Ppt on c language history

Anglo-Saxon History and Old English Language History Pre-Historical-1066 A.D.

Anglo-Saxon History and Old English Language History Pre-Historical-1066 A.D. Overview of Periods of Early English History Pre-History—1066 A. D. Pre-Roman/Pre-Historical  up to 55 B. C. Pre-Roman/Pre-Historical  up to 55 B. C. Roman Occupation  55 B. C. – 410 A. D. Roman Occupation  55 B. C. – 410 A. D. Anglo-Saxon Period  410 – 787 A. D. Anglo-Saxon Period  410/


Early American History and Literature 1.Where do we begin? *When does American Literature and History Begin? 2. Key Events 3.Native American Tales *Creation.

*Claims have been made for St. Brendan, Basque fishermen, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese, Africans, and even Carthaginians. The History Channel Who Really Discovered America ?: (1.27) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CE5gSJxyqs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=/estimate): 1,418,195 – B. Culture 1. European arrival – a. Over 300 cultural groups b. 200 languages 2. Present-day: By 1940, 149 languages still in use – C. Early Dates (see the Timeline for more information) 1. Pequot War 1637 2. King Philips War (1672/


‘GOOD IN ALL CATEGORIES’ OFSTED 2016 Language for Learning Making Marking Meaningful High Expectations Teaching Learning & Assessment This e-booklet will.

English Baccalaureate (EBacc) is a government initiative that measures students’ achievements in five specified subjects: English, maths, at least two sciences, a foreign language and an humanities subject (geography or history only). If a student gains a Grade C or higher in all five subjects then they will achieve the English Baccalaureate. The English Baccalaureate at SHS MathsEnglish2 x Science Combined Science Triple/


© 2016 The College Board. Connecting History/Social Studies Instruction with the SAT ® Suite of Assessments 7 MODULE.

use to refer to soft drinks. C) a useful way to stay connected to friends, family, and colleagues. D) helpful to researchers. 31 © 2016 The College Board. Instructional Strategies — Writing and Language Test ► Teach students in all classes to practice writing and language skills —effective language use, clear expression of ideas, properly utilizing conventions of standard English — to develop history/social studies passages. ► Familiarize students/


Splash Screen.

countries. At Canada’s founding, the government promised to protect the French language and culture in Quebec, but French speakers claimed that they were treated unfairly because of their heritage. Section 1 History of Canada (cont.) During the early 1900s, many immigrants arrived, and /driver known as a “musher.” The race lasts about two weeks and goes though temperatures as low as –40ºF (–40ºC) and winds up to 100 miles per hour (161 km per hour). Section 2 Cultures and Lifestyles of the United States The/


Introduzione.

roots,provides a well-balanced education including the following three components: • humanities including ITALIAN, LATIN, HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY • foreign languages including two languages - ENGLISH and GERMAN • science studies including SCIENCE, PHYSICS and MATHS Modern and equipped LABORATORIES for / ++39 0432 731038 fax ++39 0432 734253 e-mail: classico@cnpd.it LICEO SCIENTIFICO 33043 Cividale del Friuli c/o Convitto Nazionale “P. Diacono” tel. ++39 0432 731116 fax ++39 0432 731683 e-mail: scientifico@/


THE CATALAN LANGUAGE TODAY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOME ASPECTS.

OPPORTUNITIES TO LEARN CATALAN 8 SOCIOLINGUISTICS 3 1 INTRODUCTION Aspects of the history and present situation of the Catalan language P R E S E N T A C I Ó SOCIOLINGUISTICS MASS MEDIA UNIVERSITIES FURTHER INFORMATION LEARNING CATALAN INTRODUCTION PROFICIENCY / Catalan in this field and, more generally, to the political persecution suffered by the language from authoritarian regimes at various periods in the recent history of Catalonia, dating back more than 250 years. Undoubtedly, though, what might in /


Broadcasting/Media Television history. Pre-History (1884-1923) A. James Maxwell, Heinrich Hertz, and Guglielmo Marconi conduct research which leads to.

bill. B.1926- RCA, General Electric and Westinghouse establish NBC, which operates two national radio networks. Early History (1924 - 1947) C. 1927 - Philo Farnsworth transmits the first all- electronic television image D.1928 (April) - The FRC (later/designed to be viewed by adults and therefore may be unsuitable for children under 17. This program may contain mature themes, profane language, graphic violence and explicit sexual content. F. The New Networks 1. Fox (1986 - Married w/ Children, Tracey Ullman/


