Free ppt on ozone layer depletion

SCIENCE OF OZONE LAYER DEPLETION 12 th - 13 th March, 2007 (JAIPUR) By Rashid Ayub (MIS Coordinator-PMU)

’s on reaching Stratosphere gets split by UV radiation releasing Free Chlorine  Free Chlorine enters into a chain reaction with Ozone assisted by UV radiation  1 Free Chlorine atom reacts with 1 lac Ozone molecule over 100 years destroying all OZONE LAYER DEPLETIONOzone Depleting Substances :- CFC, Halon, CTC, Methyl Chloroform, Methyl Bromide and HCFC.  These chemicals are broken down by the UV radiation and release extremely/


Air Pollution, Climate Disruption, and Ozone Depletion

electronic parts such as computer chips, fumigants for granaries and ship cargo holds, and gases used to make insulation and packaging. CFCs are persistent chemicals that destroy the ozone layer. Why should we worry about ozone depletion? More biologically damaging UV-A and UV-B radiation will reach the earth’s surface. Causes problems with human health, crop yields, forest productivity, climate change, wildlife/


Ozone is a molecule  made of 3 atoms of oxygen  Ozone is a bluish gas  Ozone helps absorbs harmful UV radiation from the sun.

/ 1. “Health and Environmental Effects of Ozone Layer DepletionOzone Layer Production. 8 March 2011. 19 August 2010. http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/effects/index.html 2. “Ozone Depletion: Losing Earth’s Protective layer” Nation Geographic. 8 March 2011. 13 August 2009. http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/ozone-depletion-overview.html http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/ozone-depletion-overview.html 3. “Ozone Holes Grows in 2008” Cnn.com/


Ozone Depletion. What is the Atmosphere? All of the gases that surround Earth  Mixture of mostly nitrogen and oxygen  Other gases that are present in.

is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Exposure to UV radiation can lead to skin cancer So…Why is a hole in the ozone layer or ozone depletion bad???  Too much UV radiation might cause skin cancers What is the ozone layer and where is it found? The ozone layer is the layer of the atmosphere at an altitude of 15 to 40 km Located in the stratosphere What is/


Ozone. Same Molecule, Different Locations TROPOSPHERIC OZONE -- “Bad” A pale blue gas with a pungent odor that will irritate your eyes, nose and throat,

image 1987 1987 Montreal Protocol Vienna Convention began the process in 1985. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was agreed on 16 September 1987 and entered into force on 1 January 1989. It is the primary / to the Protocol, including virtually all major industrialized countries and most developing countries.Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer CFC annual production was frozen at 1990 levels with 50 percent reduction by 2000. Annual production of halons /


1 Part III. Exhaustible Resources A.Ozone & Global Climate Change B. Energy.

the stratosphere tend to stay there. 7 8 Causes of Ozone Depletion The pollutants that most adversely affect the ozone layer are fluorocarbons. Most of the depletion of the ozone layer has been attributed to pollutants containing chloride (chlorofluorocarbons or /developing countries. Taxes collected in developing countries would stay in country. 45 Summary Global warming and depletion of the ozone layer are important environmental problems. The long lags between emissions and damages, the long lifetimes of /


Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Our atmosphere Earth’s atmosphere = the layer of gases that surround the planet.

, factories, and power plants emit large quantities of pollutants into our atmosphere. Photochemical smog plagues most cities. Industrial smog is a problem in developing world cities. CFCs have depleted much of Earth’s ozone layer. Acid precipitation is damaging ecosystems, architecture. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Conclusions: Solutions Scientists continue to/


THE OZONE LAYER. LEARNING OUTCOMES Explain that ozone is continuously being formed and broken down in the stratosphere by ultraviolet radiation. Describe,

offset by unexpected and detrimental side effects. The thinning of the ozone layer It can happen naturally but human intervention is the main reason for ozone depletion Is brought about by ODC’s or Ozone Depleting Chemicals Chemicals have an ozone depletion potential (ODP) which is the relative amount of breakdown to the ozone layer caused by that substance. Ozone Depletion Natural Ozone depletion Ozone in the stratosphere breaks down naturally: 2O 3 —> 3O 2/


Air Pollution, Climate Disruption, and Ozone Depletion Chapter 15.

electronic parts such as computer chips, fumigants for granaries and ship cargo holds, and gases used to make insulation and packaging. –CFCs are persistent chemicals that destroy the ozone layer. Why should we worry about ozone depletion? More biologically damaging UV-A and UV- B radiation will reach the earth’s surface. Causes problems with human health, crop yields, forest productivity, climate change, wildlife/


