Ppt on c language

Chapter 2 Instructions: Language of the Computer.

makes implementation simpler Simplicity enables higher performance at lower cost §2.2 Operations of the Computer Hardware Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 9 Arithmetic Example C code: f = (g + h) - (i + j); Compiled MIPS code: add t0, g, h # temp/Any arguments and temporaries needed after the call Restore from the stack after the call Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 47 Non-Leaf Procedure Example C code: int fact (int n) { if (n < 1) return f; else return n */

Natural Language and Dialogue Systems Lab Limitations of Propositional Logic => Predicate Calculus.

(x,y)  Ones mother is ones female parent  m,c Mother(c) = m  (Female(m)  Parent(m,c))  “Sibling” is symmetric  x,y Sibling(x,y)  Sibling(y,x) NATURAL LANGUAGE AND DIALOGUE SYSTEMS LABUC SANTA CRUZ Knowledge and Syntactic Structures (The RTE/  E.g.,  x Crown(x)  OnHead(x,John) yields: Crown(C 1 )  OnHead(C 1,John) provided C 1 is a new constant symbol, called a Skolem constant NATURAL LANGUAGE AND DIALOGUE SYSTEMS LABUC SANTA CRUZ Reduction to propositional inference Suppose the KB contains just /

Introduction The Approach ’ s Overview A Language of Pointers The Type System Operational Semantics Type Safety Type Inference The Rest of C Experiments.

.2528 go2931596402.0151 ijpeg31371361622.1530 li776193601.8650 bh2053801801.5394 bisort707901001.0342 em3d557851502.447 ks97392801.4731 health72593700.9425 Introduction The Approach ’ s Overview A Language of Pointers The Type System Operational Semantics Type Safety Type Inference The Rest of C Experiments Summary  ks passes FILE* to printf, not char*  compress, ijpeg: array bound violations  go: 8 array bound violations  go: 1 uninit variable/

Tutorial on Language-Based Security PLDI 2003 San Diego Greg Morrisett Cornell University

payload code in s. NB: neither attack is viable with a type-safe language such as Java. But who’s going to rewrite 50Mloc in Java/C#? Language-Based SecurityJune 2003 13 1988: Morris Worm Penetrated an estimated 6,000 machines /) 42 chars char * == char *{1} char @{n+m}  char @{n}  char *{n}  char ? Language-Based SecurityJune 2003 61 Compatibility Porting most C code is fairly straightforward: –mostly, convert t* to t? where necessary –use advanced type features (polymorphism, tagged unions, existential/

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Department of Computer Science and Engineering CSCE 330 Programming Language Structures Chapter 1: Introduction Fall 2010.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Improved background for choosing appropriate languages C vs. Modula-3 vs. C++ for systems programming Fortran vs. APL vs. Ada for numerical computations Ada vs. /Milner, 1978) Haskell (Committee, 1990) Eiffel (Bertrand Meyer, 1992) Java (Sun and James Gosling, 1993?) C# (Microsoft, 2001?) Scripting languages such as Perl, etc. Etc. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Department of Computer Science and Engineering Alain Colmerauer and John/

1 Muhammed Al-MulhemVisual Languages Visual Programming Languages ICS 519 Part 1 ICS Department KFUPM Sept. 15, 2002.

If type (Y) = PROCESS Then NAME(X)NAME (Y) b3)If Y op andop  {&, L, +} Then OP(X)OP(Y) 79 Muhammed Al-MulhemVisual Languages c) X M op L c1) If type (M) = OBJECT and type (L) = PROCESS Then NAME(X)RESULT-NAME [NAME(L), NAME (M), ‘null-obj/(op2)] REF(X)SET-REF (L, M1, M2, op1, op2) CG (X)SELECTIVE-MERGE (L, M1, M2, op1, op2) 83 Muhammed Al-MulhemVisual Languages Semantic rules c and d make use of the following procedures: Procedure LINK (X, M1, M2, op) relRELATION [NAME(M1), NAME (M2), OP(op)] case rel of /

