lecture 2 Storing and Searching Chemical Data.

–Compounds containing a particular substructure –Compounds similar to a given structure Chemical Features We can extend our chemical structure searching to pharmacophores by defining chemical features such as hydrophobic groups, hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, aromatic rings, etc. These features are arranged in space to form a pharmacophore query Structures hit if they match the query structure Different molecular conformations should be taken into account Not all database systems can/


Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding. 8Bonding Theories Bonding theories predict how atoms bond together to form compounds They predict what combinations.

shell), while sulfur must gain two electrons to obtain an octet. The compound that forms between sodium and sulfur requires two sodium atoms to every one sulfur atom. The Lewis structure is: The correct chemical formula is Na 2 S. Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared When nonmetals bond with other nonmetals, a molecular compound results. Consider HF H needs 1 electron to attain noble gas status/


Living By Chemistry Unit 2: SMELLS Molecular Structure and Properties.

bonding and belong to one atom are referred to as lone pairs. The HONC 1234 rule indicates how many electrons are available for bonding in atoms of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon. Check-in The molecular formula C 4 H 10 O has seven different isomers. Draw the structural/ of the starting ingredients you will be using in this lab? 2. Name something you will be doing to the chemicals in this experiment. Key Question How can a molecule be changed into a different molecule by using chemistry? You will be/


COVALENT BONDING & CHEMICAL FORMULA Vocabulary Chemical Formula Molecular Compound Molecular Formula Molecule Ionic compound Formula Unit Bond Energy Electron.

Electron Dot Notation Lewis Structure Structural Formula Covalent Bond Electronegativity Single Bond Double Bond Multiple Bond A little Review: What is a Chemical Formula? Indicates # of atoms of each element in a compound using the element Symbols and subscripts Examples: H 2 O NaCl COVALENT BONDING & CHEMICAL FORMULA A little Review: What is the difference between a MOLECULAR FORMULA & a FORMULA UNIT ? COVALENT BONDING & CHEMICAL FORMULA CHEMICAL FORMULA Molecular Compounds (Covalent) Ionic Compound/


Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding Silberberg Ch 9,10,11Atkins: Ch 2,3.

electron density “ holds ” the molecule together. Electrons are localized (belong to specific bonds). Basis of Lewis structures, resonance, and hybridization. Very poor theory for obtaining quantitative bond dissocation energies. Good theory for predicting molecular structure. Molecular orbital theory Molecular orbitals are formed by the overlap and interaction of atomic orbitals. Electrons then fill the molecular orbitals according to the aufbau principle. Electrons are delocalized (don ’ t belong to/


Covalent Bond A chemical bond in which electrons are shared. Each atom has access to a full octet (8 electrons). No electrical charges.

Covalent Bond A chemical bond in which electrons are shared. Each atom has access to a full octet (8 electrons). No electrical charges. Diatomic Molecule A molecule made up of two or more of the same atoms. Hydrogen-oxygen- Fluorine-Nitrogen- Bromine- Iodine- Chlorine- Molecular Compounds Any combination of two or more nonmetals Dot Structure for Molecules :Lewis Structures Structural Formulas Molecular Formula C 3 H 6 O 3/


Chemical Bonding. Chemical bond: attractive force holding two or more atoms together. Covalent bond results from sharing electrons between the atoms.

of the actual molecule: an equal mixture of the two structures is required: Both O-O bonds of O 3 are equal in length. 13 Molecular Structure Molecular geometry is the general shape of a molecule or the arrangement of atoms in three dimensional space. Physical and chemical properties depend on the geometry of a molecule. 14 Molecular Structures 3-D Model 3-D Drawing 15 Does it matter/


Chapter 9: The Basics of Chemical Bonding Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E Brady/Jespersen/Hyslop.

