Ppt on air conditioning and refrigeration

Technical Seminar on Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

from it. The utilization electrical energy for the refrigeration and air conditioning is fast replacing the old methods. WHAT IS REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING ? The process of reducing the temperature of a body from the general level of temperature of surroundings is called refrigeration. Air-conditioning means control of temperature,humidity,purity and movement of air. The working conditions and comfort for human beings is improved by air-conditioning. The temperature is brought down during summer/


Developments Preindustrial Era: prior 1800s where the building envelop was the principal means of controlling thermal environment and illumination within.

the heated oil temperature increases to near 400 °C which can be used to generate steam Selections The selection of suitable solar collectors depends on the climatic conditions, load requirements, costs, and output temperature. Heat ventilation and Air conditioning HVAC Heat ventilation and Air conditioning Refrigeration Definition: The process of cooling of a bodies or fluids to temperature lower than those available in the surroundings at a particular time/


Heating and Air-Conditioning Service

Leaking heater core replaced Heater housing must be removed Air-Conditioning Service Challenging and rewarding specialty area Technicians must be licensed to service all air- conditioning systems Air-conditioning safety Always the highest priority Be sure to use the correct refrigerant Air-Conditioning System Service and Diagnosis Visual inspection considerations Coolant level Condenser Fans Compressor drive belt Refrigerant hoses Wiring and hoses System Performance Test Includes: Locating specifications/


P.K. Mahindra REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING MANUFACTURERS’ ASSOCIATION (RAMA) 21-22 Oct 2011, New Delhi STAKEHOLDERS WORKSHOP ON HCFC PHASE-OUT MANAGEMENT.

Stakeholders Workshop on HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP) - 21,22 Oct 2011 CONCLUSIONS (1)  HFCs such as R-410A and HFC-134a are the only Technically proven and Economically viable Alternatives to HCFC-22 for all Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Applications; however import dependence and high prices are serious concerns  R-290 being highly flammable may be applied for very small capacity units with lot of/


Applied Thermodynamics

Q1. Q2 is known as the refrigeration effect. The performance of a refrigerator/heat pump is measured by means of its coefficient of performance (COP). COP of a refrigeration/heat pump is defined as The working fluid in a refrigeration cycle is called a Refrigerant. Ice plants Important application of Refrigeration Food processing units and transportation, including dairies Industrial airconditioning Comfort airconditioning Chemical and related industries. Hospitals. Laboratories. Domestic applications/


ISAT Module III: Building Energy Efficiency

ISAT 413 - Module III: Building Energy Efficiency Topic 3: Refrigeration, Heat Pumps and Air Conditioning Evaporating Cooling Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Vapor-Absorption Refrigeration Other Refrigeration Systems The Heat Pump Air Conditioning Evaporative Cooling (Eastop, Example 4.8) In a cooling tower the water to be cooled enters near the top of the tower and flows down through packing in counter flow to an air stream as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 4.34/


Evaporators For Air Conditioning

Discussed in much more detail in HVACR312 the refrigeration term. In air conditioning there are two primary types of evaporators used: Natural Draft Forced Convection Natural Draft Forced Draft Operating Design Direct Expansion Refrigerant directly cools the air. The evaporator coil is full of refrigerant and air is blowing across the coil. Operating Design Indirect expansion Refrigerant cools secondary medium, such as water or glycol. The secondary medium flows/


FIGURE 7-1 Air is circulated through the A/C and heating system and the car to either add or remove heat. (Courtesy of Toyota Motor Sales USA, Inc.)

causes the refrigerant to absorb heat from the air circulated through the evaporator. FIGURE 7-6 If the proper amount of refrigerant enters the evaporator, it has a slight superheat as it leaves (a). A starved condition, in which not enough refrigerant enters the / the pressure from dropping to the point at which icing can occur. FIGURE 7-22 When the evaporator cools and low-side pressure drops, the piston stroke of a variable displacement compressor is reduced so that compressor output matches the/


1 8/16/2015 Haier Side By Side Refrigerator HRF-660/661/662/663 Training Material Haier Refrigerator Overseas Service Center 8/16/2015.