1 Al Aho Programming Languages and Translators COMS W4115 Alfred V. Aho Lecture 1 January 21, 2015.

of final grade Course project: 40% of final grade 12 Al Aho Course Prerequisites Fluency in C, C++, Java, Python or equivalent language COMS W3157: Advanced Programming –makefiles –version control –testing COMS W3261: Computer Science Theory –regular / side effects). –Statements influence subsequent computations by changing the value of memory. –Examples: C, C++, C#, Fortran, Java 46 Al Aho Kinds of Languages - 2 Object-oriented –Program consists of interacting objects. –Each object has its own internal/

Programming Languages Third Edition

Edition Aliases, Dangling References, and Garbage There are several problems with naming and dynamic allocation conventions of programming languages, especially C, C++, and Ada As a programmer, you can learn to avoid those problematic situations As a language designer, you can build solutions into your language Programming Languages, Third Edition Aliases Alias: occurs when the same object is bound to two different names at the same/

Chapter 2 Instructions: Language of the Computer.

makes implementation simpler Simplicity enables higher performance at lower cost §2.2 Operations of the Computer Hardware Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 5 Arithmetic Example C code: f = (g + h) - (i + j); Compiled MIPS code: add t0, g, h # /in \$ra Jumps to target address Procedure return: jump register jr \$ra Copies \$ra to program counter Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 47 Leaf Procedure Example C code: int leaf_example (int g, h, i, j) { int f; f = (g + h) - (i/

Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 1 Lecture 7: Word Sense Disambiguation (Chapter 7 of Manning and Schutze) Wen-Hsiang Lu ( 盧文祥 ) Department.

, from a labeled training corpus. –P(v j |s k ) = C(v j,s k )/C(s k ) –P(s k ) = C(s k )/C(w) Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 11 Bayesian Disambiguation Algorithm Training: for all senses s k of w do/ only the contextually appropriate definitions based on a prior iteration. –Expand each word in context c with synonyms from a thesaurus. Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 23 Thesaurus-Based Disambiguation This approach exploits the semantic categorization provided by a thesaurus (e/

Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 5 th Edition Chapter 12: High-Level Language Interface (c) Pearson Education, 2006-2007. All rights reserved.

the integer is found, and false if it is not: Web siteWeb site ExamplesExamples Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers 5/e, 2007. 31 Code Produced by C++ Compiler _searchVal\$ = 8 _array\$ = 12 _count\$ = 16 _i\$ = -4 _FindArray PROC NEAR ;/], eax optimization switch turned off (1 of 3) Web siteWeb site ExamplesExamples Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers 5/e, 2007. 32 Code Produced by C++ Compiler \$L174: mov ecx, DWORD PTR _i\$[ebp] cmp ecx, DWORD PTR _count\$[ebp] jge /

Week 12. Language Universals, and the beginnings of a model GRS LX 700 Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory.

: ceder ‘yield’ Infinitive: ceder ‘yield’ 1sgje cède [sed]1plnous cédons[sed.dõ] 1sgje cède [sed]1plnous cédons[sed.dõ] 2sgtu cèdes [sed]2plvous cédez[sed.de] 2sgtu cèdes [sed]2plvous cédez[sed.de] 3sgil cède [sed] 3plils cèdent[sed] 3sgil cède [sed] 3plils cèdent[sed] Some French “irregulars” If people are really “built for language” and are able to pick up/

1 Languages and Compilers (SProg og Oversættere) Lecture 8 Bent Thomsen Department of Computer Science Aalborg University With acknowledgement to Simon.

the result of x = 5; y = (x = 3) + x; Possible answers: 6 or 8 Depends on language, and sometimes compiler –C allows compiler to decide –SML forces left-to-right evaluation Note assignment in SML returns a unit value.. but we could/is the order of operand evaluation? 4. Are there restrictions on operand evaluation side effects? 5. Does the language allow user-defined operator overloading? C++, Ada allow user defined overloading Can lead to readability problems 6. What mode mixing is allowed in expressions? /

PLLab, NTHU,Cs2403 Programming Languages Subprogram and its implementation.

int a[ ]) { a[13] = 77; // run-time error } main( ) { int a[10]; a[3] = 55; fun(a); } PLLab, NTHU,Cs2403 Programming Languages Interesting C pointer usage fun(int *a) { a = (int *) malloc(40); a[5] = 1234; } main( ) { int *array; fun(array); printf(“%d”, array[5]); /call A; end call B; end Proc A reference environment Static scope: A  main Dynamic scope: A  B  main PLLab, NTHU,Cs2403 Programming Languages Procedure C; integer x, z; integer x, z; begin begin x := u + v; x := u + v; … end; end; Procedure B;/

Formal Language Transparency No. 1-1 Formal Language and Automata Theory Cheng-Chia Chen February 2003.