Effects of Ozone Depletion. The Discovery Team who discovered the hole 1985. From left: Joe Farman, Brian Gardiner, and Jonathan Shanklin British Atlantic.

accurately  Rates of future increases in greenhouse gases are not yet established  Interactions between ozone depletion and climate change not yet fully understood Continued monitoring of ozone and ozone-depleting substances is essential  Ozone layer recovery expected by 2050  Hinges on the complete elimination of atmospheric ozone- depleting substances  Replacements for HCFCs, methyl bromide, and halons are still being sought, and studies of the new compounds must continue (U/


Air Pollution, Climate Disruption, and Ozone Depletion Chapter 15.

electronic parts such as computer chips, fumigants for granaries and ship cargo holds, and gases used to make insulation and packaging. –CFCs are persistent chemicals that destroy the ozone layer. Why should we worry about ozone depletion? More biologically damaging UV-A and UV- B radiation will reach the earth’s surface. Causes problems with human health, crop yields, forest productivity, climate change, wildlife/


Air Pollution, Climate Disruption, and Ozone Depletion Chapter 15.

electronic parts such as computer chips, fumigants for granaries and ship cargo holds, and gases used to make insulation and packaging. –CFCs are persistent chemicals that destroy the ozone layer. Why should we worry about ozone depletion? More biologically damaging UV-A and UV- B radiation will reach the earth’s surface. Causes problems with human health, crop yields, forest productivity, climate change, wildlife/


AP Environmental Science Ozone Depletion(Chapter 25)

O 2 through photodissociation then recombine to form ozone again  Chemical reactions that break down and form ozone release heat  Completely absorbed by the ozone layer Ozone Properties  Ultraviolet B (UVB)  Similar in properties to UVC  Mostly absorbed by the ozone layer  Only absorbed by ozone  Biggest concern from ozone depletion  Ultraviolet A (UVA)  Longest wavelength  Not affected by stratospheric ozone Ozone Properties Measurement of Ozone  First measured in the 1920’s using/


Air Pollution, Climate Change and Ozone Depletion

Air Pollution, Climate Change and Ozone Depletion General Information Chapter Overview Questions What layers are found in the atmosphere? What are the major outdoor air pollutants, and where do they /established targets to reduce their greenhouse emissions 10-65% to 1990 levels by 2010. OZONE DEPLETION IN THE STRATOSPHERE Less ozone in the stratosphere allows for more harmful UV radiation to reach the earth’s surface. The ozone layer keeps about 95% of the sun’s harmful UV radiation from reaching the earth’s/


Ozone Layer and Extinction of Species. Contents Ozone layer depletion Extinction of species and loss of biodiversity.

=>Increase rate of recombination of oxygen, leading to an overall decrease in the amount of ozone. Ozone hole in September 2006 “Largest hole in the record.” ~Size of North America Source: NASA Concentration Ozone in Antarctic region Consequences of Ozone depletion Since the ozone layer absorbs UVB ultraviolet light from the Sun, ozone layer depletion is expected to increase surface UVB levels. Possible linked to higher incidence of skin cancer/


Lecture 5a: Formation of Ozone Hole

of 1995. Tighter deadlines for use of the other ozone-depleting compounds are also being adopted. It was anticipated that these limitations would lead to a recovery of the ozone layer within 50 years of 2000; the World Meteorological Organization/ a little bigger than Antarctica and extends nearly 10km in altitude in the lower stratosphere. The 1997 Ozone Hole Why No Ozone Hole in Artic? (from WMO Report 2003) Thinning of Ozone Layer in Arctic Region Lecture 5b: Acid Rain 酸雨 正常雨水:pH 5.6 CO2(氣) + H2O → CO2‧/


General Information Air Pollution, Climate Change and Ozone Depletion.

General Information Air Pollution, Climate Change and Ozone Depletion Chapter Overview Questions What layers are found in the atmosphere? What are the major outdoor air pollutants, and where do they /established targets to reduce their greenhouse emissions 10-65% to 1990 levels by 2010. OZONE DEPLETION IN THE STRATOSPHERE Less ozone in the stratosphere allows for more harmful UV radiation to reach the earth’s surface. The ozone layer keeps about 95% of the sun’s harmful UV radiation from reaching the earth’s/


Air Pollution Ch 17. Overview The Earth’s atmosphere Outdoor pollution and solutions Stratospheric ozone depletion Acidic deposition and consequences.

Protocol = 180 nations agreed to cut CFC production in half Follow-up agreements deepened cuts, advanced timetables and addresses other ozone-depleting chemicals Today, production and use of ozone-depleting chemicals has decreased 95% The ozone layer is beginning to recover Challenges still face us CFCs will remain in the stratosphere for a long time Nations can ask for exemptions to the ban The Montreal Protocol/


General Information Air Pollution, Climate Change and Ozone Depletion.