SW of control board. Fridge temperature display area shows 00, and fridge compartment temperature is lower 1. Check the sealing condition between the fridge electric air damper and cabinet, if exist cooling air leakage. 2. Check the sealing condition of air damper and foam material. 3. Check if the resistance of fridge sensor R1 is normal. If refrigerator disconnect power for a long time, need pour out ice cubes/


Heat Pump1 MEBS 6008 Heat Pumps. Heat Pump2 A heat pump is a self-contained, packaged cooling-and-heating unit with a reversible refrigeration cycle.

. The heat rejected from the condenser raises the temperature of the conditioned supply air. For heat pumps using halocarbon refrigerants, the indoor coil is usually made from copper tubing and corrugated aluminum fins. Indoor Coil AIR-SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS (Air-to-Air Heat Pumps) Heat Pump28 The outdoor coil acts as a condenser during cooling and as an evaporator to extract heat from the outdoor atmosphere during/


Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition By Tom Birch © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ.

identifier shows that the R-12 in this system is cross-contaminated with 3.8% R-134a.This refrigerant is unusable. Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition By Tom Birch © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper / River, NJ 07458 FIGURE 15-27 Vacuum pumps differ in their ability to remove all of the refrigerant and water from a system. Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition By Tom Birch © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper /


2013 NATEF Task Area A-7 Heating, Ventilation, and A/C 7-2013 A. A/C System Diagnosis & Repair B. Refrigeration System Component D & R C. Heating, Ventilation.

-7 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems E. Refrigerant Recovery, Recycling, and Handling Identify and recover A/C system refrigerant. A7.E.2 P-1 NATEF Task Area A-7 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems E. Refrigerant Recovery, Recycling, and Handling Recycle, label, and store refrigerant. A7.E.3 P-1 NATEF Task Area A-7 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems E. Refrigerant Recovery, Recycling, and Handling Evacuate and charge A/C system; add refrigerant oil as required/


CHAPTER 6 Moving Heat: Heating and Air Conditioning Principles.

(high and low). Air Conditioning and Humidity Humidity increases the heat load on the refrigerant system. Maximum refrigerant system performance and passenger compartment cooling is achieved by selecting Recirculation mode. Moisture removed from the air steam passing through the evaporator will drain out of the duct system. How is Cooling Achieved in the Air Conditioning System? Cooling in the refrigerant system is achieved by the rapid expansion of refrigerant gas. Basic Air Conditioning System/


© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Automotive Technology, Fifth Edition James Halderman HEATING AND AIR- CONDITIONING COMPONENTS AND OPERATION.

Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 62-22 The evaporator serves the same function for both the orifice-tube and the expansion valve–type air-conditioning system, and that is to allow the liquid refrigerant to evaporate and absorb heat from the passenger compartment. 62 HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING COMPONENTS AND OPERATION Automotive Technology, Fifth Edition James Halderman © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 62-23 Expansion-valve/


HOME / Notice / Korean Global Procurement / Family site / Sitemap / Terms and conditions / Privacy policy FOOTER Quick Menu ProductSupportAbout DDE Refrigerator.

HOME / Notice / Korean Global Procurement / Family site / Sitemap / Terms and conditions / Privacy policy FOOTER Quick Menu ProductSupportAbout DDE Refrigerator French Door Side-By-Side Top Freezer Bottom Freezer Freezer & Fridges Kimchi Refrigerator Stand Type Chest Type Washing Machines Top loading Front Loading Coocking Appliances Microwaves Hoods Electric Ovens Hobs Air conditioners Wall Mounted Split Window Type Portable Type Package Type Small Appliances Dehumidifiers Vacuum Cleaners Hidden/


CHAPTER 5 Refrigerants and the Environment. Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, 6/e By Thomas S. Birch Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2006, 2001, 1997,

, 2010, 2006, 2001, 1997, 1991 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. 14 REFRIGERANTS ALTERNATE REFRIGERANTS FOR R-12 ALTERNATE REFRIGERANTS, R-134A COUNTERFEIT AND BOOTLEG REFRIGERANTS FUTURE REFRIGERANTS AND SYSTEMS R1234yf, R-152A, Co2, HC REFRIGERANT SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Europeans will begin ban on R134A in 2011 Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, 6/e By Thomas S. Birch Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2006, 2001, 1997, 1991 Pearson Education Upper/


California Statewide Utility Codes and Standards Program Energy for Change™ 04/15/2010 1 Refrigerated Warehouses Stakeholder Meeting #1 Portland Energy.

availability ● Market penetration data ● Cost data CALIFORNIA STATEWIDE UTILITIES CODES AND STANDARDS PROGRAM 04/15/20102011 Refrigerated Warehouse Stakeholder Meeting 12 Refrigerated Warehouses Specific Stakeholders Identified ● ASHRAE- American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers ● AHRI- American Heating And Refrigeration Institute ● IIAR- International Institute Of Ammonia Refrigeration ● GCCA – Global Cold Chain Alliance (IARW, IACSC) ● Equipment manufacturers ● Consultants/


Air conditioning Teacher : Ru-Li Lin Student : 49814076 Chen-Hui Wu 49814060 Wei- chiuan Huang Department of Mechanical Engineering Southern Taiwan University.