: direct from the definition of A*) Introduction Transparency No. 1-67 A language for specifying languages  In the term: a language for specifying languages, the former language is called a metalanguage while the later languages are called target languages. So in the C language reference manual, the BNF form is a meta language and C itself is the target language.  : an alphabet ;  =  U { +, *, e , ·, ), ( };  E =  U {~,  }  1. The set of all regular/

Einführung in die Informatik 2. Programming Languages, Paradigms and Technology Institut für Informatik und angewandte Mathematik.

; begin if b= 0 then gcd := a else begin x := a; while (x >= b) do begin x := x - b end; gcd := gcd(b,x) end begin end begin C — 1972 © Oscar Nierstrasz Programming Languages, Paradigms and Technology 35 Good for portable systems programming Bridging low- and high-level programming #include //echo the command line arguments int main (int argc, char* argv[]) { int/

Chapter 6: An Introduction to System Software and Virtual Machines Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Third Edition.

1100 Labellocation x5 y6 z7 Symbol Table Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Third Edition 25 Assembly Language (continued) Advantages of writing in assembly language rather than machine language 1. Use of symbolic operation codes rather than numeric (binary) / : Add 1 to the value of i (line 7). Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Third Edition 28 Examples of Assembly Language Code (continued) Assembly language translation LOAD ONE --Put a 1 into register R. STORE I --Store the constant 1/

Week 7. Transfer and the “initial state” for L2A. And other things. GRS LX 700 Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory.

: ceder ‘yield’ Infinitive: ceder ‘yield’ 1sgje cède [sed]1plnous cédons[sed.dõ] 1sgje cède [sed]1plnous cédons[sed.dõ] 2sgtu cèdes [sed]2plvous cédez[sed.de] 2sgtu cèdes [sed]2plvous cédez[sed.de] 3sgil cède [sed] 3plils cèdent[sed] 3sgil cède [sed] 3plils cèdent[sed] Some French “irregulars” If people are really “built for language” and are able to pick up/

Week 5. Second Language Acquisition: introduction GRS LX 700 Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory.

: ceder ‘yield’ Infinitive: ceder ‘yield’ 1sgje cède [sed]1plnous cédons[sed.dõ] 1sgje cède [sed]1plnous cédons[sed.dõ] 2sgtu cèdes [sed]2plvous cédez[sed.de] 2sgtu cèdes [sed]2plvous cédez[sed.de] 3sgil cède [sed] 3plils cèdent[sed] 3sgil cède [sed] 3plils cèdent[sed] Some French “irregulars” If people are really “built for language” and are able to pick up/

Cse322, Programming Languages and Compilers 1 6/14/2015 Lecture #13, May 15, 2007 Control flow graphs, Liveness using data flow, dataflow equations, Using.

a","c"],["c"]|] val it = [|[],["a","c"],["b","c"],["b"],["a","c"],["a","c"],[]|] - computeInOut succ defN useN live_in live_out [6,5,4,3,2,1]; val it = [|[],["c"],["a","c"],["b","c"],["b","c"],["a","c"],["c"]|] val it = [|[],["a","c"],["b","c"],["b","c"],["a","c"],["a","c"],[]|] - computeInOut succ defN useN live_in live_out [6,5,4,3,2,1]; val it = [|[],["c"],["a","c"],["b","c"],["b","c"],["a","c"],["c"]|] val it = [|[],["a","c"],["b","c"],["b","c"],["a","c"],["a","c"],[]|] Cse322, Programming Languages/

C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages Principles of Programming Languages Lecture 08 Control Semantics & Continuations.