: The Basics of Chemical Bonding Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E Brady/Jespersen/Hyslop Brady/Jespersen/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 2 Chemical Bonds  Attractive forces that hold atoms together in complex substances  Molecules and ionic compounds Why study?  Changes in these bonding forces are the underlying basis of chemical reactivity  During reaction:  Break old bonds  Form new bonds Brady/Jespersen/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter/


IIIIIIIV Ch. 8 - Covalent Bonding I. The Covalent Bond (p. 240 – 247)

than one pair of electrons yHave higher bond energies and are shorter than single bonds E. Lewis Structures zDouble Bonds ySharing two pairs of electrons between two atoms yDraw Lewis Structures for 2 oxygen atoms E. Lewis Structures zTriple Bonds ySharing three pairs of electrons between two atoms yDraw Lewis Structures for 2 nitrogen atoms IIIIIIIV Naming Molecules Section 8.2 C. Molecular Nomenclature zPrefix System (binary compounds) 1.Less/


Molecular Biology Primer

the bulk of the ribosome and provides structural scaffolding for the ribosome and catalyzes peptide bond formation. tRNA (transfer RNA):/structures α helices and β sheets. Molecular chaperones, hsp60 and hsp 70, work with other proteins to help fold newly synthesized proteins. Much of the protein modifications and folding occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Protein Folding Proteins are not linear structures, though they are built that way The amino acids have very different chemical/


UV - VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY

having the electrons in the anti-bonding orbital.  Bonding and anti-bonding formation from p atomic orbitals  Bonding and anti-bonding formation from p atomic orbitals Electronic Energy Levels s (bonding) p (bonding) n (non-bonding) s* (anti-bonding) p* (anti-bonding) Energy  - orbitals are the lowest energy occupied molecular orbitals * - orbitals are the highest energy unoccupied molecular orbitals  - orbitals are of somewhat higher energy occupied molecular orbitals * - orbitals are lower in energy/


Introduction to Amber The theory and practice of biomolecular simulations using the Amber suite of programs Dr. Vladislav Vassiliev NCI National Facility,

allow the calculation of ground and excited state properties: molecular energies and structures, energies and structures of transition states, atomic charges, reaction pathways etc. allow the calculation of ground state properties: relative molecular energies and structures CPU and memory hungry. Computationally efficient Suitable for small and medium size systems Suitable for large molecular systems Why Do We Need a Hybrid QM/MM Approach? The main bottleneck of quantum chemical methods is that they/


Metallic –Electropositive: give up electrons Ionic –Electronegative/Electropositive Colavent –Electronegative: want electrons –Shared electrons along bond.

electrons along bond direction Types of Primary Chemical Bonds Isotropic, filled outer shells +-+ -+- +-+ +++ +++ +++ e- Close-packed structures Metals single / variation in chain length number average # of polymer chains molecular weight # of polymer chains of M i total number of chains molecular weight weight average weight of polymer chains of M i /R RR R Atactic  Thermal Properties –Thermoplastics Melt (on heating) and resolidify (on cooling) Linear polymers –Thermosets Soften, decompose irreversibly on /


Chemical Bonding.

overlap so that each atom is in the vicinity of a full set of valence electrons. This type of bonding is called covalent bonding. Chemical bonding Atoms gain or lose electrons to arrive at a full set of valence electrons. When atoms gain or / resonance structures. It is commonly depicted as a hexagon with a circle inside to signify the delocalized electrons in the ring. Molecular Shapes The shape of a molecule plays an important role in its reactivity. By noting the number of bonding and nonbonding electron/


Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

Resources - Bonding Objectives Episode 8 – Chemical Bonds Episode 9 – Molecular Architecture Video 08: Chemical Bonds The differences between ionic and covalent bonds are explained by the use of scientific models and examples from nature. (added 2006/10/08) World of Chemistry > http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=800 Video 09: Molecular Architecture The program examines isomers and how the electronic structure of a molecules elements and bonds affects its shape and physical properties/


Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations

use depends on how much we know about the compound and how much we want to communicate. A structural formula communicates the most information, while an empirical formula communicates the least. Molecular Models A molecular model is a more accurate and complete way to specify a compound. A ball-and-stick molecular model represents atoms as balls and chemical bonds as sticks; how the two connect reflects a molecule’s/


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