Ppt on c language functions

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Department of Computer Science and Engineering CSCE 330 Programming Language Structures Chapter 1: Introduction Fall 2010.

comments and programmer discipline lack of iterators in just about everything fake them with (member?) functions UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Department of Computer Science and Engineering What makes a language successful? Easy to learn (BASIC, Pascal, LOGO, Scheme) Easy to express things, easy use once fluent, "powerful” (C, Common Lisp, APL, Algol-68, Perl) Easy to implement (BASIC, Forth) Possible to compile to/


1 Al Aho Programming Languages and Translators COMS W4115 Alfred V. Aho Lecture 1 January 21, 2015.

-paradigm programming 35 Al Aho Some New Languages to Watch Elm –a functional language for creating web GUIs Rust – an efficient multi-paradigm systems language Swift –Apple’s new language to replace Objective-C 36 Al Aho Example New Language: Elm Elm is a functional programming language for declaratively creating web browser based graphical user interfaces. It uses functional reactive programming and purely functional graphical layout to build user interfaces without/


Programming Languages Third Edition

(cont’d.) Manifest constant: a name for a literal Dynamic constant: its value must be computed during execution Function definitions in virtually all languages are definitions of constants whose values are functions This differs from a function variable in C, which must be defined as a pointer Programming Languages, Third Edition Constants (cont’d.) a and b are compile-time constants a is a manifest constant/


Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 5 th Edition Chapter 12: High-Level Language Interface (c) Pearson Education, 2006-2007. All rights reserved.

, 2007. 16 Linking Assembly Language to Visual C++ Basic Structure - Two Modules The first module, written in assembly language, contains the external procedure The second module contains the C/C++ code that starts and ends the program The C++ module adds the extern qualifier to the external assembly language function prototype. The "C" specifier must be included to prevent name decoration by the C++ compiler: extern "C" functionName( parameterList ); Web siteWeb/


1 Languages and Compilers (SProg og Oversættere) Lecture 8 Bent Thomsen Department of Computer Science Aalborg University With acknowledgement to Simon.

pass by name (also called call by name) 48 Lazy Evaluation Lazy evaluation is mainly done in purely functional languages Some languages support a mix The effect of lazy evaluation can be implemented in functional languages with eager evaluation –Use thunking fn()=>exp and pass function instead of exp C# 2.0 has a Lazy evaluation construct: –yield return which can be used with Iterators 49 Infix/


Formal Language Transparency No. 1-1 Formal Language and Automata Theory Cheng-Chia Chen February 2003.

defining a set (or domain)   : a set, Init: a subset of  F: a set of functions on ,  we define a subset  of  as follows: 1. Initialization: Every element of Init is an/Transparency No. 1-67 A language for specifying languages  In the term: a language for specifying languages, the former language is called a metalanguage while the later languages are called target languages. So in the C language reference manual, the BNF form is a meta language and C itself is the target language.  : an alphabet ; /


Week 7. Transfer and the “initial state” for L2A. And other things. GRS LX 700 Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory.

of the clausal structure. Vainikka & Young-Scholten V&YS claim that L2 phrase structure initially has no functional projections, and so as a consequence the only information that can be transferred from L1 at the initial /cède [sed]1plnous cédons[sed.dõ] 1sgje cède [sed]1plnous cédons[sed.dõ] 2sgtu cèdes [sed]2plvous cédez[sed.de] 2sgtu cèdes [sed]2plvous cédez[sed.de] 3sgil cède [sed] 3plils cèdent[sed] 3sgil cède [sed] 3plils cèdent[sed] Some French “irregulars” If people are really “built for language/


Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 5 th Edition Chapter 12: High-Level Language Interface (c) Pearson Education, 2006-2007. All rights reserved.

, 2007. 16 Linking Assembly Language to Visual C++ Basic Structure - Two Modules The first module, written in assembly language, contains the external procedure The second module contains the C/C++ code that starts and ends the program The C++ module adds the extern qualifier to the external assembly language function prototype. The "C" specifier must be included to prevent name decoration by the C++ compiler: extern "C" functionName( parameterList ); Web siteWeb/


ISBN 0-321-33025-0 Chapter 15 Functional Programming Languages.

Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Intro to Scheme We’ll use DrScheme Language Pack: Swindle Copyright © 2006 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.1-16 LISP Interpretation Lambda notation is used to specify functions and function definitions. Function applications and data have the same form. e.g., If the list (A B C) is interpreted as data it is a simple list of three atoms, A/


Week 2. The emergence of syntax GRS LX 700 Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory.

we can look for evidence of their effects in child language. We do know what various functional projections are supposed to be responsible for, and so we can look for evidence of their effects in child language. Morphology (case, tense, agreement) Morphology (case, /finite verbs. Nonfinite verbs remain at the end of the sentence (after the object). — I IP DP V VP kaufteHans C+I C CP — — den Ball German clause structure Things other than subjects can appear in “first position”. Things other than subjects can/


Week 10. Functional projections GRS LX 700 Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory.

Finally, kids reach a stage where the whole tree is there and they use all nominative subjects, even in wh-questions. Agr AgrP C C CP that she DP T T TP VDP V VP will eat lunch Vainikka (1993/4) So, to summarize the L1A proposal: Acquisition /’s (L1A/L2A) knowledge (at a given point). It has been pretty well established by theoretical linguistics that adult native languages are quite complex, containing functional phrases like AgrP, TP and CP, and there is a lot of support for this idea that most if not all/


Multi-Paradigm Programming in Oz for Natural Language Processing Torbjörn Lager, 2003 Acknowledgement: Some of the slides are due to van Roy, Haridi and.

[] Head|Tail then Head == X orelse {Member X Tail} end X = {Member c [a b c d]} NLP in Oz 17 Higher-Order Programming  A programming language supports higher-order programming if:  Functions can be passed as arguments to other functions  The result of applying a function to its arguments can be another functionFunctions can be put in data structures NLP in Oz 18 Examples: SquareList and/


Jon Sayles, IBM Software Group, Rational EcoSystems Team

Section Structured Programming Concepts, professional COBOL development practices and Coding Patterns Advanced Character Manipulation, COBOL Intrinsic Functions, Date and Time coding patterns, and Language Environment calls OS/390 Concepts and JCL - Compile/Link & Run Procs on the mainframe / This is a workshop slide. On your workstation (using Notepad), create a new data file on your c: drive, named: c:customerIn.dat Copy and paste in the following text lines – then close and save the file: 1111111My Big/


C++ Training Datascope Lawrence D’Antonio Lecture 9 An Overview of C++: What is Typing?

then it’s a duck.”   In dynamically typed languages such as Ruby and Python, polymorphism can be achieved without the use of inheritance. Duck typing 2   Pseudo-code example: function calculate(a, b, c) => return (a+b)*c a = calculate(1, 2, 3) b = /can use static_cast to convert a pointer to a member function from one class to another class that are related by inheritance. Is this legal? class C { }; class D { public: void foo() { } }; C myC; void (C::*pmc)() = static_cast (&D::foo); (myC.*pmc)(); No/


C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 1 Principles of Programming Languages Lecture 03 Theoretical Foundations.

dont agree [literal] operator domain: real operand:int in expression: sq1 3 - C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 11 Defining Functions Two views of ``mapping’’ Extension: view as a collection of facts Comprehension: view/: int -> int - square(5); val it = 25 : int C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 12 Defining Functions (cont.) Examples of -notation defining functions   u C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 13 Defining Functions (cont.) - val double = (fn n => n+n); val double/


Languages and Compilers (SProg og Oversættere) Lecture 8

are passed using pass by name (also called call by name) Lazy evaluation is mainly done in purely functional languages Some languages support a mix The effect of lazy evaluation can be implemented in functional languages with eager evaluation Use thunking fn()=>exp and pass function instead of exp C# 2.0 has a Lazy evaluation construct: yield return which can be used with Iterators Infix and/


Week 2. The emergence of syntax GRS LX 700 Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory.

