Ppt on acid-base indicators animations free

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Introductory Chemistry Fifth Edition Nivaldo J. Tro Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Dr. Sylvia Esjornson Southwestern Oklahoma.

(1 mol of OH − for every 1 mol of H + ), the indicator (phenolphthalein) changes to pink, signaling the equivalence point of the titration. Phenolphthalein is an indicator that is colorless in acidic solution and pink in basic solution. In This Titration, NaOH Is Added to an HCl Solution © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. AcidBase Titration Calculation The titration of 10.00 mL of an HCl/

Acids and Bases: Chapter 14 & 15. HW: Read Ch 14.1: Fill in as much of the acid base table as you can, as you read answer section review pg476 #2&4.

commonly referred to as muriatic acid. Acetic Acid Pure acetic acid is a clear, colorless, and pungent-smelling liquid known as glacial acetic acid. Properties of Bases: 1.Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter. 2.Bases change the color of acid-base indicators. 3.Dilute aqueous solutions of bases feel slippery. 4.Bases react with acids to produce salts and water. 5.Bases conduct electric current. Arrhenius Acids and Bases Arrhenius acid: compound that increases the concentration/

Based on the book chapter:

of each specified pair of animals. Each time estimate is based on comparisons of the amino acid sequences of orthologous proteins; the longer a pair of animals have had to evolve independently, the smaller the percentage of amino acids that remain identical. Data from/ in ATP are held to the rest of the molecule by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds and are readily transferred. As indicated, water can be added to ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi). This hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate /

1.  Cause many infections of humans, animals, plants, and bacteria  Cannot carry out any metabolic pathway  Neither grow nor respond to the environment.

Extracellular state ◦ Called virion ◦ Protein coat (capsid) surrounding nucleic acid ◦ Nucleic acid and capsid also called nucleocapsid ◦ Some have phospholipid envelope ◦ Outermost/ cell which can result from multiple cell fusions 204  Diagnosis is based on the signs of respiratory distress verified by immunoassay  Treatment is /indication for this post-exposure prophylaxis.  Prevention ◦ Vaccination of domestic dogs and cats can help control rabies ◦ Little can be done to eliminate rabies in wild animals/

Science 30 Unit B: Chemistry and the environment Chapter 1: Acid Deposition.

is important in the carbon cycle and as a greenhouse gas; contributes to climate change. carbon cycle animation Greenhouse effect Greenhouse Effect - animated diagram 7 Hole in the ozone layer Carbon monoxide  Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced when the / more accurate and gives exact measure of pH. The Rainbow Connection Demonstration According to the acid-base indicator table, what is the color of each of the following indicators in the solutions of given pH? (a) Phenolphthalein in a solution with a pH/

1 Chapter Learning Objectives a.The chemical properties of acids and bases. b.Acids and bases react with each other in a reaction known as neutralization.

Solution 55 Testing the pH of Solutions The pH of solutions can be determined using a) pH meter b) pH paper c) indicators that have specific colors at different pH values. Run the following web animations/movies. 9.4a: Detecting Acid-Base Rxns Using a pH Meter 9.4b: pH Changes using HCl to Water 56 pH is the negative log of the hydronium/

C.6 Acid Contamination Acids and Bases. Acids Most acids are molecular compounds. All acids start with a hydrogen atom(s). Characteristics of acids: Sour.

and as a fungicide. Bases Characteristics of Bases: Taste bitter Change color of acid- base indicators. Feel slippery React with acids to produce salts and water. Conduct electricity Calcium hydroxide: Ca(OH) 2 Magnesium hydroxide: Mg(OH) 2 Potassium hydroxide KOH Sodium hydroxide NaOH Calcium hydroxide: Ca(OH) 2 Used in mortar, plaster and cement. Also used in paper pulping and de- hairing animal hides. Yuck. Calcium/

Gene Expression Chapter 13. Learning Objective 1 What early evidence indicated that most genes specify the structure of proteins? What early evidence.