General Information Air Pollution, Climate Change and Ozone Depletion Chapter Overview Questions What layers are found in the atmosphere? What are the major outdoor air pollutants, and where do they /established targets to reduce their greenhouse emissions 10-65% to 1990 levels by 2010. OZONE DEPLETION IN THE STRATOSPHERE Less ozone in the stratosphere allows for more harmful UV radiation to reach the earth’s surface. The ozone layer keeps about 95% of the sun’s harmful UV radiation from reaching the earth’s/


Environmental Concerns. Air Pollution  Pollutants in the atmosphere Contribute to global warming and ozone layer depletion Contribute to global warming.

Environmental Concerns Air Pollution  Pollutants in the atmosphere Contribute to global warming and ozone layer depletion Contribute to global warming and ozone layer depletion Water Pollution  Contamination by foreign matter that deteriorates the quality of the water Can limit access to clean drinking water, spread disease, kill plant and animal life which affects food /


Climate Control and Ozone Depletion Chapter 19. Core Case Study: Studying a Volcano to Understand Climate Change  June 1991: Mount Pinatubo (Philippines)

, which allows for more harmful ultraviolet radiation to reach the earth’s surface.  Concept 19-4B To reverse ozone depletion, we must stop producing ozone-depleting chemicals and adhere to the international treaties that ban such chemicals. Our Use of Certain Chemicals Threatens the Ozone LayerOzone Thinning Seasonal depletion in the stratosphere Antarctica and Arctic  1930: Midgely Discovered the first CFC  1984: Rowland and Molina CFCs were/


Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Ozone Depletion Chapter 12.

in the stratosphere, which has allowed more harmful ultraviolet radiation to reach the earth’s surface.  Concept 12-8B To reverse ozone depletion, we must stop producing ozone-depleting chemicals, and adhere to the international treaties that ban such chemicals. Human Activities Threaten the Ozone LayerOzone Thinning Seasonal depletion in the stratosphere Antarctica and Arctic  1930: Midgely Discovered the first CFC  1984: Rowland and Molina CFCs were/


Air Pollution, Climate Change and Ozone Depletion.

Air Pollution, Climate Change and Ozone Depletion Chapter Overview Questions  What layers are found in the atmosphere?  What are the major outdoor air pollutants, and where do they come /have established targets to reduce their greenhouse emissions 10-65% to 1990 levels by 2010. OZONE DEPLETION IN THE STRATOSPHERE  Less ozone in the stratosphere allows for more harmful UV radiation to reach the earth’s surface.  The ozone layer keeps about 95% of the sun’s harmful UV radiation from reaching the earth’s /


Climate Control and Ozone Depletion Chapter 19. Core Case Study: Studying a Volcano to Understand Climate Change  June 1991: Mount Pinatubo (Philippines)

, which allows for more harmful ultraviolet radiation to reach the earth’s surface.  Concept 19-4B To reverse ozone depletion, we must stop producing ozone-depleting chemicals and adhere to the international treaties that ban such chemicals. Our Use of Certain Chemicals Threatens the Ozone LayerOzone Thinning Seasonal depletion in the stratosphere Antarctica and Arctic  1930: Midgely Discovered the first CFC  1984: Rowland and Molina CFCs were/


Table 1: Ozone Depletion Events During TOPSE 2000 Major ODE (MODE) O 3 < 4 ppbvin-situ Partial ODE (PODE) 4  O 3  20 ppbvremote DIAL DateFltRouteLocation.

and other tracer data. Fig. x Fig. 3 ODE Fig. 6 Fig. x Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Introduction: Episodes of ozone depletion from winter levels of 30-40 ppbv to a few ppbv or less during spring in the Arctic surface layer have been well studied especially at Alert (82.5 o N, 62.3 o W) and during the ARCTOC program in/


Ozone Depletion. Ozone Layer Ozone layer absorbs 97% to 99% of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sunOzone layer absorbs 97% to 99% of ultraviolet (UV)

years). Chemicals once used in aerosol cans, plastics, and refrigerators that are now mostly banned. CFCs break up the ozone layer. OZONE DEPLETION CAUSES: After breaking down an ozone molecule, the chlorine atom frees itself from the oxygen atom to restart the reaction. OZONE DEPLETION Without the ozone layer larger amounts of UV rays can reach the earth and potentially cause cancer in humans, cause cataracts (damage eye-sight/