. Nonfinite verbs remain at the end of the sentence (after the object). — I IP DP V VP kaufteHans C+I C CP — — den Ball German clause structure Things other than subjects can appear in “first position”. Things other than/languages do accord with the prediction. Theories of missing structure No functional projections. (Radford) Kids don’t have any functional projections (TP, CP, and so forth). This comes later. No TP, no tense distinction. No functional projections. (Radford) Kids don’t have any functional /


1 Strings and Languages Operations Concatenation Exponentiation Kleene Star Regular Expressions.

typically referred to as a “computational model” in a course like this. 36 C++ Our programming language will be C++ with minor modifications Main procedure will use input parameters in a fashion similar to other procedures no argc/argv Output will be returned type specified by main function type 37 Maximum Element Problem Input integer n ≥ 1 List of n integers Output The largest/


24/06/2015CSE1303 Part B lecture notes 1 Interpreters, compilers and assembly language Lecture B07 Lecture notes section B07.

of these exist but broadly similar 24/06/2015CSE1303 Part B lecture notes 10 MIPS assembly languageFunction to calculate a factorial: # Computes factorial of number (n) in $a0 # and returns/c) assembly language (.s) object code (.o) executable translation performed by a translator assembling performed by an assembler linking performed by a linker 24/06/2015CSE1303 Part B lecture notes 22 Compilers  Some programs may refer to variables or functions defined elsewhere  e.g., printf or strlen functions/


 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 1 – Introduction to Computers and C++ Programming Outline 1.1 Introduction 1.2 What is a Computer?

items in real world Object-oriented programs –Easy to understand, correct and modify –Hybrid language C-like style Object-oriented style Both  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 1.8 C++ Standard Library C++ programs –Built from pieces called classes and functions C++ standard library –Rich collections of existing classes and functions “Building block approach” to creating programs –“Software reuse”  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All/


Chapter 9: The Tower of Babel Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Fourth Edition Additions by S. Steinfadt for SP08.

in the late 1970s A functional programming language views every task in terms of functions Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Fourth Edition 32 Functional Programming (continued) In a functional programming language  Primitive functions are part of the language  Other functions can be defined and named by the programmer  Once defined, functions can be used in the definition of other functions Functional programming languages sometimes called applicative languages Invitation to Computer Science/


Chapter 9: The Tower of Babel Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Fourth Edition Editied / additions by S. Steinfadt for SP09.

in the late 1970s A functional programming language views every task in terms of functions Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Fourth Edition 32 Functional Programming (continued) In a functional programming language  Primitive functions are part of the language  Other functions can be defined and named by the programmer  Once defined, functions can be used in the definition of other functions Functional programming languages sometimes called applicative languages Invitation to Computer Science/


Chapter 9: The Tower of Babel

MIT Scheme A functional programming language derived from LISP in the late 1970s A functional programming language views every task in terms of functions Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Third Edition Functional Programming (continued) In a functional programming language Primitive functions are part of the language Other functions can be defined and named by the programmer Once defined, functions can be used in the definition of other functions Functional programming languages sometimes called/


May 14, 2002 Macro Languages AoPL, S02 Macro Languages Claus Brabrand Michael I. Schwartzbach BRICS, University of Aarhus, Denmark.

macros: CPP, M4, T E X, ( Dylan ) Syntax macros: C++ templates, Scheme, JTS, MS 2 The macro language Metamorphic syntax macros Next week: The metafront Tool Specificity parsing Language transformation May 14, 2002 Macro Languages AoPL, S02 Introduction May 14, 2002 Macro Languages AoPL, S02 “Macro” Webster’s(“macro”) = Main Entry: 2 macro Pronunciation: ma-(")krO Function: noun Inflected Form(s): plural macros Etymology: short for/


Other Languages We wrap up our examination of programming languages by briefly considering a wide variety we will look at some meaningfully important historic.