Chapter 13 Learning Objective 1 What early evidence indicated that most genes specify the structure of proteins? What early evidence indicated that most genes specify the structure of proteins?/acid is not altered if amino acid is not altered if codon change specifies a similar amino acid if codon change specifies a similar amino acid Fig. 13-20a, p. 299 Normal DNA sequence Normal mRNA sequence Normal protein sequence BASE-SUBSTITUTION MUTATIONS Missense mutation Nonsense mutation (Stop) Animation: Base/

Summaries of research-based knowledge We hope this helps you decide on your most important questions.

of peregrine falcons, contaminant levels or biochemical indicators of effects have not been linked to effects on arctic animals at the individual or population level. u The/pwsrcac.org/ u We can only touch the surface of this wealth of research-based information. NOAA’s Long Term Monitoring u Generally, the ecosystem of Prince William/carriers of fat-soluble vitamins, and are a source of essential fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids that are essential to health but cannot be synthesized by the human /

BIOLOGY CAPT REVIEW. D 27. Describe significant similarities and differences in the basic structure of plant and animal cells.

to form a strand of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). In RNA, the nucleotide, thymine (T) is replaced with uracil (U). (Base pairing is A-U and C-G/the process of creating a transgenic organism by introducing desirable traits into plants and animals using recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA / known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases cause illness in the individual as indicated by specific symptoms of the disease. Result from the infection, presence and/

1 Acid-Base Equilibria. 2 Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base The simplest acid-base equilibria are those in which a single acid or base solute reacts with.

Acid or Base The simplest acid-base equilibria are those in which a single acid or base solute reacts with water. –In this chapter, we will first look at solutions of weak acids and bases. –We must also consider solutions of salts, which can have acidic or basic properties as a result of the reactions of their ions with water. 3 Acid-Ionization Equilibria Acid ionization (or acid dissociation) is the (See Animation: Acid/

Infant nutrient needs Basis Approach Specific nutrients water energy protein fatty acids vitamin K Vitamin D Iron Fluoride.

Upper Intake Level EER: Estimated Energy Requirement DRI’s for infants Macronutrients based on average intake of breast milk –Protein less than earlier RDA /iron deficiency anemia –Iron content of breast milk falls over time –animal models indicate that deficits due to Fe deficiency in infants may not be / of action –Promotes remineralization of areas of cariogenic lesions –Increases resistance to acid demineralization –Interferes with formation and function of plaque forming microorganisms –Improves tooth/

Species Pathogenicity for humans and animals C. diphtheriasPathogenic for humans, causes diphtheria C. pseudotuberculosis Pathogenic for sheep, goats,

. The necrotic factor, alpha-glutaric acid, and haemolysin are considered to be factors of invasiveness. Clinical studies and experiments on animals have provided evidence of the influence of/being relatively simple and may be carried out in any laboratory. It is based on the ability of the diphtheria toxin to react with the antitoxin and / tuberculin positive to a subsequent test given a year or more later, indicating a conversion resulting from an infection with M tuberculosis. Such an interpretation can/

8.3 Properties of Acids and Bases One of the chemicals used to make soaps is sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide reacts with animal or vegetable fats to.

in the rocks, producing a basic solution. Identifying Bases 8.3 Properties of Acids and Bases Color Changes in Indicators Bases turn red litmus paper blue. Phenolphthalein is another acid-base indicator. In a solution containing a base, phenolphthalein is red. In a solution containing an acid, phenolphthalein is colorless. Identifying Bases 8.3 Properties of Acids and Bases These hydrangea flowers contain natural indicators. The color of the flowers depends on whether the/

ENVR 421 Viruses: Overview Mark Sobsey. Viruses Not cellular organisms Small: – 0.02-0.3 µM diameter simple: – nucleic acid – protein coat – (lipoprotein.