: Command  Environ  Cont  Store  Store I.e., execute : Command  Environ  Cont  Cont Command ::=... | Command ; Command execute 〚 C ₁ ; C ₂ 〛 env cont = let c ₂​ = execute 〚 C ₂ 〛 env cont in let c ₁ = execute 〚 C ₁ 〛 env c ₂ in c ₁ Diagram C ₁ ; C ₂ cont c ₂​ = execute 〚 C ₂ 〛 env cont execute is a continuation transformer c ₁ = execute 〚 C ₁ 〛 env cC SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 11 Label Use (cont.) goto —a broken promise execute 〚 goto L 〛 env cont sto = let contin/

Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 5 th Edition Chapter 12: High-Level Language Interface (c) Pearson Education, 2006-2007. All rights reserved.

04] [EBP + 08] [EBP + 12] [EBP + 16] Web siteWeb site ExamplesExamples Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers 5/e, 2007. 32 Code Produced by C++ Compiler \$L174: mov ecx, DWORD PTR _i\$[ebp] cmp ecx, DWORD PTR _count\$[ebp] jge SHORT \$L176 ; 31 /; 34 : return false; jmp SHORT \$L175 (2 of 3) Web siteWeb site ExamplesExamples Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers 5/e, 2007. 33 Code Produced by C++ Compiler \$L176: xor al, al; AL = 0 \$L172: ; 35 : } mov esp, ebp; restore /

1 Nominal Calculi for Transactions: JOIN Roberto Bruni Dipartimento di Informatica Università di Pisa Models and Languages for Coordination and Orchestration.

@ IMT Lucca 13 April 2005 Institutions Markets Technologies IMT 56 Models and Languages for Coordination and Orchestration Reconfigurable Nets ba xy y y x c d a x c network reconfigurability vs static connectivity cd post-sets places depend on fetched values /IMT Lucca 13 April 2005 Institutions Markets Technologies IMT 57 Models and Languages for Coordination and Orchestration Reconfigurable Nets ba xy y y x d a x x=c y=c c c c network reconfigurability vs static connectivity d post-sets places depend on /

Module 28 Context Free Grammars Definition of a grammar G

if the grammar is used to develop a compiler for a programming language like C++. In this case, there is an unambiguous grammar for the language of arithmetic expressions If-Then-Else Statements A grammar ITEG = (V, S, S, P) for the language of legal If-Then-Else statements V = (S, BOOL) /have to pushdown on the stack to add a tray to it. NFA for {ambn | m,n >= 0} / a b I B C Consider the language {anbn | n >= 0}. This NFA can recognize strings which have the correct form, a’s followed by b’s. However, the /

C# Amy Broom Hossam Ragaban Randal Rollings Fall 2003.

some features of.NET are there to work well with C# (though.NET aims to work well with many languages). The C# language was built with the hindsight of many languages, but most notably Java and C++. It was co-authored by Anders Hejlsberg (who is famous for the design of the Delphi language), and Scott Wiltamuth. Common Language Runtime The CLR serves as an execution engine for/

Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 1 Lecture 6: N-gram Models and Sparse Data (Chapter 6 of Manning and Schutze, Chapter 6 of Jurafsky and Martin,

’s Law: = 1 Jeffreys-Perks Law: = ½ P Lid (w | h) = (C(h,w) + ) / (C(h) + B ) Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 32 Jeffreys-Perks Law Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 33 Objections to Lidstone’s Law Need an a priori way to determine. Predicts all unseen / n-gram is: P ho (w 1,..,w n )= (T r /N r )/N –where C(w 1,..,w n ) = r Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 37 Testing Models Divide data into training and testing sets. Training data: divide into normal training plus /

CSE 452: Programming Languages Data Types. 2 Organization of Programming Languages-Cheng (Fall 2004) Where are we? High-level Programming Languages Logic.

Serbia, and Thai digits First 128 characters are identical to ASCII used by Java and C# 20 Organization of Programming Languages-Cheng (Fall 2004) Character String Types u Values consist of sequences of characters u Design/ dangling object problem (but rarely happens, because explicit deallocation is rarely done) 53 Organization of Programming Languages-Cheng (Fall 2004) Pointers u Examples… C and C++  Used for dynamic storage management and addressing  Explicit dereferencing and address-of operator  Can/

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Seventh Edition, (c) 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0136012671 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to.