Fluoro Carbon) The hydrogen-containing chlorine-containing substance, without damaging effect on the ozone layer. Refrigerant refrigerators, commercial cryogenic equipment, auto air conditioning, small air conditioning Foaming agent... cleaning agent, aerosol propellant Absorption refrigerating machine : The high temperature and high sets of water and high temperature flue gas equipment to drive the absorption refrigeration units "cold water system.System of cold water can be taken out through the end of/


BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.

BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Basic Components Basic Components –Compressor –Condenser –Expansion Valve –Evaporator Refrigerator Processes 1. Low temp., Low pr., Vapour enters Compressor 1. Low temp., Low pr., Vapour enters Compressor 2. High temp., High Pr., Vapour enters Condenser 2. High temp., High Pr., /


AIR CYCLE An integral part of air-conditioning system. Refrigeration cycle is part of air cycle. Both Air cycle and Refrigeration cycle is not independent.

too high for ordinary cooling purposes. A change of state of refrigerant from liquid to vapour and back to liquid helps to absorb or discharge large quantity of heat efficiently. This has been efficiently used in refrigeration cycle and Air-conditioning. The selection of refrigerant depends on specific application and the context. Any refrigerant must satisfy two main conditions. 1. It must readily absorb heat at the temperature required by/


Air Conditioning Heating Refrigeration. Air conditioning systems Central heating systems Refrigeration Car manufacture: Industrial robots Medical applications:

in the rooms. These objects then warm the air in the room.  Air ConditioningRefrigeration  Central Heating All of the systems above, work on the following same principles:  Sensors – process of continual monitoring  Preset values – set by the user/ built at time of manufacture  Micro-processor – makes judgments based on the data received from the sensors and makes changes to output devices  Continual feedback systems/


Refrigerant Compliance Management 1 / 63 © Copyright Training 4 Today 2001 Published by EnviroWin Software LLC REFRIGERANT COMPLIANCE MANAGEMENT CUSTOMIZED.

that maximize recycling of ozone-depleting compounds (both chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs] and hydrochlorofluorocarbons [HCFCs] and their blends) during the servicing and disposal of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment Set certification requirements for recycling and recovery equipment, technicians, and reclaimers Restrict the sale of refrigerant to certified technicians Require persons servicing or disposing of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment to certify to EPA that they have acquired/


Refrigeration & Air Conditioning (MAB-4533) Chapter- 9 Air cycle refrigeration systems.

absorption in a turbine Reversed Carnot cycle employing a gas (a)(b)(c) Refrigeration & Air Conditioning (MAB-4533) The heat transferred during isothermal processes 2-3 and 4-1 are given by: Applying first law of thermodynamics to the closed cycle/Thus the COP of the Carnot system depends only on the refrigeration (T l ) and heat rejection (T h ) temperatures only. Refrigeration & Air Conditioning (MAB-4533) Carnot cycle is an idealization and it suffers from several practical limitations. One of the main/


Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning CHAPTER Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, 7e James D. Halderman | Tom Birch SEVENTH EDITION Copyright ©

to the point of temperature change. This same procedure can be used to estimate the level of refrigerant in the container. Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, 7e James D. Halderman | Tom Birch Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights/ label on a Toyota Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV) showing that CO2 (R744) is being used as the refrigerant. Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, 7e James D. Halderman | Tom Birch Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved FREQUENTLY /


Eco-friendly Refrigerants. History Of Refrigeration Refrigeration relates to the cooling of air or liquids, thus providing lower temperature to preserve.