BRIEF HISTORY OF COMPUTERS & PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

Lovelace, first programmer ADT’s Computer History November 14, 2013 Even OOPLs are Relatively Old 1967: Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard at Norwegian Computing Centre develop Simula SIMUlation Language first OO programming language 1972: Alan Kay et al. at Xerox PARC develop Smalltalk and the Windows metaphor/GUI 1983: Bjarne Stroustrup develops C++ OO extensions to popular C language named C++ as a play on the/


Integrating Language Study Across the Disciplines: Crossing Disciplinary and Departmental Borders Timothy A. Bennett Wittenberg University Session 6, Lecture.

conceptual frameworks of culture, language, and academic disciplines; Lifestyle/History 105C/H/1W, Pre-Modern World, C. Raffensperger History 106, Modern World, J. Paddison History 122H, United States History II, M. Wood History 202/1W, Vietnam, M. Wood History 240H/1W, Crusades, A. Livingstone History 253C/H/1W, Soviet Russia, C. Raffensperger History 309/1W, Eurasian Nomads: Ancient & Medieval, C. Raffensperger Continued History 309/1W, Eurasian Nomads: Ancient & Medieval, C. Raffensperger History/


Ms. Oing English 2 Unit 4: Lessons of History. Agenda: 1/7/13 DOL Warmup Thematic Focus.

finish all five questions on scavenger hunt wins Ms. Oing English 2 Unit 4: Lessons of History Agenda: 1/25/13 DOL WarmUp Turn ‘n’ Talk Elizabethan Language Reminders today  AoW 17 next class  Reading Journal next week  DOL & Reflection Wednesday/ (if not turned in last Friday) *DOL & Reflection *Shakespeare’ s Rhetoric (from Friday) *Late Start Collab *Meet in C- Commons *Unit Test*Word Wall & Practice *Book Review *Criterion Essay Final Draft Shakespeare’s Rhetoric Cassius persuades using:  flattery,/


Temporal Databases VALID-TIME TEMPORAL DATA MODEL TIME NORMALIZATION

slower than that of the other. Time normalization avoids these redundancies and update and retrieval anomalies. 3.TEMPORAL QUERY LANGUAGE A query language called TSQL, which has been designed for querying a temporal database. TSQL was proposed by S.B. Navathe and/another interval which is their intersection. [a,b] inter [c,d] = [max(a,c), min(b,d)] The underlying condition is that the time intervals must overlap. Q1. List the manager and salary history of all employees while their salary was less than 40K./


English & Language Arts

Sec 1 “The content of the course teaches me other skills which I do not learn in school.” Liew C C River Valley High School Sec 1 “My tutor is very lively, full of enthusiasm and very enlightening.” Felicia Sec/ or email us at contact@focusacademy.com.sg Call Now! Excellence Program International Baccalaureate (IB) History Languages & Humanities Excellence Program International Baccalaureate (IB) History Who IB5 & IB6 History students Where 1 Goldhill Plaza, #03-29, Podium Block or 180 Kitchener Road #07-11/


UNIT 3 THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE  Why Is The Structure of Language Important?  The Phonemes of English  Learning Language Structure Through the History.

________f. easy ________j. cash _________ c.cuts ________g. judge _______ k. snitch _______ d.pitch _______ h. speak _______ l. face _________ cheat ice stuck chip pill easy judge keeps funny shack chintz safe UNIT 3 THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE  Why Is The Structure of Language Important?  The Phonemes of English  Learning Language Structure Through the History of English History Of English Language  Helps teachers understand the/


Core Content Coaching Social Studies Grade 7

Glencoe, Texas and Texans, Chapter 8; Portal to Texas History ELPS: Mandated by Texas Administrative Code (19 TAC §74.4), click on the link for English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) to support English Language Learners. ARC 1: Political Events leading to the Texas /Handbook online or other source linked in this portfolio: Make copies of George C. Childress , p. 219 from Texas and Texans, The Handbook of Texas online for George C. Childress, Juan Nepomuceno Sequín, and/or Lorenzo de Zavala. Students /


History and Timeline of English From the Celtic Roots to the Beginning of the Renaissance.