Instructional Code) F Pascal (named for Blaise Pascal) F Ada (named for Ada Lovelace)  C (whose developer designed B first) F Visual Basic (Basic-like visual language developed by Microsoft) F Delphi (Pascal-like visual language developed by Borland) F C++ (an object-oriented language, based on C) F C# (a Java-like language developed by Microsoft) F Java (We use it in the book) Liang, Introduction to/

Chapter 11: Scheduling Real- Time Systems

Chapter 11: Scheduling Real- Time Systems Real-Time Systems and Programming Languages © Alan Burns and Andy Wellings Aims To understand the role that scheduling and schedulability analysis plays in predicting that /(unless the computation time estimations themselves turn out to be pessimistic) Sporadic Tasks Sporadics tasks have a minimum inter-arrival time They also require D A>C): C available immediately Replenished at time t+T Remainder (2C-A) available at this time Task Sets with D < T For D = T, Rate /

Introduction to C# Raimonds Rudmanis Senior Consultant Microsoft Baltic.

throughout Agenda  Hello World  The.NET Framework  Design Goals of C#  Language Features Design Goals of C# The Big Ideas  The first “Component Oriented” language in the C/C++ family  Everything really is an object  Next generation robust and durable software  Preserving your investment Design Goals of C# A Component Oriented LanguageC# is the first “Component Oriented” language in the C/C++ family  Component concepts are first class  Properties, methods, events/

ISBN 0-321-49362-1 Chapter 2 Evolution of the Major Programming Languages.

of operators, but poor type checking Initially spread through UNIX Many areas of application Copyright © 2007 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.1-52 Perl Related to ALGOL only through C A scripting language –A script (file) contains instructions to be executed –Other examples: sh, awk, tcl/tk Developed by Larry Wall Perl variables are statically typed and implicitly declared –Three distinctive namespaces/

PLLab, NTHU,Cs2403 Programming Languages

(“new line ”); main() { yylex(); } PLLab, NTHU,Cs2403 Programming Languages PLLab, NTHU,Cs2403 Programming Languages Lex Source to C Program The table is translated to a C program (lex.yy.c) which reads an input stream partitioning the input into strings which match/rules} {user subroutines} (required) (optional) %% PLLab, NTHU,Cs2403 Programming Languages PLLab, NTHU,Cs2403 Programming Languages Lex v.s. Yacc Lex Lex generates C code for a lexical analyzer, or scanner Lex uses patterns that match strings in/

I n g e n i e u r b ü r o f ü r s o f t w a r e t e c h n o l o g i e w w w. v o e l t e r. d e © 2 0 0 5 M a rk u s V ö l t e r Languages, Models, Factories.

o f ü r s o f t w a r e t e c h n o l o g i e w w w. v o e l t e r. d e © 2 0 0 5 M a rk u s V ö l t e r Languages, Models, Factories - 3 - MDA Concepts Common Concepts: MDSD Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) Executable/ f ü r s o f t w a r e t e c h n o l o g i e w w w. v o e l t e r. d e © 2 0 0 5 M a rk u s V ö l t e r Languages, Models, Factories - 52 - Language-Oriented Programming II Historically, the Intentional Programming (IP) research project (lead/

Real-Time Systems and Programming Languages © Alan Burns and Andy Wellings Chapter 7: Atomic Actions, Concurrent Tasks and Reliability.

False; Final_Result := Commit; end if; end Wait_Cleanup; end Controller; Real-Time Systems and Programming Languages: © Alan Burns and Andy Wellings 61 - 103 F.E.C.: State Transition Diagram Enter Action Exit action failed Executing and also waiting for an abort Signal /“ A ” A catch Exception handler outputs “ B ” B catch IE handler outputs “ CC AI method: propagated Output: D Real-Time Systems and Programming Languages: © Alan Burns and Andy Wellings 84 - 103 Example 1 ATC-deferred region AI-method /

Cse321, Programming Languages and Compilers 1 6/23/2015 Lecture #15, March. 5, 2007 Judgments for mini-Java Multiple type environments Class Hierarchy.

