# Ppt on acid base balance

##### Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance By M,ABD ELMOTAAL.

Uses blood from an arterial puncture Uses blood from an arterial puncture Three test results relate to acid-base balance Three test results relate to acid-base balance pH pH PaCO2 PaCO2 HCO3 HCO3 Interpreting ABGs Step 1 - check the pH Step 1 -/ expects high PaCO2 (hypercapnia) Step 3 – Watch the Bicarb Provides info regarding metabolic aspect of acid-base balance Provides info regarding metabolic aspect of acid-base balance If pH is high, bicarb expected to be high (metabolic alkalosis) If pH is high, /

##### 5.2.1- Strong acids and bases 5.2.2- Ionization constants 5.2.3- Calculating pH 5.2.4- The pH scale 5.2.5- Indicators.

.Calculate the pH of a 0.01M HNO 3 solution? Begin finding pH by first finding [H + ]. HNO 3 is a strong acid,based on the balanced equation, we see that there is a 1:1 ratio between HNO 3 and H +, so [HNO 3 ] = [H + ]: HNO 3 (aq) → H + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) [H + ] = -log [H + ] = -/

##### Acid-base balance and disturbance Normal acid-base balance Parameters of acid-base balance Simple acid-base disturbance Mixed acid-base disturbance.

Acid-base balance and disturbance Normal acid-base balance Parameters of acid-base balance Simple acid-base disturbance Mixed acid-base disturbance Normal acid-base balance Concepts of acid and base Sources of acids and bases Regulation of acid-base balance Concepts of acid and base H 2 CO 3 =H + +HCO 3 - HHb=H + + Hb - H 2 PO 4 - =H + +HPO 4 2- HPr=H + +Pr - Acid base H + donor H + receptor Sources of acids and bases mainly produced during the catabolism of intracellular nutrients, with a small part/

##### Acid-Base Balance 205b. Educational Objectives Describe the relationship between the lungs and the kidneys in maintaining acid-base homeostasis (normalcy.

against sin, not against the Money Power, not against malicious animal magnetism, but against hydrogen ions." H.L. MENCKEN Acid-Base Balance Hydrogen ions are protons and do not exist in the naked state in body fluids; instead they react with water /. Each consists of a weak acid or acids and their conjugate base or bases. Acid-Base Balance The bicarbonate system buffers the effects of fixed acids and alkalies that are added to the blood; the acid component is H2CO3 and the base is HCO 3 - The nonbicarbonate/

##### (Renal Physiology 9) Acid-Base Balance 1 Basics of Acid Base Ahmad Ahmeda Cell phone: 0536313454 1.

(Renal Physiology 9) Acid-Base Balance 1 Basics of Acid Base Ahmad Ahmeda aahmeda@ksu.edu.sa Cell phone: 0536313454 1  Define: acid and base.  Explain what is meant by strong and weak acids and bases.  List and identify the names/formulas for the common strong acids and strong bases.  To explain the role of Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in acid-base regulation. Learning Objectives: 2 3 AcidBase BalanceAcidBase balance (a.k.a. pH HOMEOSTASIS) one of the/

##### 1 Chapter VII. Acid – Base Disturbance Section 1. Acid-Base Balance Section 1. Acid-Base Balance Section 2. Simple types of acid-base disturbance disturbance.

1 Chapter VII. AcidBase Disturbance Section 1. Acid-Base Balance Section 1. Acid-Base Balance Section 2. Simple types of acid-base disturbance disturbance Section 3. Mixed Acid-base Disturbance Section 3. Mixed Acid-base Disturbance 2 Section 1. Acid-Base Balance (1) Sources of acid and base (2) Regulation of acid-base balance (3) Laboratory parameters of acid-base balance balance 3 Homeostasis is very important for life. Acid-base balance is one of the major requirements ( volume, osmolarity of the body/

##### Chapter 26 Fluid, Electrolytes, and Acid/Base Balance Lecture 17 Marieb’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Marieb  Hoehn.

Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 Buffering Mechanisms in the Kidney Production of new HCO 3 - (2) 29 Summary of Acid-Base Balance Know this slide! Figure from: Hole’s Human A&P, 12 th edition, 2010 (Seconds) (Minutes) (Hours-Days) /absorption –↑ bone resorption –  Ca 2+ secretion, ↑ PO 4 3- secretion Acid-base balance –Production of H + is exactly offset by the loss of H + –Major mechanisms of maintaining acid-base (chemical) buffer systems: HCO 3 -, PO 4 3-, protein respiratory excretion of carbon/

##### General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Fourth Edition Karen Timberlake 10.1 Acids and Bases Chapter 10 Acids and Bases © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

for the neutralization of magnesium hydroxide and nitric acid. Step 1 Write the reactants and products. Step 2 Balance the H in the acid with the OH in the base. Balancing Neutralization Reactions © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 10 Section 3 95 Write the balanced equation for the neutralization of magnesium hydroxide and nitric acid. Step 3 Balance the H 2 O with the H and OH. Step/

##### Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Acid-Base Balance.

declines 2. Tubule cells do not reclaim bicarbonates in tubular fluid 3. Collecting system transports HCO 3 – into tubular fluid while releasing strong acid (HCl) into peritubular fluid Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings AcidBase Balance Disturbances  Respiratory AcidBase Disorders  Result from imbalance between:  CO 2 generation in peripheral tissues  CO 2 excretion at lungs  Cause abnormal CO 2 levels in/

##### Chapter 18.2 - Balancing redox equations Redox reactions: reduction – oxidaton reactions. Reduction: lowering of positive charge (increase of negative.

1 EXCEPT in F 2 where it has an oxidation number of ZERO (Rule 1) Redox Reactions, Acid, Base, Paul G. Mezey Chapter 18.2 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations [19.1] Oxidation number rules (Rule 4) Oxygen, as the second most /a fractional number of electrons: Oxidation half-reaction Reduction half-reaction Chapter 18.2 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations [19.1] Steps for ACIDIC solution Redox Reactions, Acid, Base, Paul G. Mezey 6.Add the half reactions together and then simplify by cancelling/

##### Water Water constitutes about 65 -70 % total body weight Fluid balance between ECF & ICF Products of digestion are absorbed in a fluid medium and distributed.

+ ATPase   Sodium channels in the luminal membrane   Na+reabsorption  Potassium channels in the luminal membrane Intracellular potassium content   Secretion  Urine flow rate   Secretion  Distal delivery of sodium   Secretion  Acid-base balance: Acute acidosis  Secretion   2) Balance of potassium distribution:  It is depended Na+—K+—ATPase on the cellular membrane(pump leak).  consumption of 1 ATP → pumping 3 Na+ out off and 2 K+ into/

##### Fluid and Electrolyte Balance during Injury Zohair Al Aseri. MD. FCEM(UK).FRCPC (EM&CCM) Chairman,National Emergency Medicine Committee Coordinatoor MPH-DME.

may be respiratory or metabolic in origin. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance during Injury Acid-base balance VBG is good, ABG is more accurate coupled with measurement of blood lactate concentration Fluid and Electrolyte Balance during Injury Acid-base balance Acid-base abnormalities are tackled by the body by means of  blood buffers  respiratory system  kidneys. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance during Injury Acid-base balance When the cause is metabolic, respiratory compensation is the most/

##### General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Fourth Edition Karen Timberlake 10.5 Reactions of Acids and Bases Chapter 10 Acids and Bases © 2013 Pearson.

Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 10, Section 5 7 Solution Write the products and the balanced chemical equation for each of the following reactions of acids. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 10, Section 5 8 Neutralization is the reaction of an acid, such as HCl and a base, such as NaOH. acid base salt water  The net ionic equation shows that H + combines with OH − to form/

##### Chemical Reactions Unit Balance and Write Chemical Equations Predict Products of Chemical Reactions.

aq) + Ba(OH) 2(aq)  BaBr 2(aq) + 2 H 2 O (l) (DR – acid-base neutralization) Total and Net Ionic Equations (Writing and Balancing Equations notes) Dissolved potassium iodide and lead (II) nitrate react in aqueous solution to produce solid lead (II) / + 3 O 2- (aq)  Al 2 O 3(s) 2.Write the complete balanced equation, total ionic equation and net ionic equation for the acid-base neutralization reaction that occurs when aqueous nitric acid is mixed with aqueous potassium hydroxide. HNO 3(aq) + KOH (aq)  H 2 /

##### Chapter 4: The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions 4.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 4.2 Precipitation Reactions and Acid-Base Reactions 4.3 Oxidation.

the titration the buret reading is 33.87 mL. What is the concentration of the base? Plan: Use the molar mass of KHP to calculate the number of moles of the acid, from the balanced chemical equation, the reaction is equal molar, so we know the moles of base, and from the difference in the buret readings, we can calculate the molarity of the/

##### Chemical Reactions. Chemistry (2/25) Acid/Base Quiz Interpreting and Balancing chemical equations Due: Acid/Base Nomenclature worksheet for partial credit.

each side of the equation. 3. Make sure coefficients are expressed in lowest terms. Chemistry (2/27) Objectives: Interpreting and Balancing chemical equations Review acid/base quiz Homework: Balancing equations worksheet(due Thursday) Law of Conservation of Mass pre-lab qts. and hypothesis Review acids/bases nomenclature Check for missing assignments in infinite campus Lab: Law of Conservation of Mass Lab: (Thursday) Law of Conservation of/

##### 1 Protein & Amino Acids Readings: Chapter 6. 2 Outline What are Proteins? Amino Acids (essential AA) Protein structure Digestion and Absorption Protein.

is unable to carry oxygen efficiently, results in many medical problems Structure Enzymes Hormones Antibodies Fluid Balance Acid-Base Balance Membrane Transporters Transport in the blood Synthesis of non-protein compounds Functions of Proteins 24 Structure &/ energy, the amino group (NH 3 ) must be removed –process is called deamination produces: –KETO ACID: excess can disrupt acid-base balance –AMONIA: converted to UREA by the LIVER, then excreted by the KIDNEY remaining components (carbon skeleton) /

##### Ch 24 Water, Electrolyte, & Acid-Base Balance Jen Tynes SELU.

7.35 to 7.45 Normal pH range of ECF is 7.35 to 7.45 Challenges to acid-base balance Challenges to acid-base balance –metabolism produces lactic acids, phosphoric acids, fatty acids, ketones and carbonic acids Acids and Bases Acids Acids –strong acids ionize freely, markedly lower pH –weak acids ionize only slightly Bases Bases –strong bases ionize freely, markedly raise pH –weak bases ionize only slightly Buffers Resist changes in pH Resist changes in pH –convert strong/

##### MAJOR INTRA- AND EXTRACELLULAR ELECTROLYTES. Introduction The body’s fluids are solutions of inorganic and organic solutes. The concentration balances.

body fluids becoming too alkaline), low fluid volume and urinary potassium loss. This can cause further problems in acid-base balance. Hypochloremia Hypochloremia is caused by : (i) salt-losing nephritis (inflammation of the kidney) associated with chronic/ cardiac depression Category : anticonvulsant and cathartic Usual dose : IV 4 gm in 10% solution Physiological acid base balance Acids are continuously being produced during metabolism. Since most metabolic reaction occurs only within a very narrow pH /

##### Chapter 19 The urinary system: fluid and electrolyte balance 1.The concept of balance 平衡的概念 2.Water balance 水的平衡 3.Sodium balance 鈉離子的平衡 4.Potassium balance.