2015,100 % by 2030 10 year grace period for developing countries. R22 ODP-0.05, GWP-1700 R22 has 40% more refrigerating capacity Higher pressure and discharge temp and not suitable for low temp application Extensively used in commercial air-conditioning and frozen food storage and display cases R123 ODP-0.02,GWP-90 As a replacement for R11 as similar thermodynamic properties. Very short atmospheric life/


Air Conditioner Maintenance and Inspection Specification Service Department of Import and Export Corporation September 2010.

Switch 部门 11 日期 1. Brief Introduction to Air Conditioning System 1.4 Operation Method Air Volume and Power Switch Indicating Light Temperature Control Switch 部门 12 日期 1. Brief Introduction to Air Conditioning System A.Refrigeration ◆ Start engine ◆ Turn on air volume and air power switch. Adjust air volume to maximum ◆ Turn on temperature controlled switcha and adjust to minimum ( Indicating light is on ) ◆ Air conditioner begins refrigeration. After temperature is appropriate, adjust temperature controlled/


REFRIGERATION Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics Faculty of Pharmacy Omer Al-Mukhtar University Tobruk, Libya. E-mail:

of refrigeration Principle of refrigeration Air conditioning Types of equipments 2014/03/042 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya. Definition of Refrigeration Mechanical refrigeration is /Air Conditioning 3. Testing chambers: Stability and shelf life testing chambers offer reproducible temperature and humidity. 4. Maintenance of animals and equipment: Animal house should be air conditioned. Sophisticated electronic equipments are stored and the work is carried out in air conditioned/


EPA CERTIFICATION TRAINING for Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Technicians Federal Clean Air Act - 608.

the appliance (a compressor). SALES RESTRICTION As of November 14, 1994, the sale of CFC and HCFC refrigerants were restricted to certified technicians. Only technicians certified under Clean Air Act Section 609 (Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning) are allowed to purchase R-12 in containers smaller than 20 lbs. SUBSTITUTE REFRIGERANTS & OILS HFC’s are considered Ozone friendly. R-134A is the leading candidate for CFC R/


SECTION 8 AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMPS UNIT 43 AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMPS.

systems Discuss how heat pump efficiency is determined Explain the concepts of coefficient of performance and auxiliary heat Describe the control sequence of an air-to-air heat pump system Explain how heat pump efficiency can be increased Discuss preventive maintenance on a heat pump system REVERSE-CYCLE REFRIGERATION Air-conditioning equipment can only pump heat in one direction Heat pumps can pump heat two ways/


International Institute of Refrigeration YEREVAN, Armenia, May 18-19, 2009 Didier COULOMB, Director of the IIR,

technologies Solutions application by application International Institute of Refrigeration Applications 1.Domestic Refrigeration 2.Commercial Refrigeration 3.Industrial Refrigeration 4.Transport Refrigeration 5.Air Conditioning Chillers 6. Mobile Air Conditioning International Institute of Refrigeration Domestic refrigeration (1) (refrigerated and frozen products) Current situation: essentially HFCs (HFC 134a) = 2/3rds and HCs (HC600a mainly) = 1/3rd for new production Low leakage Main issue: recovery/


Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning CHAPTER Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, 7e James D. Halderman | Tom Birch SEVENTH EDITION Copyright ©

, 7e James D. Halderman | Tom Birch Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives Discuss identifying refrigerants and proper storage container. State the changes considered for future refrigerants. Explain refrigerant safety precautions. Discuss the different types and viscosities of refrigerant oils. Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, 7e James D. Halderman | Tom Birch Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Depletion of the Ozone/


3. Climate Control Systems Service Automotive – Heating & Air Conditioning Topics covered in this presentation: Gauge set and refrigerant Service ports.

to evacuate an a/c system? Question 3. Climate Control Systems Service Automotive – Heating & Air Conditioning The charging station is normally used to measure and refill the system with the correct amount of refrigerant. The high pressure valve is closed, and the low pressure valve is opened. The vacuum draws refrigerant into the system. The system pressures must be checked after charging. Recharging the System The/


. Level 3 Air Conditioning Inspections for Buildings 7. Compressors (Day 2) PRESENTED BY Anthony Balaam

Building Services” Carbon Trust Good Practice Guide GPG280 – “Energy efficient refrigeration technology – the Fundamentals” ROGERS and MAYHEW: “Engineering Thermodynamics: Work and Heat Transfer” TROTT, A. R. (2000), “Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning (3rd ed.)” WANG, S. K.: “Handbook Of Air Conditioning And Refrigeration” JONES, W. P.: “Air Conditioning Applications and Design” “BS EN 378: Specification for Refrigeration Systems and Heat Pumps; Part 1: 2000: Basic Requirements, Definitions, Classification/


Webinar 19th March 2013 Marco Buoni VicePresident, AREA Air Conditioning & Refrigeration European contractors Association (www.area-eur.be) Secretary General.