Middle English and wrangle with recitation in it. Eventually, Modern English emerged from this codification. The language of Shakespeare and all the English Renaissance, is by all accounts considered Modern English. History and Timeline of English 1066 – 1476 Example of Old English, from Beowulf 1.Đā cōm of mōre under mist-hleoþum 2.Grendel gongan, Godes yrre bær, 3.mynte/


Welcome to Presentation Plus!

A busy trade in ivory, ebony, frankincense, and leopard skins between Egypt and Nubia to its south developed by 2000 B.C.  Around 1000 B.C., Nubia freed itself from Egyptian control and became the independent state of Kush. (pages 225–226) Click the mouse button/ in the community.  For example, by the fifteenth century in the Congo, up to age six boys and girls learned language, family history, and the songs that gave meaning to their lives from their mothers.  Then boys were sent to the “house of /


History of the English Language.  A language develops and changes slowly over centuries. We do not know when the English language started.

not leave a written record, we do not know what language they spoke. These huge stone circles align with the sun during solstices. (BBC, British History, timelines) Dictionary skills: Solstice, B.C., anno Domini These people moved huge stones from miles away,/ awesome accomplishment and could not have been done without a language. (BBC, British History, timelines) Stonehenge Cap stone Celtic People The Celts immigrated to England in the 5 th century B.C. and drove out the Stonehenge people. Since the Celts /


A Short History of the Origins and Development of English

to be kept in Latin. English is used in Parliament for the first time 1384 Wyclif publishes his English translation of the Bible LECTURE 6A -A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE A Chronology of the English Language c. 1388 Chaucer begins The Canterbury Tales 1476 William Caxton establishes the first English printing press 1492 Columbus discovers the New World LECTURE 6A -A SHORT/


History of English - introduction and overview -

changes Historical relationship of English to German The techniques of historical language study Internal reconstruction Comparative linguistics Old English (450-1066) Literature Structure of language External history The coming of the Germanic tribes to England (c 450) The Christianisation of England (c 600) The Scandinavian invasions (c 800) Literature Epic literature: Beowulf (c 800, manuscript from c 1000) Minor poetry (600 onwards) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (8th century/


Anglo-Saxon History and Old English Language and Literature

.D.) Anglo-Saxon/Viking Angles, Saxons, Frisian, and Jutes (410-787 Viking Raids/Invasions begin 8th c. and end 10th c. Norman Invasion/Occupation (really in the Middle Ages) Battle of Hastings in 1066, then about four centuries of French rule A Short History of Our Language “How English got to be so hard to study, but is still so beautiful to hear and/


Claus Emmeche Center for the Philosophy of Nature and Science Studies

Otto Neurath (1882-1945) Moritz Schlick (1882-1936), 1932: Positivism and Realism Alfred J. Ayer (1910-1989), 1936: Language, Truth, and Logic Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) Herbert Feigl (1902-1988) Carl G. Hempel (1905-1997) Hans Reichenbach/of Discovery (opdagelsessammenhængen) vs. Context of Justification (begrundelsessammenhængen) Philosophy takes care of C.o.Just. while History and Psychology studies the C.o.Disc. (implied): a teleological picture of the scientific method (as intrinsicly goal-directed/


Tutorial on neural probabilistic language models

the log-likelihood: Assuming a parametric model θ Could we take advantage of higher-order history? target word word history Evaluating language models: perplexity How well can we predict next word? A random predictor would give each/C|+max|VC|) target word word history scoring function softmax [Mikolov et al, 2011, Auli et al, 2013] Hierarchical softmax by grouping words target word word history scoring function softmax [Image credits: Mikolov et al (2011) “Extensions of Recurrent Neural Network Language/


A Review of American History to Understand America’s Current Cultural Status and The Implications for Evangelization (Part 1) Original Edition Prepared.

areas. The most popular U.S. destinations in 2000 were New York City, Los Angeles, Miami, Chicago, and Washington, D.C.” (The Newest Americans, p. 17) Immigrant Admissions in 2000 Types and Reasons of Immigration Immediate Relative of U.S. Citizen =/mandate of Christ than any other era in American history. It seems that God has brought the “uttermost” to our individual “Jerusalems.” Never in the history of America has ethnic, heart language, worldview sensitive been so appropriate and required than today/


LANGUAGE CHANGE AND VARIATION IN ENGLISH (Chapter 1, pp )

context of situation), historical linguistics, history of the language, comparative linguistics, language family, Indo-European, Germanic family, Romance or Neolatin family A very important question IS THE STUDY OF THE HISTORY AND VARIETIES OF ENGLISH RELEVANT TO UNIVERSITY/” “inferior”) influence on vocabulary Development of a standard form of English around the city of London MODERN ENGLISH (c. 1500-c.1900) Chapter 1, § 3.3. Major historical/cultural events in the Modern English period 1. BRITAIN BECAME /