Chapter 19 The urinary system: fluid and electrolyte balance 1.The concept of balance 平衡的概念 2.Water balance 水的平衡 3.Sodium balance 鈉離子的平衡 4.Potassium balance 鉀離子的平衡 5.Calcium balance 鈣離子的平衡 6.Interactions between fluid and electrolyte regulation 體液及電解質調控之間的交互作用 7.Acid-base balance 酸鹼平衡 I. The Concept of Balance Factors Affecting the Plasma Composition To maintain homeostasis 恆定, the human body must be kept in balance  to be in balance: Input 輸入 + Production 產生 = Utilization 利用 + Output 輸出 The kidney play a /

##### Physiology of the Kidneys Body Fluids & Acid Base Balance MDC 2541 974-1548 John R. Dietz, Ph.D. Molecular Pharmacology & Physiology.

Pressure  Bicarbonate  pH  FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEYS Remove wastes. Reg. Vol. and Composition of ECF. Acid-Base Balance. Blood Pressure Regulation. Removal of Foreign Substances. RBC Production. Vitamin D Activity. Proximal Tubule Distal Tubule Thin /Acid-Base Balance At the end of this section you should know: The physiological changes in the 4 primary acid base disturbances. How to read a Davenport diagram Compensation for acid-base disturbances. Causes of Acid-Base disturbances. Acid-Base Balance/

##### Acid/Base Balance Matthew L. Fowler, Ph.D., OMS-II Class of 2015 Cell Biology and Physiology Block 6 Renal and Reproduction.

0.03 x 24 mm Hg) Full restoration depends on slower responses in kidneys Renal Mechanisms for Acid/Base Balance Kidneys do two things to help maintain acid-base balance 1.Reabsorption of HCO 3 - –preservation of buffer for blood/not lost in urine 2./ enough that the reabsorption mechanism are is saturated. Metabolic Alkalosis: [HCO 3 - ] plasma is elevated, restoration of normal acid-base balance requires excretion of HCO 3 - as [HCO 3 - ] plasma increases, filtered load in lumen increases excretion of HCO 3/

##### Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance  Fluid balance The amount of water gained each day equals the amount lost  Electrolyte balance The ion gain.

the ECF  99% of chloride is reabsorbed under normal pH conditions  When acidosis occurs, fewer chloride ions are reabsorbed  Other anions have transport maximums and excesses are excreted in urine Acid-Base Balance  Normal pH of body fluids Arterial blood is 7.4 Venous blood and interstitial fluid is 7.35 Intracellular fluid is 7.0  Important part of homeostasis because cellular metabolism/

##### Chemical Reactions Balance Equation Double-displacement Reaction:  Precipitation  acid-base neutralization  gas-evolving Single-displacement Reaction.

2 SO 4 36 Acid-Base Reactions Also as Neutralization reactions : the Acid and Base neutralize each other’s properties H + from the Acid + OH - from the base  Water Cation from the base + Anion from the acid  salt (spectator ions) Acid + Base  Salt + Water 2 HNO 3 (aq) + Ca(OH) 2 (aq)  Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 H 2 O(l) 37 Example:- Write and Balance equation for the reaction/

##### Ani Retno Prijanti Renal and Body Fluids Module.  Body fluid  Regulation of Acid – Base Balance  Chemical buffer content and function  Acidosis and.

cannot eliminate them from the body The lungs can eliminate carbonic acid (volatile acid) by eliminating carbon dioxide Only the kidneys can rid the body of metabolic acids (phosphoric, uric, and lactic acids and ketones) and prevent metabolic acidosis The ultimate acid-base regulatory organs are the kidneys The most important renal mechanisms for regulating acid-base balance are: Conserving (reabsorbing) or generating new bicarbonate ions Excreting bicarbonate ions/

##### Fluids, electrolytes and acid-base balance. Body Fluids - distribution.

+ caused by hypercalcemia, hypermagnesemia Excretion of Mg 2+ caused by hypercalcemia, hypermagnesemia Homeostatic imbalance Homeostatic imbalance Hypomagnesemia - vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias Hypomagnesemia - vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias Hypermagnesemia - nausea, vomiting Hypermagnesemia - nausea, vomiting Acid-Base Balance Very important to maintain normal metabolism Very important to maintain normal metabolism pH 7.35-7.45 pH 7.35-7.45 H + HCO 3 - CO 2 H + HCO 3/