Design, installation, maintenance and repair of all Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps RACHP systems AREA members AREA Priorities General mission statement "support and initiate activities to promote the industry and its high standards of quality, in order to serve users interest in a safe and uninterrupted usage of efficient refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump equipment, and to create and maintain a favourable business climate for European refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump/


Air Conditioning Lab ME 4122 – Thermo Fluids Lab Justin Gregerson

objective of this lab was to analyze the performance of an actual air conditioning unit based on experimental measurements. Summary The air conditioning unit was analyzed and the performance was evaluated. Based on the measured dry bulb temperatures and pressures, enthalpies and entropies were calculated for each state point. These values were used to calculate the Refrigeration Effect of 5283 BTU/hr, Coefficient of Performance of 2.304/


Heat Pump Service 1.

SAME AS ANY AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM BY PICKING UP HEAT FROM THE SPACE TO BE CONDITIONED AND REJECTING IT OUTDOORS 5 HEAT PUMPS HEATING SEASON UNIT ABSORBS HEAT FROM THE OUTDOOR AIR AND MOVES IT TO THE CONDITIONED SPACE REVERSE-CYCLE AIR CONDITIONERS 6 /Control Terminates Defrost Before Frost Is Gone Coil sensor mounted in wrong location or has incorrect resistance reading Refrigerant overcharge 161 Defrost Initiates About Every 15 Minutes Coil sensor Ambient sensor Defrost control 162 Defrost Initiates About/


Eco-friendly Refrigerants

2005,65% by 2010 10 year grace period for developing countries. R22 ODP-0.05, GWP-1700 R22 has 40% more refrigerating capacity Higher pressure and discharge temp and not suitable for low temp application Extensively used in commercial air-conditioning and frozen food storage and display cases R123 ODP-0.02,GWP-90 As a replacement for R11 as similar thermodynamic properties. Very short atmospheric life/


© 2006 marksa english. contactsits activitiesthe company REFRIGERATION AFTER-SALES SERVICE MARKSA: A WORLD OF ENERGIES MARKSA is a company active in the.

of Marksa has grown over several decades thanks to the quality of our after-sales service. Whatever the activity suggested, Refrigeration, Air-conditioning, Ventilation, Compressed Air or Vacuum Technology, we offer the identical services. SPEED / EFFICIENCY / COMPETITIVENESS We are able to check, overhaul, maintain and obviously repair both Marksa installations and our competitors equipment. Our after-sales service vehicles are equipped with all the everyday materials/


AIRCONDITIONING BASICS

manufacturing goods, medicine, textiles etc the temperature and humidity control may vary. For this purpose also air conditioning is required. AIR CONDITIONING PROCESS Controlling the quality of indoor air for the benefit of Human comfort, human health and performance of equipment /process. Human comfort is related to the control of temperature, humidity and air movement. A process called REFRIGERATION controls the temperature and humidity. The human health is related to the/


1 Quality Air Solutions FX1-21 Hot Gas Bypass Refrigerant Dryers.

Inlet pressure189 (232) psi(g) 8 FX17-21 Refrigerant Dryers Product Range  Reference Conditions 60Hz : Ambient temp100°F Inlet temp100°F Inlet pressure100 psi(g)  Maximum Conditions 60Hz Ambient temp 115°F Inlet temp140°F Inlet /. Refrigerant/air heat exchanger 7. Refrigerant separator 8. Hot gas bypass 9. Air/air heat exchanger 10. Water separator 11. Automatic timer drain The FX1-5 Brazed plate heat exchanger with air-to-air side 19 FX6-16 Refrigerant Dryers Features and Variants  Inlet and outlet/


Student CD for Commercial Refrigeration for A/C Technicians

Temperature ranges of refrigeration Refrigeration cycle Relate refrigeration to air conditioning Relationship between a refrigerant’s pressure and its temperature Newer refrigerants used in commercial refrigeration systems Relationship between the 4 basic components of a refrigeration system Copyright 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Common Space & Product Temperatures Air Conditioning = 75° High temperature refrigeration = 55° Medium temperature refrigeration = 35° Low temperature refrigeration = -10° Extra/


HVAC: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning this is a thermostat: it sends signals to the heating/cooling system.