Contents Introduction Teaching Philosophy Foreign language Standards Why we should study another language? Language study in the United States Final course.

of a learning community both support and challenge each other, leading to effective and relevant knowledge construction; and c) Technology is used to enhance the learning experience through information dissemination, communication, collaboration, and knowledge construction. The/in the holiday that will be analyzed in depth. This unit will include various lessons ranging from language arts, geography, history, literature reading, and visual arts. It will also incorporate the use of writing journals, where /


History TTL-logic PAL (Programmable Array Logic)

Signals Dataflow Behavioural Structural Synchronous signals Simulation Design flow Example Component (inputs, outputs, behaviour) Entity, architecture, signals 6 Language XOR function entity XORport is port ( A,B: in BIT; C: out BIT History FPGA introduction FPGA structure FPGA overview VHDL introduction Structure Language Language template Signals Dataflow Behavioural Structural Synchronous signals Simulation Design flow Example XOR function entity XORport is port ( A,B: in BIT/


A Brief Introduction to the History of Computing - 4 ANU Faculty of Engineering and IT Department of Computer Science COMP1200 Perspectives on Computing.

 data control definition: naming and types storage life structure manipulation (arithmetic) Object-Oriented languages Simula 67 C++ Smalltalk Eiffel 1985 Java 1995 C# }  program modularity  program execution control jumps, conditions, loops, subroutine calls  abstraction subroutines nesting classes & inheritance Intro to History of Computing 4: programming languages17 4. Aspects of high level programming languages (1)  program (execution) control how the point of execution moves through the/


Programming Languages

Schedule Programming Paradigms PS — Introduction Roadmap Course Schedule Programming Paradigms A Quick Tour of Programming Language History © O. Nierstrasz Roadmap Course Schedule Programming Paradigms PS — Introduction Roadmap Course Schedule Programming Paradigms A Quick Tour of Programming Language History © O. Nierstrasz PS — Introduction Sources Text: Kenneth C. Louden, Programming Languages: Principles and Practice, PWS Publishing (Boston), 1993. Other Sources: Paul Hudak, “Conception, Evolution, and/


Programming Languages 1. Introduction Prof. O. Nierstrasz Spring Semester 2008.

/PL © O. Nierstrasz PS — Introduction 1.3 Roadmap  Course Schedule  Programming Paradigms  A Quick Tour of Programming Language History © O. Nierstrasz PS — Introduction 1.4 Roadmap  Course Schedule  Programming Paradigms  A Quick Tour of Programming Language History © O. Nierstrasz PS — Introduction 1.5 Sources Text:  Kenneth C. Louden, Programming Languages: Principles and Practice, PWS Publishing (Boston), 1993. Other Sources:  Paul Hudak, “Conception, Evolution, and Application of/


Programming Languages Prof. O. Nierstrasz Sommersemester 2006.

. Nierstrasz PS — Introduction 1.3 Roadmap Overview  Course schedule  Programming Paradigms  A Quick Tour of Programming Language History © O. Nierstrasz PS — Introduction 1.4 Roadmap Overview  Course schedule  Programming Paradigms  A Quick Tour of Programming Language History © O. Nierstrasz PS — Introduction 1.5 Sources Text:  Kenneth C. Louden, Programming Languages: Principles and Practice, PWS Publishing (Boston), 1993. Other Sources:  Paul Hudak, “Conception, Evolution, and Application of/


Lecture 2 Computer development history. Topic History of computer development Computer generation Programming language.

tape,Magneti c disk -printer video display Table size 4 microprocesso r Semiconduct or circuit -magnetic disk -diskette -magnetic wave keyboard Optical recognition Light pen Graphic tablet - printer, video display, audio response Typewriter size HISTORY AND COMPUTER REVOLUTION Programming Language GenerationProgramming Language 1Machine Language 2Assembly Language 3High Level Language 4Very High Level Language 5Natural Language Programming Language Machine language Low level language Use number Data/


C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 1 Principles of Programming Languages Lecture 03 Theoretical Foundations.

this sense Evidence accumulated Kleene 1936: general recursive  -Calculus definable Turing 1937: -Calculus definable  Turing-computable Post 1943, Markov 1951, etc.: many more confirmations Any modern programming language C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 50 -Calculus: History (cont.) Is the untyped -Calculus consistent? Does it have a semantics? What is its semantic domain D ? want “data objects” same as “function objects: since Trouble/


Markers, models, and measurement error: Exploring the Links Between Attention Deficits and Language Impairments SRCLD 2014.