, Prolog – pattern matching on symbolic data APL – structured data manipulation C++ & Smalltalk – OO Pascal/C – procedural programming using modules FORTRAN/C – contains a number of built-in mathematical functions as a tool, the language has an interpreted interface for session work, much like Lisp, Python, Ruby, a 2D and 3D data visualizer to plot mathematical functions built-in solvers for systems of equations, differential equations, recurrence/


ISBN 0-321-33025-0 Chapter 7 Expressions and Assignment Statements CE2004 Principles of Programming Languages EIGHTH EDITION.

checking. –In the case of subprograms, it is the type of the parameters that must be checked. 1-38 Usage of Subprogram Declarations Function declarations are common in C and C++ programs, where they are called prototypes. In most other languages, subprograms do not need declarations, because there is no requirement that subprograms defined before they are called. 1-39 Approaches a Subprogram Could/


Introduction to Programming

object, of general class of automobiles Program Translation C++ source program: Set of instructions written in C++ language Machine language: Internal computer language Consists of a series of 1s and 0s Source program cannot be executed until it is translated into machine language Interpreted language translates one statement at a time Compiled language translates all statements together Program Translation (continued) Function and Class Names Modular programs: Segments arranged in/


1 Towards More Natural Functional Programming Languages Brad A. Myers Human-Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University.

associative and some are right-associative. Consider: a=b+=c=+d*e+++f==g which is a legal statement in C++ and C n Deep nesting in functional languages n “Too many parentheses” n HCI principle (“keep it simple”) C, C++ have 16 levels of precedence that have to be /some of which are left-associative and some are right-associative. Consider: a=b+=c=+d*e+++f==g which is a legal statement in C++ and C n Deep nesting in functional languages n “Too many parentheses” 31 Help the user get started with the system n /


Lecture #2, Jan. 10, 2007 Evaluating expressions Defining functions

evenprod x y = even(x * y); Conditional Expressions: If fun minpair (x,y) = if x < y then x else y; Multi Argument functions: By Currying fun f a b c = a + b + c + 1; has type val f = fn : int -> int -> int -> int READ AS: int -> (int -> (int -> int)) /never change. The nil constructor [] for lists is an example. Constructor Functions Constructor functions allocate in the heap. Each constructor may allocate a different amount of memory If we had to do this in C we might write list cons (void * hd, list tl) {/


CSE 452: Programming Languages

90 do Ada does not allow subprogram parameters Java does not allow method names to be passed as parameters C and C++ - pass pointers to functions; parameters can be type checked What is the correct referencing environment for a subprogram that was sent as / vulnerability used by hackers to compromise the integrity of a system Problem is due to Lack of safety feature in language design bad coding by programmers Buffer overflow attack The effectiveness of the buffer overflow attack has been common knowledge in/


ISBN 0-321-49362-1 Chapter 15 Functional Programming Languages.

form: parenthesized collections of sublists and/or atoms e.g., (A B (C D) E) Originally, LISP was a typeless language LISP lists are stored internally as single- linked lists Copyright © 2007 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.1-12 LISP Interpretation Lambda notation is used to specify functions and function definitions. Function applications and data have the same form. e.g., If the list (A/


1 Names, Scopes and Bindings and Bindings. 2 High-level programming languages High-level features relative to assembly language High-level features relative.

goto-statement) 75 Subroutines & classes First-class First-class functional languages functional languages note: these can even create new subroutines note: these can even create new subroutines Modula-2 & -3, Ada 95, C, C++ Modula-2 & -3, Ada 95, C, C++ language-specific restrictions on use language-specific restrictions on use Second-class Second-class almost all other languages almost all other languages Ada 83: third-class Ada 83: third-class 76/


CSEP505: Programming Languages Lecture 3: semantics via translation, equivalence & properties, lambda introduction Dan Grossman Spring 2006.