, and air conditioning) systems is to provide the people working inside buildings with "conditioned" air so that they will have a comfortable and safe work environment. "Conditioned" air means that air is clean and odor-free, and the temperature, humidity, and movement of the air are within certain comfort ranges. Many factors affect the way people respond to their work environment. Air quality is one of these factors. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers/


2003 International Congress of Refrigeration, Washington, D.C., August 17-22, 2003 CFD Modeling of Heat and Moisture Transfer on a 2-D Model of a Beef.

in the meat. These new fields must be tied to those in the air using equilibrium and conservation laws... 2003 International Congress of Refrigeration, Washington, D.C., August 17-22, 2003 UDF1: B.c. for mass transfer in meat: Write user-defined functions in C++ to calculate the boundary condition of mass transfer equation in meat : (the mass flux at the meat surface is/


Introduction to Air Conditioning

air conditioning system transfers heat from inside the cabin to the condenser where it is transferred to the outside air. Heat from the cabin air is absorbed in the evaporator and pumped to the condenser where it is transferred to the air flowing through the condenser. Heat and pressure Air temperature 80 degrees Air/ is not exactly 1 to 1 At 100 deg F the pressure will rise to 124 psi. R-134a The refrigerant currently used in the United States is R-134a. R-134a has been installed on all cars sold in the USA/


Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology 古典控制系統設計使用 MATLAB 李達生 From Modern Control Systems,

數 控制器架構 由步階響應進行調整 KpTiTd P0.9/a PI1/a3L PID1.2/a2LL/2 t y a k T L Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology Ziegler-Nichols 調整演算 建立 MATLAB simulation model 計算適當 Kp, Ti, Td 值設定 – L /k = 1 比較 P,PI,PID 三種控制器設計造成響應 System delay 模擬方程式 System delay 與 Transport Delay 差異點 Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology Chien-Hrones-Reswick 調整法 CHR 演算法基於抑制超越量進行調整,分別為允許 0% 超越量與 20% 超越量,設定控制參數 控制器架構/


Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology 模糊控制設計使用 MATLAB 李達生.

定數值 Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology 模糊控制設計實例步驟二 決定歸屬函數 衣物量洗衣水量 洗衣時間 Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology 模糊控制設計實例步驟三 決定策略 洗衣時間 T 衣物量 X 小中大 洗衣水量 Y 小中大大 中小中大 大小小大 Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology 模糊控制設計實例步驟四 若測量衣物量 X=30 ,水流量實際出水 Y =32 Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National/


Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology 強健控制設計使用 MATLAB 李達生.

Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology LQG Controller Results-1 Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology LQG Controller Results-2 Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology L 1, L 2 and L ∞ 定義連續變數 x(t) 的 norm 值為 常用 norm 的定義有 Department of Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering/ National Taipei University of Technology The norm of a Matrix 當控制系統有一轉移函數 G/


FIGURE 12-1 Possible A/C problems include refrigerant leaks and flow restrictions, compressor and drive belt failure, and control system malfunction. (Courtesy.

or remove the coupler, and the knob on the manual types must be turned inward to open the valve. (c is courtesy of Zexel Corporation) FIGURE 12-19 A gauge set may be used with different refrigerants by changing the hoses. Each hose set must have unique fittings, permanently attached, for that refrigerant. (a. Courtesy of the International Mobile Air Conditioning Association [IMACA]; b. Courtesy/


Trouble Shooting and Performance Testing

may be warm Compressor not running or cycling frequently Low pressure switch consistently open Cause Leak in air conditioning system Cure Leak test the A/C system Gauge Reading, Very Low Refrigerant Charge (continued) Cure (continued) Recover refrigerant and repair any leaks Flush and purge system if needed Remove refrigerant and flush of required Top off oil if required Replace receiver dryer Evacuate system Charge with recommended weight/


HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING

the pressure on a substance, such as a liquid, changes its boiling point. Greater the pressure higher the boiling point and lesser the pressure lower is the boiling point. REFRIGERANTS IN AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM The substance used to remove heat from the inside of an air conditioned vehicle is called the refrigerant. Older refrigerant used in AC was R-12. The latest AC system uses R-134a,this/


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