»There is a class definition for x Th – the type of the self object “this” Cse321, Programming Languages and Compilers 5 6/23/2015 Class Hierarchy object numeric point int double boolean colorpoint void C |~ int ≤ object C |~ colorpoint ≤ point C |~ boolen ≤ object C defines point Cse321, Programming Languages and Compilers 6 6/23/2015 Type Checkers in ML To build type-checkers in ML we/

C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 1 Principles of Programming Languages Lecture 03 Theoretical Foundations.

has higher precedence than abstraction Abstraction groupts R to L Consecutive abstractions collapse to single Example: C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 27 Variables: Free, Bound, Scope Metavariables: I: Id L: Lambda Type the semantic function/definable  Turing-computable Post 1943, Markov 1951, etc.: many more confirmations Any modern programming language C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 50 -Calculus: History (cont.) Is the untyped -Calculus consistent? Does it have a semantics/

1 Strings and Languages Operations Concatenation Exponentiation Kleene Star Regular Expressions.

{a}* Further gradations within this set, but we ignore them 105 Proof 106 (1) The set of all legal C++ programs is countably infinite Every C++ program is a finite string Thus, the set of all legal C++ programs is a language L C This language L C is a subset of  P * 107 For any alphabet ,  * is countably infinite Enumeration ordering All length 0 strings |  | 0/

24/06/2015CSE1303 Part B lecture notes 1 Interpreters, compilers and assembly language Lecture B07 Lecture notes section B07.

 options can halt processing at any stage 24/06/2015CSE1303 Part B lecture notes 21 Compilers C code (.c) assembly language (.s) object code (.o) executable translation performed by a translator assembling performed by an assembler/ to executable file gcc file1.c file2.c file3.c -o finalgcc file1.c file2.c file3.c -o final  not efficient but easier to type 24/06/2015CSE1303 Part B lecture notes 30 Covered in this lecture  Interpreters  Machine language  Assembly language  structure  Compilers  what/

 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 1 – Introduction to Computers and C++ Programming Outline 1.1 Introduction 1.2 What is a Computer?

This Book Book geared toward novice programmers –Stress programming clarity –C and C++ are portable languages Portability –C and C++ programs can run on many different computers Compatibility –Many features of current versions of C++ not compatible with older implementations  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 36 1.20 Introduction to C++ Programming C++ language –Facilitates structured and disciplined approach to computer program design Following several examples –Illustrate/

Chapter 9: The Tower of Babel Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Fourth Edition Additions by S. Steinfadt for SP08.

C++ Version, Fourth Edition 11 C/C++ (continued) Why is C so popular?  Relationship between C and UNIX  C’s efficiency  C is close to assembly language  Has high-level statements  Portability Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Fourth Edition 12 Figure 9.1 User Hardware Interface and Programming Languages Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Fourth Edition 13 C/C++ (continued) C/ data stored in its local memory Uses the C n language for the ClearSpeed architecture #include int main(void/

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Eighth Edition, (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0132130807 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers,

Instructional Code) F Pascal (named for Blaise Pascal) F Ada (named for Ada Lovelace)  C (whose developer designed B first) F Visual Basic (Basic-like visual language developed by Microsoft) F Delphi (Pascal-like visual language developed by Borland) F C++ (an object-oriented language, based on C) F C# (a Java-like language developed by Microsoft) F Java (We use it in the book) Liang, Introduction to/

September 17 th, 2001FOSAD 2001 – Bertinoro, Italy Security Protocol Specification Languages Iliano Cervesato ITT Industries, Inc.

 Intruder not explicitly modeled  Verification  Process equivalence to reference proc. Security Protocol Specification Languages 34 Spi: NS Initiator init(A,B,c AB,K B +,K A - ) = ( n A ) c AB. c AB (x). case x of {|y|} K A - in let (y 1,y /B ‖ — A k ,  k:pubK A,  k’:privK k ‖ — A k’ Principal Shared key Private key Public key Security Protocol Specification Languages 84 Configurations C = [S] R  Active role set Signatur e a :  L l :  M _ :  State N (t) L l (t, …, t) /

Chapter 9: The Tower of Babel Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Fourth Edition Editied / additions by S. Steinfadt for SP09.