– nucleic acid hybridization – nucleic acid amplification Virus Detection in Cell Culture by Cytopathogenic Effects Uninfected Cell Culture Infected Cell Culture with CPE From a public health and risk assessment standpoint, microbial assays based on infectivity are the most relevant and easily interpretable ones Quantifying Human Virus Infectivity is a Challenge Some infect only humans Some infect certain experimental animals, too Some infect experimental animals and/

PH LAB (neutralization of Acids and bases) SETUP and DEBRIEF Tahoma Jr. High 8 th Grade Science Maple Valley, WA.

cups. This chemical will react with a wide range of chemicals (“Universal”) and shows us (“Indicates”) what the basic pH is: acid, neutral or base. Universal Indicator is a dark greenish blue. 14 5 6 9 They should now look like this. First/ “used” in our chemical project experiment ) there’s other ways to test without using animals. Be careful though, even though they may say “cruelty-free” or “not tested on animals” - it may not be that way through the whole manufacturing process ( deceptive advertising )./

THEME: Coligative properties of biological liquids. Bases of titrimetric (volumetric) analysis. Complex compound in biological systems. LECTURE 1 ass.

into the cells and they swell or burst The effect of hypertonic and hypotonic solutions on animal cells.The effect of hypertonic and hypotonic solutions on animal cells. (а) Hypertonic solutions cause cells to shrink (crenation) - plasmolysis;(а) Hypertonic /3 2–. The accuracy of an acid-base titration was limited by the usefulness of the indicator and by the lack of a strong base titrant for the analysis of weak acids. Titrations Based on Complexation Reactions The earliest titrimetric applications/

Unit 5 Lesson 2 Acids, Bases, and Salts Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.

it possible for the solution to conduct an electric current. Unit 5 Lesson 2 Acids, Bases, and Salts What are some chemical properties of acids? Acids are corrosive. They can react with and destroy body tissue, clothing, and other things. Acids react violently with many metals. Acids react with certain compounds called acid- base indicators. They cause the indicators to change color. For example, litmus paper is a type of/

SFA 2073 Topic II Amino Acid & Proteins Nik Norma Nik Mahmood (PhD) Faculty Science & Technology Uni.Science Islam Malaysia NILAI, N.Sembilan.

codon NO aminoacid is added. Its the END of the polypeptide! Growing polypeptide PROTEIN CATABOLISM Has various indication:   Comprises of Digestion and Absorption   Is carried out via proteolysis   is /acid compounds? They are compounds that contain N- atom, S- atom or part of aa structure as part of their molecular structure.Can be divided into 2 groups: alkaloids (in plants) & animal related. Animal related and specific parent aa eg. Glutathione (GSH), Serotonin and Histamine, Heme, GABA, DNA bases/

Protein is a complex, high molecular mass organic compound that consist of amino acids. Proteins were discovered by Jons Jakob Berzelius in They.

(e.g. tofu) but contain phytoestrogens, which can be harmful in excessive quantities. A combination of plant and animal proteins is recommended for a balanced diet. PROTEIN TYPEEXAMPLEFUNCTION EnzymesAmylasePromote the breakdown of starch to the simple sugar glucose. Structural/ U c = Nitrogen in urine ( on protein – free diet)  This indicator is based on the assumption that more nitrogen is retained when the essential amino acids are present in sufficient amounts to meet the needs for growth. A food with /

B2 Revision Topics 1-4. DNA - Genes are made of a chemical called DNA. In DNA there 4 bases called Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine and Guanine DNA contains.

DNA there 4 bases called Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine and Guanine DNA contains instructions for making the cell and telling it what to do. DNA gives order of amino acids, only one side acts as a code for making proteins (Coding Strand) Plants and animals have a / the last 20 years therefore the ozone layer is not protecting us as well as it used to. Lichens are good indicators of our impact on the environment as they are very sensitive to air pollution, especially sulphur dioxide. Mayfly larvae are found/

Control and Regulation Higher Biology Unit 3. Growth and development Growth patterns in plants and animals Growth is the irreversible increase in the.