C ::= [.] | C + e | e + C | C * e | e * C Different definitions could allow the hole in fewer places Recursive metafunction: ctxt->exp->exp “fills the hole” [.][e] = e (C + e’)[e] = C[e] + e’ (e’ + C)[e] = e’ + C[e] (C * e’)[e] = C[e] * e’ (e’ * C)[e] = e’ * C/ e2 if e1 then e2 else false Last one exists in most languages 11 April 2006CSE P505 Spring 2006 Dan Grossman38 Function equivalences There are 3 equivalences related to functions 1.Systematic renaming (“alpha”-equivalence) fun x -> e1 is equivalent to/


1 CSE P 505: Programming Languages Craig Chambers Fall 2003.

l.h.s. variable refer to its r.h.s. value No implicit copying upon binding, parameter passing, returning from a function, storing in a data structure like Java, Scheme, Smalltalk, … (all high-level languages) unlike C, where non-pointer values are copied C arrays? Reference-oriented values are heap-allocated (logically) scalar values like ints, reals, chars, bools, nil optimized 35 Garbage collection/


CS E6998-1: Advanced Topics in Programming Languages and Compilers Alfred V. Aho Lecture 1 – Introduction to Course September 8, 2014.

the lambda calculus such as lambda expressions have been incorporated into many widely used programming languages like C++ and very recently Java 8. Grammar for the Lambda Calculus The central concept in the lambda calculus is an expression which can denote a function definition (called a function abstraction) or a function application. expr → abstraction | application | (expr) | var | constant abstraction → λ var. expr application → expr expr We/


Programming Languages Third Edition Chapter 12 Formal Semantics.

is the most general or weakest assertion with the property that Called the weakest precondition of postcondition Q and construct C Written as Can now restate the property as Axiomatic Semantics (cont’d.) We define the axiomatic semantics of language construct C as the function from assertion to assertion –Called a predicate transformer: takes a predicate as argument and returns a predicate result –Computes/


LINGUISTICS May,2004 惠州学院外语系 曾方本 副教授 Chapter one INTRODUCTION 1.What is linguistics? 1.What is linguistics? the scientific study of language the scientific.

feature,morphology,morpheme,free morpheme,bound morpheme, derivation,compounding, conversion, clipping, blending, backformation, acronym,abbreviation, syntax,N.Chomsky,I.C analysis,T.G grammar,surface structure,deep structure,systemic-functional grammar,semantics,Bloomfield,sense/reference, synonymy Linguistics,creativity(of language),duality,arbitrariness,displacement, descriptive/prescriptive,synchronic/diachronic,langue/parole,syntagmatic/p aradigmatic,F.D.Saussure,phonetics,vowel,consonant,phonology/


Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 4 th Edition Chapter 12: High-Level Language Interface (c) Pearson Education, 2002. All rights reserved. You.

Computers, 2003. 14 Linking Assembly Language to C++ Basic Structure - Two Modules The first module, written in assembly language, contains the external procedure The second module contains the C/C++ code that starts and ends the program The C++ module adds the extern qualifier to the external assembly language function prototype. The "C" specifier must be included to prevent name decoration by the C++ compiler: extern "C" functionName( parameterList ); Web siteWeb/


ISBN 0-321-33025-0 Chapter 15 Functional Programming Languages.

sublists and/or atoms e.g., (A B (C D) E) Originally, LISP was a typeless language LISP lists are stored internally as single- linked lists Copyright © 2006 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.1-12 Copyright © 2006 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.1-13 LISP Interpretation Lambda notation is used to specify functions and function definitions. Function applications and data have the same form. e/


1 Strings and Languages Operations Concatenation Exponentiation Kleene Star Regular Expressions.

typically referred to as a “computational model” in a course like this. 36 C++ Our programming language will be C++ with minor modifications Main procedure will use input parameters in a fashion similar to other procedures no argc/argv Output will be returned type specified by main function type 37 Maximum Element Problem Input integer n >= 1 List of n integers Output The largest/


ISBN 0-321-33025-0 Chapter 6 Data Types CE2004 Principles of Programming Languages.

Pattern matching is another fundamental character string operation. –In some languages, pattern matching is supported directly in the language. Perl, JavaScript, and PHP include built-in pattern matching operations. –In others, it is provided by a function or class library. Pattern-matching capabilities are included in the class libraries of C++, Java, and C#. 1-33 String Length Options There are several design choices regarding/


Week 3. Structure-building approaches to syntax acquisition GRS LX 700 Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory.

Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory Several classes of theories No functional projections. (Radford) Kids don’t have any functional projections (TP, CP, and so forth). This comes later. No TP, no tense distinction. No functional projections. (Radford) Kids don’t have any functional /-V2 position. Poeppel & Wexler (1993): German kids typically exclude null subjects from post-V2 position. Null subjects and C It looks like: If the kid shows evidence of CP (wh-words, V2), then the kid also does not drop/


Cg: A system programming graphics hardware in a C-like language William R. Mark The University of Texas at Austin R. Steven Glanville NVIDIA Corporation.

the interface by defining a struct (i.e. class) that contains definition for the interface’s function Other Language Design Decisions Function overloading by types and by profiles Constants are typeless No type checking for textures Function Overloading by Types and by Profile data typeSupport function overloading by data type –mechanism is similar to C++ (less complex) profileAlso permit overloaded by profile multiple versions of a/


A Course on Linguistics for Students of English

of a wolf child, a pig child shows that a human being brought up in isolation simply does not acquire human language. Functions of language Phatic: establishing an atmosphere or maintaining social contact. Directive: get the hearer to do something. Informative: give information about /add any lexical meaning, e.g. a) number: tables apples cars b) person, finiteness and aspect: talk/talks/talking/talked c) case: John/John’s Some other terms Root Stem Base Root A root is that part of the word left when all /


Assembly Language for x86 Processors 6th Edition Chapter 13: High-Level Language Interface (c) Pearson Education, 2010. All rights reserved. You may modify.

, and parameter types. For example: int_ArraySum_pInt_int The problem with name decoration is that the C++ compiler assumes that your assembly language functions name is decorated. The C++ compiler tells the linker to look for a decorated name. C++ compilers vary in the way they decorate function names. Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for x86 Processors 6/e, 2010. 18 Whats Next Introduction Inline Assembly Code Linking to/


CSC Software II: Principles of Programming Languages

all memory locations). A program consists if a sequence of statements and the execution of each statement changes the machine state. Programs take the form: statement1; statement2; … … FORTRAN, COBOL, C, Pascal, PL/I are all imperative languages. 39 Functional Languages An functional programming language looks at the function that the program represents rather than the state changes as each statement is executed. The key question is: What/


Week 13. L2 morphology v. functional projections GRS LX 700 Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory.

knowledge (at a given point). It has been pretty well established by theoretical linguistics that adult native languages are quite complex, containing functional phrases like AgrP, TP and CP, and there is a lot of support for this idea that/non-native contrasts. Infants start with but lose the ability to distinguish non-native contrasts. French “irregulars” cédez vs. cède. French “irregulars” cédez vs. cède. Phonological features, distinctions, l/r in Mandarin vs. Japanese; geminates in E  J. Phonological /


Accelerated C/C++ Advanced OOP CS 440/540 Spring 2015 Kenneth Chiu.

is bound to the *. Associativity is which operator gets executed first when the precedence is the same. – a + b + c (a + b) + c – a – b + c (a – b) + c – a + b – c (a + b) – c – a/b/c (a/b)/c – i = j = k = 1234; ((i = j) = k) = 1234; i = (j = (k /one-to-one basis. void f(int i) { … } f: save_regs ld r0, sp(0) add ret One function in source code One function assembly language Compilation A single template serves as a pattern, so it can be used multiple times to create multiple “instantiations”. template void /


TESOL COMMUNIVERSITY TRAINING PROGRAM

KILA MODEL (TESOL JOURNAL 2005) K-Knowledge Considerations Input/output assumption Language Content/topic Language functions Texts Student response I-Instructional Considerations Teacher input Methods, materials, programs,/LANGUAGE SKILLS: Listening, speaking, reading, writing (INTEGRATED) vocabulary,grammar, spelling, pronunciation, III. OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson the students will be able to: a. identify singular and plural nouns b. use them correctly in function, forms, sounds, and meaning c/


CHAPTER 1: INTORDUCTION TO C LANGUAGE

. Sometimes it is also called the mid-level language. C language encourages the users to write their own library function so that they can extend the features of the language. C program can be executed on any type of computers. The program written in C language can be converted into machine language more efficiently. Computer games can be generated in C language which is accomplished through the usage of sound graphics/


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