##### Perspective The community (and I) have learned a few things about brewing water since 1996 (when I last gave this class) Then: Slavish attention to reproducing.

stimulate your interest, review freshman chemistry or biochemistry text Pay particular attention to ionic equilibrium (law of mass action), acid/base chemistry, Henderson Hasselbalch equation. Read Cerevesia article on CD Atoms Smallest particle of elemental matter with nucleus of positively/accentuates hop character, stabilizes beer biologically (IPA) I have 7 profiles for Burton (all on handout CD). One which balances at pH 6.6 (i.e. a “reasonable” one) and shows: Alkalinity: 182 ppm as CaCO3 Calcium /

##### Water, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance

Hyperventilation lowers PCO2 and H2CO3 level falls Relative excess of bicarbonate Compensation: excretion of bicarbonate by kidneys A. Derangement of acid-base balance in respiratory alkalosis. B A. Derangement of acid-base balance in respiratory alkalosis. B. Compensation by excretion of bicarbonate Diagnostic Evaluation of AcidBase Balance Clinical evaluation: determination of concentration of bicarbonate in plasma as an index of patient’s overall status Laboratory studies Blood pH/

##### Module 4: Acid-Base Equilibria in Aqueous Solution

mass and charge balance equations. By the Quadratic Equation, we find that the concentration of the hydronium Ion is toughly 1.005 x 10⁻⁷ M, thus, when inputted into the pH equation, we find the pH to be 6.998, which satisfies an acid having a pH less than 7. Next Slide Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Revisited Section 4.8 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Revisited As/

##### Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria

not dissociation of water Step 1: Pertinent reactions: Kb Kw Step 2: Charge Balance: Step 3: Mass Balance: F – formal concentration of base Step 4: Equilibrium constant expression (one for each reaction): Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Weak Base Equilibria 1.) Treatment of Weak Base is Very Similar to Weak Acid Assume all OH- comes from base and not dissociation of water Step 6: Solve (Assume [BH+] >> [H+]  [BH+] ≈ [OH/

##### Urinary System L 4 Acid Base Balance and Avian Urinary System

from the body fluids Acidemia – depression of blood pH below normal Alkalemia – a value above normal pH Acidosis – addition of excess acids or removal of base from ECF Alkalosis – addition of excess base or loss of acid Acid-base balance in the body Under normal condition – acids or bases are continuously added to the body fluid due to cellular metabolism or ingestion Diseases causing – respiratory insufficiency - renal insufficiency - vomiting/

##### Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Review of Fundamentals 1.)Acids and Bases are essential to virtually every application of chemistry  Analytical procedures.

not dissociation of water Step 1: Pertinent reactions: KwKw KbKb Step 2: Charge Balance: Step 3: Mass Balance: F – formal concentration of base Step 4: Equilibrium constant expression (one for each reaction): Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Weak Base Equilibria 1.)Treatment of Weak Base is Very Similar to Weak Acid  Assume all OH - comes from base and not dissociation of water Step 6: Solve (Assume [BH + ] >> [H + ]  [BH + ] ≈ [OH/

##### ACIDS AND BASES.

HL- + H2O H2L + OH- Kb2 Relationships between Ka’s and Kb’s: Ka1. Kb2 = Kw Ka2. Kb1 = Kw Using pKa values and mass balance equations, the fraction of each species can be determined at a given pH. ACID-BASE TITRATIONS We will construct graphs to see how pH changes as titrant is added. Start by: writing chemical reaction between titrant and analyte using/

##### Protein: Amino Acids Aulanni’am Biochemistry Laboratory

and properties. An egg is mostly liquid until cooked. Milk becomes yogurt or or cheese when acids or enzymes are added. Heat, acids, bases, alcohol, heavy metals, enzymes or other agents can cause denaturation. Aulani "Biokimia" Presentation 5 Aulani/" Presentation 5 Roles of Proteins Regulation of fluid balance Dependent edema may be caused when there is too much fluid between cells and not enough hydrophilic protein within the cells. Acid-base regulation, proteins act as buffers accepting and releasing/

##### Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid Base Balance

of body fluids between plasma and interstitial fluid between interstitial and intracellular Acid Base Balance Buffer systems Exhalation of Carbon Dioxide Kidney Excretion Acid Base Imbalances Acidosis vs Alkalosis Acid Base Balance ↔ ↔ Normal range of pH 7.38 – 7.42 Controlled / to the right, causing additional H+, pH goes down H2O + CO2 ↔ H2CO3 HCO3- + H+ Acid Base Balance Renal Function Through the aspects of tubular secretion and reabsorption Bicarbonate (HCO3-) is produced and reabsorbed, acting as/

##### Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance

Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance Chapter 27 Composition of the Human Body Figure 27–1a Composition of the Human Body Figure 27–1b Water content /proteins along renal tubules Daily loss is small: 48–146 mEq (1.7–5.1 g) Terms Relating to AcidBase Balance Strong or Weak Strong acids and strong bases: dissociate completely in solution Weak acids or weak bases: do not dissociate completely in solution some molecules remain intact Acidosis Physiological state resulting from abnormally low plasma pH /

##### Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Electrolytes Promote normal neuromuscular excitability. Maintain body fluid osmolarity. Regulate acid base balance. Distribute body fluids between fluid compartments. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. / dioxide. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Regulators of Acid-Base Balance Renal Control of Hydrogen Ion Concentration The kidneys control extracellular fluid pH by removing hydrogen or /

##### Chapter 21 Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

reactions generally produce more acid than base The reactions include cellular metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids Maintenance of acid-base balance usually eliminates acids in one of three ways: Acid-base buffer systems Respiratory excretion of carbon dioxide Renal excretion of hydrogen ions Acid-Base Buffer Systems Bicarbonate buffer system The bicarbonate ion converts a strong acid to a weak acid Carbonic acid converts a strong base to a weak base H+ + HCO3-  H2CO3/

##### Fluid & Electrolyte Balance

defending body against disturbances in volume & osmolarity K imbalance trouble with cardiac & muscle functioning Calcium imbalances problems with exocytosis, muscle contraction, bone formation & clotting H & HCO3- balance determines pH or acid-base balance Maintaining Fluid & Electrolyte Balance homeostasis depends on integration of respiratory, cardiovascular, renal & behavioral systems primary route for excretion of water & ions-kidneys essential for regulating volume & composition of fluids lungs remove/

##### Chapter 6: Proteins & Amino Acids.

Personal ethics Environmental concerns Benefits: lower cost and healthier Risks: amino acid, mineral, and B vitamin deficiency Meeting dietary needs with a vegan diet Debate Should you switch to soy?  Good sources of soy Concept check How can nitrogen balance be maintained? What are benefits and risks of consuming a plant-based diet? How can vegetarians avoid nutrient deficiencies? Think critically Sickle cell/

##### Homeostasis.

Acid-Base Balance Classes of acids Fixed acids Do not leave solution Remain in body fluids until kidney excretion Examples: sulfuric and phosphoric acid Generated during catabolism of amino acids, phospholipids, and nucleic acids Organic acids Part of cellular metabolism Examples: lactic acid and ketones Most metabolized rapidly so no accumulation Section 2: Acid-Base Balance Classes of acids (continued) Volatile acids/.4 Potentially dangerous disturbances in acid-base balance are opposed by buffer systems /

##### LECTURE ELEVEN CHM 151 ©slg Topics: 1. Precipitation Reactions 2. Acid / Base Reactions.

, in which a metal or ammonium cation is written first and some anion second. NET IONIC EQUATIONS FOR ACID BASE REACTIONS NOTE: If any acid and base are mixed together and at least one of them is in aqueous solution, a reaction will always occur and/Net Ionic Equations for Acid /Base Reactions 1. Recognize that all reactions between acids and bases go to completion if at least one of them is in aqueous solution. 2. Decide on formula of salt product to accompany the H 2 O formed. 3. Balance the Equation 4./