1 Ozone Layer: Existence and Anthropogenic Depletion GLY 4241 - Lecture 7 Fall, 2016.

wheel UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Deployed by space shuttle Discovery om 9/15/91 UARS is perhaps best remembered for studies of the ozone layer and Antarctic ozone hole, particularly the role of chlorine, halocarbons, and nitrous oxides in ozone depletion The decommissioned satellite re-entered Earths atmosphere on 24 September 2011 14 UARS Evidence In 1992, it was suggested that a hole does/


Climate Change and Ozone Depletion

types of skin cancer. (Data and photos from the Skin Cancer Foundation) Squamous Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Fig. 20-22, p. 489 PROTECTING THE OZONE LAYER To reduce ozone depletion, we must stop producing all ozone-depleting chemicals. Next Reducing Exposure to UV Radiation What Can You Do? Reducing Exposure to UV Radiation • Stay out of the sun, especially between 10 A.M. and/


Climate Change and Ozone Depletion

types of skin cancer. (Data and photos from the Skin Cancer Foundation) Squamous Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Fig. 20-22, p. 489 PROTECTING THE OZONE LAYER To reduce ozone depletion, we must stop producing all ozone-depleting chemicals. Figure 20-23 Reducing Exposure to UV Radiation What Can You Do? Reducing Exposure to UV Radiation • Stay out of the sun, especially between 10 A/


Chapter 20 Ozone Depletion. OZONE DEPLETION IN THE STRATOSPHERE  Ozone thinning: caused by CFCs and other ozone depleting chemicals (ODCs). Increased.

and paints. Increased UV radiation reaching the earth’s surface from ozone depletion in the stratosphere is harmful to human health, crops, forests, animals, and materials such as plastic and paints. OZONE DEPLETION IN THE STRATOSPHERE  Less ozone in the stratosphere allows for more harmful UV radiation to reach the earth’s surface. The ozone layer keeps about 95% of the sun’s harmful UV radiation from/


Chemistry of Ozone in the Stratosphere. Levels of stratospheric ozone have been dropping NASA -

of NO x species with O 3 NO + O 3 -> NO 2 + O 2 NO 2 + O -> NO + O 2 Net Reaction O + O 3 -> 2O 2 “Ozone Depletion” Paul Crutzen, ~ 1970 The first “man-made” threat to the ozone layer was noted by Harold Johnston (1971): supersonic aircrafts These aircraft would be capable of releasing nitrogen oxides right in the middle of the/


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 13e CHAPTER 15: Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Ozone Depletion.

radiation to reach the earth’s surface. Concept 15-7B To reverse ozone depletion, we need to stop producing ozone-depleting chemicals and adhere to the international treaties that ban such chemicals. Human Impact on the Ozone Layer Location and purpose of the ozone layer –Blocks UV-A and UV-B radiation Seasonal and long-term depletion of ozone Threat to humans, animals, plants Causes – chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Individuals Matter: Banning/


Stratospheric Ozone Depletion IB syllabus: 5.6.1-5.6.6 AP syllabus Ch 17, 18 Video – The Hole Story.

the chemical bond  O 3 + UV  O + O 2  So UV doesn’t make it to the earth’s surface Ozone LayerLayer in the lower stratosphere  Keeps 95% of harmful UV radiation away  Seasonal depletion of ozone layer above Arctic & Antarctic, overall thinning everywhere but tropics  Depletion is serious long term threat to (1) humans, (2) other animals, (3) sun driven producers (plants) supporting food webs/


Earth’s Changing Environment Lecture 5 Depletion of the Ozone Layer.

Regions of the Solar UV Spectrum Chapman Reactions form O3 in the Stratosphere O3 absorbs most of the UVB radiation These two processes form the Ozone Cycle Depletion of the Ozone Layer Chlorine acts as a catalyst to destroy the Ozone layer How does Chlorine get into the Stratosphere? chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). CFC-12 (CF2Cl2) (freon) CFC-12 (CF2Cl2) (freon) CFC-11 (CFCl3) CFC-11/


9 th Meeting of Ozone Research Managers of the Parties to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer Geneva, Switzerland 14-16 May 2014.

other things the expected impacts to the atmosphere; f.Assessment of the effects of ozone-depleting substances and other ozone-relevant substances, if any, with stratospheric influences, and their degradation products, the identification of such substances, their ozone-depletion potential and other properties; g.Identification of any other threats to the ozone layer… The Parties’ Request (Decision XXIII/13) “Terms of Reference” for the 2014 SAP Report/


AIR POLLUTION – Acid Rain & Ozone Depletion CE 326 Principles of Environmental Engineering Prof. Tim Ellis January 26, 2009.