To make amino acids and proteins Reduced growth and yellowish (chlorotic) leaves PHOSPHOROUS To make ATP and DNA Reduced growth, leaf bases turn reddish MAGNESIUM To/ This may involve competition for food, living space etc. When the number of animals present outstrips the available food supply, competition occurs between individuals. (d) Predation A/b) Lichens The presence or absence of lichens on tree trunks and walls indicates a low level of sulphur dioxide air pollution. Plant succession Plant succession /

Research Tools from the University of Illinois at Chicago Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies (Catalog 1) Drug Screens, Animal Models and other Reagents.

materials designed for targeted delivery of siRNA and larger nucleic acid payloads into mammalian cells. with high transfection efficiency, and /Imaging Pharmaceutics Drug Screen Animal Models Transfection Tech IDTechnology DescriptionApplicationsRelated PublicationPatent StatusFaculty DF114 Additional Information Novel epoxide-based, calpain inhibitors as promising/ from the IP3 receptor found on the endoplasmic reticulum. Data indicates that the peptide inhibits interaction between the IP3 receptor and EB3/

The Chemistry of Acids and Bases. For thousands of years people have known that vinegar, lemon juice and many other foods taste sour. However, it was.

the color indicates pH meter Tests the voltage of the electrolyte Converts the voltage to pH Very cheap, accurate pH indicators Indicators are dyes that can be added that will change color in the presence of an acid or base. Some indicators only work /with water, they produce sulfuric and nitric acids, respectively. H O O H O O + sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides + sulfuric acid nitric acid acid rain Fossil fuels are fuels that originated from decaying plants and animals such as oil, coal and natural gas/

Acids, Bases and Salts Mrs Teocc.

Acids, Bases and Salts Mrs Teocc Acids Acids Strong acids Weak acids man-made mineral acids corrosive e.g. sulphuric acid hydrochloric acid nitric acid Weak acids found in plants and animals, used in food organic acid not very corrosive e.g. ethanoic acid citric acid malic acid Physical Properties of Acids 1. Acids have a taste. sour Lemons, limes, oranges, grapefruits - citric acid Grapes – tartaric acid Physical Properties of Acids 2. Acids can the colour of indicators change Indicator Colour in acid Blue/


– add labels and adaptations Light harvesting clusters or photosystems. (p booklet and 61 book) Quite complex animation! http://www.learnerstv.com/animation/animation.php?ani=179&cat=biology True or False? Chlorophyll contains the ion Fe++. Chlorophyll a in photosystem 2/______ ______ and then be built into protein. RUBISCO is an enzyme, so made of p_______ Nitrogenous bases and phosphate are found in nucleic acids, NADP, RuBP, and ATP (and N in electron carriers and molecules with porphyrin rings. Now /

Proper Usage of Drugs, Chemicals and Feed Additives in Market Show Animals Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Professor and Extension Program Leader Texas.

LIQUAMYCIN LA-200® (OXYTETRACYCLINE INJECTION) Each ml contains 200mg of oxytetracycline base as oxytetracycline amphoteric For Use in Beef Cattle, Nonlactating Dairy Cattle and Swine/5-sulfamoylanthranilic acid. 12.5 mg tablets. Each tablet contains 12.5 milligrams of furosemide: 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilic acid. Available/pronounced calming effect. INDICATIONS: DOGS AND CATS PromAce Injectable and Tablets can be used as an aid in controlling intractable animals during examination, treatment./

Infant nutrient needs Basis/Approach Public health vs individual

to satisfy the needs of 50% of the people in that age group based on review of scientific literature. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Daily dietary intake / advised before recommending more expensive formula for term infants.” Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term (Cochrane, 2001). At present there/stores or iron deficiency anemia Iron content of breastmilk falls over time animal models indicate that deficits due to Fe deficiency in infants may not be recovered/

Based on the book chapter:

held together by hydrogen bonds between the paired bases. The arrowheads at the ends of the DNA strands indicate the polarities of the two strands, which run/, therefore, the same RNA sequence can specify three completely different amino acid sequences, depending on the reading frame. In reality, however, only /a plasmid; add antibiotic resistance genes Genetic engineering: inserting foreign genes into plants, animals, even people. Hybridization / Immunological staining; to identify the presence or absence of/