##### INTRODUCTION TO AROMATHERAPY

– relax spasms in the bronchial tubes; and for spasm and pain. Balance thyroid secretion – for balancing excessive secretions of thyroxine. Actions of essential oils Carminatives and stomachics – for/nausea. Carrier Oils Carrier oils or vegetable oils are also known as base oils. Base oils are vegetable, nut, or seed oils, many of which themselves /to treat stretch marks, burns or scars. Contains: GLA, linolenic acids, oleic acid and palmitic acid. Goes rancid rather quickly! Virgin Coconut Oil It is one of /

##### WHAT IS PROTEIN?.

. Proline 10. Serine 11. Tyrosine FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN IN THE BODY Build and Maintain Tissues Make enzymes, hormones, antibodies Regulate Mineral and Fluid Balance Maintain Acid Base Balance Carry Vital substances (oxygen) Provide Energy It Should be noted….. All 20 amino acids are necessary for protein synthesis in the body, and must be present simultaneously for optimal maintenance of body growth and function! COMPLETE & INCOMPLETE/

##### Acids, Bases, and Salts Chapter 19.

are needed to balance the charges? Answer: Fe(OH)3 Acid-Base Theories (Section 19.1) Properties of Acids and Bases Arrhenius Acids and Bases Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Lewis Acids and Bases I.) Properties of Acids and Bases Acids have properties that are more familiar to us. The properties of bases are less familiar. Both acids and bases are electrolytes. Properties of acids. Acids have a sour taste. Acids changes the colors of an acid-base indicator. Acids can be strong/

##### Chp 24 Acid-base balance.

. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 24.12 pH Normal Alkalosis Acidosis 7.35 7.45 8.0 6.8 Death Death H2CO3 HCO3– Respiratory Regulation Lungs help regulated acid-base balance by eliminating or retaining carbon dioxide pH may be regulated by altering the rate and depth of respirations changes in pH are rapid, occurring within minutes normal CO2 level 35/

##### Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Monoprotic Weak Acids Monoprotic Weak Bases Fraction of Dissociation-Association Salts of Weak Acids Buffers.

a Conjugate Relationships The conjugate base of a weak acid is a weak base Stronger weak acid  Weaker conjugate base Weaker weak acid  Stronger conjugate base The conjugate acid of a weak base is a weak acid Stronger weak base  Weaker conjugate acid Weaker weak base  Stronger conjugate acid Monoprotic Weak Acid Problems Method Write pertinent equations for all equilibria Write expression for mass balance Write expression for the charge balance Monoprotic Weak Acid Problems Equilibria HA H/

##### Balance this equation: ____ H2 (g) + ____ N2 (g)  ____ NH3 (g)

covalent compound. Water is formed from the reaction of an acid and a base Water is formed from the reaction of an acid and a base. Why is it not classified as a salt? Not all acidbase reactions produce salts, as in the case with the formation /D. The zinc walls are transformed into zinc ions as the battery provides electricity. __Ce4+ + __Cl–  __Ce3+ + __Cl2 What set of coefficients is necessary to balance the following chemical equation? __Ce4+ + __Cl–  __Ce3+ + __Cl2 A. 2, 2, 2, 1 B. 1, 4, 1, 2 C. 1, /

##### Fluid & Electrolyte Balance

& dissociate – these serve 4 main functions. Control the osmosis of water between fluid compartments. Maintain the acid-base balance necessary for normal cellular activity. Ions carry electrical currents that allow the production of action potentials & graded potentials/release it into the blood stream when levels are low, or excrete the excess if levels are high. Acid-Base Balance Acid-Base Balance: The major homeostatic challenge responsible for keeping pH (H+ concentration) of body fluids at the correct /

##### Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

optimal cell function. For optimal cell function, the body maintains a balance between acids and bases. Acid-base homeostasis is the dynamic interplay of three processes: acid production, acid buffering, and acid excretion. Normal acid-base balance is maintained with acid excretion equal to acid production. The more H+ ions that are present, the more acidic is the solution. The degree of acidity in blood and other body fluids is reported from the clinical laboratory/