: A practical handbook for teachers. (pp. 7-21). New York, NY: Routledge. Snowling, M.J., Bishop, D.V.M., Sothard, S.E., Chipchase, B., & Caplan, C. (2006). Psychosocial outcomes at 15 years of children with a preschool history of speech-language impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 759- 765. Spaulding, T.J., Plante, E., & Farienlla, K.A. (2006). Eligibility criteria for/


History 2015 Exam Practice 1.Which 1950s war is often referred to as the “Forgotten War?” a.Suez Crisis b.Vietnam War c.Korean War d.WWII e.Cuban Missile.

the Quebec government and required new immigrants to Quebec to learn French? a.Quebec Language Laws b.Charter of Quebec Language c.French Nationalism Act d.Law to promote Quebec Culture e.None of the above History 2015 Exam Practice 25.During which 1970 event did Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau make the infamous statement, “Just watch me” in response to his actions to/


Language Models Data-Intensive Information Processing Applications ― Session #9 Nitin Madnani University of Maryland Tuesday, April 6, 2010 This work is.

HMMs? Approximating Probabilities Basic idea: limit history to fixed number of words N (Markov Assumption) N=3: Trigram Language Model Relation to HMMs? Building N-Gram Language Models Use existing sentences to compute n-gram probability estimates (training) Terminology: N = total number of words in training data (tokens) V = vocabulary size or number of unique words (types) C(w 1,...,w k ) = frequency of/


 2002 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 1 – Introduction to Computers, the Internet, the Web and C# Outline 1.1 Introduction 1.2 What Is a.

.5 Personal Computing, Distributed Computing and Client/Server Computing 1.6 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-level Languages 1.7 C, C++, Visual Basic.NET and Java 1.8 C# 1.9 Other High-level Languages 1.10 Structured Programming 1.11 Key Software Trend: Object Technology 1.12 Hardware Trends 1.13 History of the Internet and World Wide Web 1.14 World Wide Web Consortium/


Tree Automata for Automatic Language Translation kevin knight information sciences institute university of southern california.

-k 1 - even.rtg three.rtg A(B(C) B(B(C))): 3.16E-9 % echo "A(B(C) B(C))" | tiburon -k 1 - even.rtg three.rtg Warning: returning fewer trees than requested 0 Back to the Outline History of the World (of Automata for NLP) Weighted string automata in NLP – Applications transliteration machine translation language modeling speech, lexical processing, tagging, summarization, optical character recognition/


Politics and Religion Dr. Troy Gibson.

it possible to know anything at all? How do know right from wrong? What is the meaning of human history? C. If the worldview concept is correct (everyone’s got one), then one could never divorce religion from politics./ Free Exercise - State constitutions articulated and stipulated very detailed religious liberty and conscience laws (far beyond first amendment language), recognized reality of and equality between religious groups (explosion after 2nd Great Awakening); they moved towards greater separation /


History of the English Language

, education, travel and cultural exploration. Shakespeare also wrote his plays at this time. When? 1500 C.E.--Early Modern-English begins with the Renaissance 1800 C.E.--Ends with Colonial expansion Shakespeare’s Influence on Language How large was his vocabulary? What words did Shakespeare invent? The History of English in 10 minutes chapter 3. Running Time: 1:16 Source: http://www.youtube.com/


ICE1341 Programming Languages Spring 2005 Lecture #8 Lecture #8 In-Young Ko iko.AT. icu.ac.kr iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Information and Communications University.

e.g. local variables in C subprograms and Java methods Advantage: allows recursion; conserves storage Advantage: allows recursion; conserves storage Disadvantages: overhead of allocation and deallocation; subprograms cannot be history sensitive; slower accesses (indirect addressing) Disadvantages: overhead of allocation and deallocation; subprograms cannot be history sensitive; slower accesses (indirect addressing) * AW Lecture Notes Spring 2005 7 ICE 1341 – Programming Languages © In-Young Ko, Information/


Legal French 7.

private documents The king stresses the importance of dropping Latin from the administration of law and government History of Legal French: Beginnings In 13th c. French widely used in northern France Mid-13th c. French was established language for legal documents, at least in the north 13th c.: over 2,000 documents drawn up in French Judicial matters pleaded in French in the Middle Ages/


Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Welcome and announcements.