PHG 415 Evidence-based herbal medicine Dr. Ghada Fawzy

1000 B.C. contained an incredible number of medicinal plants and drugs of animal origin. Their book includes many recipes for every disease. Among the plants and/using standardized extracts of plants or plant parts Not scientifically evaluated Science-based approach Herbalists approach has not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials, /acids as ferulic and sinapic acids III-The swelling index (Eur. Ph. 2002, chapter 2. 8 III-The swelling index (Eur. Ph. 2002, chapter 2.8.4) This index is an indicator/

Nutritional Assessment

in each life-stage and sex group . It is calculated based on EAR and is usually approximately 20% higher than EAR. /Vitamins Vitamin A “Retinol” Retinol and retinoic acid are derived directly from dietary sources. Major dietary sources include animal products, pigmented fruits and vegetables (carotenoids). Vitamin/. Measuring both serum and erythrocyte levels is helpful because serum levels indicate circulating folate and erythrocyte levels better approximate stores. Increased folate requirement /


acids Mono-, di-, & triacylglycerols Waxes Sterols Carotenoids Tocopherols 2) Polar lipids Glycerophospholipid Glyceroglycolipid Sphingophospholipid Sphingoglycolipid – contains sphingoid base (nitrogen) and sugar Lipids Structure & properties of fatty acids Fatty acid/acids) Triacylglycerol Glycerol backbone Fatty acids Lipids We use stereochemical numbering system (sn) to indicate the position of the fatty acids on the glycerol backbone If you have 20 fatty acids/ soil (plants), animal (needed nutrient), /

Protein and Amino Acids in Sports Nutrition Advanced Level 1.

complementary to codon in mRNA AAs are linked together by peptide bonds Base pairing of mRNA is always A with U and G with C/Anim Sci. 1990;68(9):3011-3022. Lumen Amino acids OligopeptidesTripeptides Dipeptides Intestinal cellBlood Cellular membrane Peptidases 21 Transporters Amino Acid and Peptide Absorption (Cont’d)  The transporters can carry – Free amino acids/included as liver function tests in lab panels (high blood levels indicate injury to liver) – Aminotransferases generally require vitamin B 6 (/

CHAPTER 2 THE CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE I: ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND WATER To run the animations you must be in Slideshow View. Use the buttons on the animation.

bonded together Molecular formula  Contains chemical symbols of elements found in a molecule  Subscript indicates how many of each atom are present Compound  Molecule composed of 2 or more elements 1/point below 0°C and raises its boiling point above 100°C Some animals produce antifreeze molecules that dissolve in their body fluids, thereby lowering the/tolerate only small changes in pH Buffers help to keep a constant pH An acid-base buffer system can shift to generate or release H + to adjust for changes/

DNA: The Molecule of Life Molecular Genetics. DNA and RNA Genes are segments of DNA on a chromosome that code for specific traits DNA – nucleic acid called.

replication origin 2) During replication, weak hydrogen bonds that hold complementary nitrogen bases together are broken (This causes the two edges to “unzip”) with a/ of amino acids was originally derived from the message carried by mRNA from the nucleus (DNA) Translation animation 1 Translation animation 2 Translation 3 Translation animation 2Translation 3 /found, the higher the strength of mutagenic the chemical is which indicates it is highly carcinogenic Often chemical is added to liver enzymes because/

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders Darren Dreyfus, D.O. Associates In Nephrology, P.C. St. Vincent’s Health System.

risk of calcium stone formation. A diet low in animal protein may minimize this risk. Question 5 - Answer A low-purine diet reduces uric acid excretion and, since uric acid crystals may act as a nidus for formation of / acid-base status? (A) Metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis (B) Metabolic alkalosis and respiratory alkalosis (C) Respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis (D) Respiratory alkalosis Answer Question 11 - Answer Answer: D The patient has persistent respiratory alkalosis, as indicate /

Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function NEW AIM: How are animals organized? Animal form and function (anatomy and physiology) Anatomy.