C++ Version, Fourth Edition 11 C/C++ (continued) Why is C so popular?  Relationship between C and UNIX  C’s efficiency  C is close to assembly language  Has high-level statements  Portability Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Fourth Edition 12 Figure 9.1 User Hardware Interface and Programming Languages Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Fourth Edition 13 C/C++ (continued) C/ data stored in its local memory Uses the C n language for the ClearSpeed architecture #include int main(void/

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to.

two numbers, you might write an instruction in assembly code like this: ADDF3 R1, R2, R3 Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6 14 Programming Languages Machine Language Assembly Language High-Level Language The high-level languages are English-like and easy to learn and program. For example, the following is a high-level/

Chapter 9: The Tower of Babel

computing Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Third Edition C/C++ (continued) Why is C so popular Relationship between C and UNIX C’s efficiency C is close to assembly language Has high-level statements Portability Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Third Edition User Hardware Interface and Programming Languages Figure 9.1 User Hardware Interface and Programming Languages Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Third Edition C/C++ (continued) C++ Developed in the early/

Web-teknologiat Juha Puustjärvi.

XML is a markup language A markup language is a set of words, or marks, that surround, or “tag”, a portion of a document’s content in order to attach additional meaning to the tagged content, e.g., Michael C. Daconta Java Pitfalls XML/are number of use cases that would require much more expressiveness than RDF and RDF Schema offer Requirements for Ontology Languages Ontology languages allow users to write explicit, formal conceptualization of domain models. The requirements are: A well defined syntax A /

May 14, 2002 Macro Languages AoPL, S02 Macro Languages Claus Brabrand Michael I. Schwartzbach BRICS, University of Aarhus, Denmark.

= y; y = temp; }stm macro swap(AST_QualifiedName x, AST_QualifiedName y) local temp // explicit  -conversion stm{ // body constructor: stm integer temp = x; x = y; y = temp; }stm #swap(C.x, y); May 14, 2002 Macro Languages AoPL, S02 JTS JTS (“Jakarta Tool Suite”): Argument types: name, exp, stm, decl, class, type Result types: “ exp ”, “ stm ”, “ mth ”, “ cls ”, “ prg ” –Fixed invocation syntax: –Safe: Guaranteed/

L & C Dr. W. Ceusters Language & Computing nv www.landc.be 1 L&C’s LinkBase: a multi-lingual Hub to medical terminologies Dr. W. Ceusters Dir R&D Language.

management services + NLU based data entry –IDEWE: largest Belgian occupational medicine services provider –First Databank UK –Belgian military medical service Semantic indexing –Belgian Professional Association of Pharmaceutical industry L & C Dr. W. Ceusters Language & Computing nv www.landc.be 31 Academic Competitors/Colleagues Main characteristics: –Prototypes with very small coverage –No professional support Relevant examples: –OpenGalen (VUMAN): Very small “LinkBase” “Toy”-link/

C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 1 Principles of Programming Languages Lecture 06 Implementation of Block Structured Languages.

are abandoned on return Assume stack growth to higher addresses (in reality usually the other way) C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 9 Registers Special purpose registers: ra, sp, fp General purpose registers divided into two classes Caller/ x,y;{ float x, y;x = z; y = 3;w = y; }} … blocksurrounding … B(); … block C SC 520 Principles of Programming Languages 34 Block Activation/Deactivation A block is like a procedure, but Nameless (because called from only one place) Parameterless Defined at its/

1 Towards More Natural Functional Programming Languages Brad A. Myers Human-Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University.

associative and some are right-associative. Consider: a=b+=c=+d*e+++f==g which is a legal statement in C++ and C n Deep nesting in functional languages n “Too many parentheses” n HCI principle (“keep it simple”) C, C++ have 16 levels of precedence that have to be /some of which are left-associative and some are right-associative. Consider: a=b+=c=+d*e+++f==g which is a legal statement in C++ and C n Deep nesting in functional languages n “Too many parentheses” 31 Help the user get started with the system n /