Vocabulary Appendix B—Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks (across all subjects) Appendix C—Samples of Student Writing (across all subjects) Introduction to ELA Common Core State Standards (CCSS) & Assessment March 2011 Shared CCSS Resources across the states: Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/ Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Oregon’s Resources: ELA Crosswalk (end of/


©Subject Centre for Languages, Linguistics and Area StudiesWhat is American Studies?

Studies is different to many other degree courses because it combines a number of subjects including: History, Literature and Politics ©Subject Centre for Languages, Linguistics and Area StudiesWhat is American Studies? American Studies offers you choice You can focus / the US? A. The shark tooth museum B. The museum of death C. The hamburger hall of fame Answer: A. The shark tooth museum ©Subject Centre for Languages, Linguistics and Area StudiesWhat is American Studies? Quick quiz When did America declare/


Caribbean. Aruba History ▫F▫First inhabitants were thought to be the Caquetíos Amerinds from the Arawak tribe (migrated from Venezuela) ▫E▫Europeans discovered.

, and English are the official languages Places to visit ▫T▫Tijon Parfumerie & Boutique ▫S▫Swaliga Charters ▫C▫Captain Alans Three Island Snorkeling Adventure ▫R▫Random Wind ▫M▫Maho Beach ▫S▫Scuba Zen ▫T▫The Butterfly Farm (La Ferme des Papillons) ▫O▫Orient Beach ▫L▫Loterie Farm ▫D▫Dawn Beach Martinique History ▫D▫Discovered by Columbus in 1493 ▫C▫Claimed by French in 1635 ▫P/


Splash Screen. Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:History and Governments Section 2:Section 2:Cultures and Lifestyles Visual Summary.

. Indus Valley Civilization Section 1 About 1500 B. C., nomadic herders known as Aryans settled in northern South Asia. They developed a spoken language called Sanskrit through which they passed on hymns and religious teachings. When Sanskrit became a written language, these traditions were recorded in sacred writings called the Vedas. Early History (cont.) Section 1 Early History (cont.) The Aryans had four broad social/


Brief History of C and Unix Systems Programming Concepts.

in BCPL, and in 1970 he used B to create early versions of the UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. Copyright © Pearson, Inc. 2013. All Rights Reserved. Systems Programming C and UNIX History 4 1.6 The C Programming Language Copyright © Pearson, Inc. 2013. All Rights Reserved.  The C language was evolved from B by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories and was originally implemented in 1972/


History of Computing  Definition of Computing: Computing is the study of systematic processes that describe and transform information: their theory, analysis,

: FORTRAN (formula translator), John Backus,1954 COBOL (common business-oriented language), Grace Murray Harper and others, 1960 Pascal (Nicklaus Wirth, 1970) CS 1401 History of Computing  1900’s and Beyond: Software Generations Move from procedural languages to object-oriented languages CC++ C++ developed at Bell Labs starting in 1979 (named in 1983), “C with Classes” Java (James Gosling and others at Sun Microsystems) developed early 1990’s/


History of People in Africa. Pre-Historic Africa.

animals to find waters and graze pastures. Transition to a Settled Lifestyle –Agriculture probably develops by 6,000 B.C. –As the Sahara dried up farmers move to West Africa or Nile Valley. –Agriculture allows permanent settlements / Local Religions –Early religions usually include elements of animism-belief in spirits inhabiting objects Keeping a History –Few African societies have written languagesHistory, literature, culture passed on by story tellers called griots. –Cultures in West Africa are advanced/


1. 2 PERIODS OF HISTORY ACCORDING TO OFFICIAL VERSION PERIODS OF HISTORY ACCORDING TO TRADITIONAL VERSION  1. The Indus Civilization (3500-1900 BCE.

have entered India from the northwest bringing with them the Sanskrit language and Vedic culture THERE ARE TWO VERSIONS OF ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY BCE:  The official version (taught in history books and text books)  Traditional version found in the /, centred on the opposition of Devas and Asuras, was also adopted, along with Indo-European systems of ancestor worship”.  (c) This whole transformation left absolutely no trace in the archaeological or ethnic record, or in traditional memory. 18  Summing up/


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