) 5) Food is gone, glands are off AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? Gastrin – Small peptide ***All hormones are either steroids or amino acid based (modified amino acids, polypeptides, proteins) Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion Digestion must be contained/Aided by Liver/Gall Bladder and Pancreas AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? bilirubin - Bilirubin is also the cause of yellowing around bruises and the yellowing in jaundice indicating potential liver disease (hepatitis – viral), liver cancer, /

Section 2 Biochemical Building Blocks. Chapter 17 Nucleic Acids.

eukaryotic genome features: 1. Genome size—eukaryotic genome size does not necessarily indicate complexity 2. Coding capacity—enormous protein coding capacity, but the majority of /1: Genetic Information: Replication, Repair, and Recombination  Telomerase has an RNA base sequence complementary to the TG- rich sequence of telomeres  Telomerase uses this/ of plants and on the skin and fur of animals  Wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols are prominent constituents of most /

2009. Life Science (Biology), Grades 3– 5 Characteristics of Plants and Animals Structures and Functions Adaptations of Living Things Energy and Living.

are highly pathogenic and not all will cause severe disease in poultry. 1. Based on current understanding, viruses are introduced to poultry flock in their low pathogenic form/ The excess of fossil fuel burning can have as consequences: (A) Increase in acid rains and increase in the ozone layer. (B) Increase in the greenhouse effect and/C. (2) and (3) D. (1), (2) and (3) E. None of them Animals in the house may indicate a potential disease that may be spread in the family. If you have a cat in the house, /

Crop Biotech, Aquaculture, and Animal Agriculture: Identifying Trends, Concerns, and Best Practices Ike Sharpless Winslow Management Company Tuesday, Sept.

and Fisheries -Key Lesson: the barriers to international cooperation on sustainable fisheries indicates that the most short-term progress can be made in improving fish farming /(ISA) in Latin American farmed salmon Fishmeal trawling for carnivorous fish cage-based coastal salmon farming ex: 90% of GHG result from fishmeal) The/with crop agriculture (animal agriculture uses 33% of world grain and 66% of US grain), categories of concern include: Carbon impact Acid deposition Eutrophication Groundwater /

1 Basic techniques ---Nucleic acid hybridization complementary strands will associate and form double stranded molecules ---Restriction Enzymes These enzymes.

sequences readily re-form double helixes. This is called Nucleic acid hybridization. 5’ AAAAAAAATTTTAAAAAAA 3’ Will associate with 3’/ with Probe C EcoRI 1kb2kb3kb4kb5kb4.5kb0.5kb GeneCGeneXGeneAGeneR Based on the blot what is the restriction map/these small fragments, looking for end sequences that overlap - indicating neighbouring fragments - and assembling the original sequence of the/when a related genome is already known. 117 Animal cloning Animal clones are genetically identical. Natural clones occur in /

Chapter 02 Lecture and Animation Outline Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. See separate PowerPoint.

are drawn as rings to indicate an electron’s energy, with orbitals, which have a variety of three-dimensional shapes and indicate an electron’s most likely /Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash /changes in pH Act by –Releasing hydrogen ions when a base is added –Absorbing hydrogen ions when acid is added Overall effect of keeping [H+] relatively constant 40/

Cell-free expression based protein microarrays Harini Chandra Affiliations Cell-free expression involves the rapid, in situ synthesis of proteins from.

potential in eliminating the drawbacks of traditional cell- based methods. Master Layout (Part 1) 5 3 2 4 1 This animation consists of 5 parts: Part 1 – Protein in situ array (PISA) Part 2 – Nucleic Acid Programmabe Protein Array (NAPPA) Part 3 – Multiple/ to the protein of interest can be added to the array surface for detection. The fluorescent tag molecules will indicate protein expression upon specific binding interactions between the protein and antibody. Part 3, Step 1: ActionAudio Narration 1 5/

Gene Expression Chapter 13. Learning Objective 1 What early evidence indicated that most genes specify the structure of proteins? What early evidence.

Chapter 13 Learning Objective 1 What early evidence indicated that most genes specify the structure of proteins? What early evidence indicated that most genes specify the structure of proteins?/acid is not altered if amino acid is not altered if codon change specifies a similar amino acid if codon change specifies a similar amino acid Fig. 13-20a, p. 299 Normal DNA sequence Normal mRNA sequence Normal protein sequence BASE-SUBSTITUTION MUTATIONS Missense mutation Nonsense mutation (Stop) Animation: Base/

1 Basic techniques ---Nucleic acid hybridization complementary strands will associate and form double stranded molecules ---Restriction Enzymes These enzymes.

sequences readily re-form double helixes. This is called Nucleic acid hybridization. 5’ AAAAAAAATTTTAAAAAAA 3’ Will associate with 3’/ in small vectors and then sequenced. About 500 bases of sequence information is produced from each fragment. The/these small fragments, looking for end sequences that overlap - indicating neighbouring fragments - and assembling the original sequence of the/when a related genome is already known. 110 Animal cloning Animal clones are genetically identical. Natural clones occur in/

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions. The vocabulary of chemistry is specialized. It includes such terms as atom, ion, molecule, isotope, acid, base,

atomic number of the element E. For the two naturally occurring isotopes of chlorine, we can write and indicating mass numbers of 35 and 37 for chlorine-35 and chlorine-37, respectively. A E Z 35 Cl /” + Water Acid Base Na cation HOHCl /anion Acids and bases react to form a salt and water = neutralization Animation (3) & (4) : Acids, Bases Gen. Chem. Chapter278 Gen. Chem. Chapter279 Formulas and Names for Acids Binary acids start with hydro and end with “ic” plus the word acid Ternary acids simply use the/

1. 2 Acid and Bases 3 4 5 Some Household Acids and Bases.

strong bases will also ionize completely in water. 15 Weak Acids and Bases Some acids and bases ionize only slightly in water. These are considered weak. The most important weak base is ammonia. 16 Balance of ions in acidic solutions Acidic Neutral Solution 17 ANIMATION LINKS Acid ionization /of the stirring rod onto a piece of the paper –Read and record the color change. Note what the color indicates. –You should only use a small portion of the paper. You can use one piece of paper for several tests/

1 Acids and Bases. 2 Acid-Base Concepts Antoine Lavoisier was one of the first chemists to try to explain what makes a substance acidic.

Equation: Total Ionic Equation: Net Ionic Equation: 81 Salts Product of acidbase rxn. Types 1. Normal 82 2. Acidic 3. Basic 83 Indicators Organic dyes Change color over pH range Acidic NeutralBasic pH 7 Red [Litmus] Blue Yellow Yellow [Bromothymol Blue] Blue Colorless Colorless [Phenolphthalein] Deep Pink Yellow Red [Methyl Orange] Yellow 84 Animation: Acid Ionization Equilibrium Return to Slide 7 (Click here to open QuickTime/

Urinalysis Laboratory Procedures Ch. 5. Urinalysis This test is often part of an initial data base for case work up of a clinically ill patient. It is.

Urine pH will be affected by many things including the diet, handling of the sample, and acid-base balance of the animal. An alkaline pH is most indicative of an infectious process. Normal pH is between 6 and 8 for most animals depending on their diet. Glucose In the normal animal there should not be glucose in the urine. If glucose is present, it is a/

Unit 10 (Chp 17): Buffers & Acid-Base Titrations ( more K a, K b, K w, pH, pOH) Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene.

(known) V titrant (known) M titrant (known) M analyte (unknown) Standard: solution of known conc. (M) animation Phenolphthalein Pink in BASE Indicators: Example: Phenolphthalein Indicators: HIn + H 2 O  H 3 O + + In – Add H 3 O + (titrate w/ acid) Remove H 3 O + (titrate w/ base) weak acids with conj. bases of diff. color pink From start to near the equivalence point (V eq ), the pH goes/

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