stratosphere, the u_________ radiation from the sun causes them to break apart and release c_______ atoms which react with ozone, starting chemical cycles of ozone destruction that deplete the ozone layer. One chlorine atom can break apart more than _______ ozone molecules. Other chemicals that damage the ozone layer include: –m______ bromide (used as a pesticide) –h______ (used in fire extinguishers), and –m______ chloroform (used as a solvent/


Chapter 20 Climate Change and Ozone Depletion. Chapter Overview Questions  How have the earth’s temperature and climate changed in the past?  How might.

a role in malignant melanoma. Epidermis Squamous Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Sweat gland Dermis Squamous cells Thin layer of dead cells Basal layer Melanocyte cells Blood vessels Ultraviolet B Ultraviolet A Hair Basalcell PROTECTING THE OZONE LAYER  To reduce ozone depletion, we must stop producing all ozone-depleting chemicals. Figure 20-23 Fig. 20-23, p. 490 What Can You Do? Stay out of the sun/


©1996, West Publishing Company (Modified by Asper, 1997; revised by Lohrenz, 2000) Slide 1 Lesson #11 The Ocean’s Future: El Niño, Ozone depletion Vernon.

: –Cars’ AC system –Refrigerators –Freezers –Styrofoam cups –Etc! http://observe.arc.nasa.gov ©1996, West Publishing Company (Modified by Asper, 1997; revised by Lohrenz, 2000) Slide 24 Ozone Depletion Why do we care? The Ozone Layer blocks ultraviolet (UV) light UV causes sunburn Cancer Other bad things www.space.gc.ca ©1996, West Publishing Company (Modified by Asper, 1997; revised by Lohrenz, 2000) Slide/


Chapter 19 Climate Change and Ozone Depletion (we can get along!)

a role in malignant melanoma. Epidermis Squamous Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Sweat gland Dermis Squamous cells Thin layer of dead cells Basal layer Melanocyte cells Blood vessels Ultraviolet B Ultraviolet A Hair Basalcell PROTECTING THE OZONE LAYER  To reduce ozone depletion, we must stop producing all ozone-depleting chemicals. Next Fig. 20-23, p. 490 What Can You Do? Stay out of the sun, especially between/


Ozone Depletion Reducing the manufacture and release of halogenated organic chemicals.

50% reduction in CFC production worldwide by 2000 50% reduction in CFC production worldwide by 2000 A Brief History and Status “Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer” “Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer” Now signed by over 90 nations Now signed by over 90 nations Revised to require the virtual phaseout of CFC production by 1996 Revised to require the/


International Environmental Policy: Controlling Ozone Depletion.

near the poles, and not at all near the equator. Ozone Depletion Estimated changes in surface UV radiation from 1979 to 1992: Ozone Depletion  The link between man-made chemical emissions and depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer was discovered starting in the mid-1970s.  The most important step in preventing ozone depletion: Montréal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987) Montréal Protocol  The Montréal Protocol and/


Climate Change and Ozone Loss G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 18 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition.

of CFCs in developed countries by 1996 3. Phase out use of CFCs in developing countries by 2005 Solutions: Protecting the Ozone Layer  Use CFC substitutes  Montreal Protocol (1987)  only CFCs  Montreal Protocol (1987)  only CFCs Characteristics of Global Warming and Ozone Depletion Global Warming CO 2, CH 4, NO x (greenhouse gases) Absorbs infrared (IR) radiation Raising the earth’s surface temperature Decrease/


13-2 The Ozone Shield Page 335. A. Chemicals that Cause Ozone Depletion 1. The ozone layer is an area in the stratosphere where ozone is highly concentrated.

that Cause Ozone Depletion 1. The ozone layer is an area in the stratosphere where ozone is highly concentrated. A. Chemicals that Cause Ozone Depletion 2. Ozone is a molecule made of 3 oxygen atoms (O 3 ) and absorbs ultraviolet (UV) rays that can harm living cells. A. Chemicals that Cause Ozone Depletion 3. Human-made chemicals called chloroflurorocarbons (CFC’s) are damaging the ozone layer. A. Chemicals that Cause Ozone Depletion 4. CFC/


Chapter 17 Topics:  The Earth’s atmosphere  Weather, climate, and atmospheric conditions  Outdoor pollution  Stratospheric ozone depletion  Acidic.

 Annual vehicle inspection programs  Reduction of sulfur content in diesel fuel  Electronic pollution indicator boards raise awareness Stratospheric ozoneOzone layer = ozone in the lower stratosphere  Blocks incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation  Protecting life from radiation’s damaging effects  Ozone-depleting substances = human-made chemicals that destroy ozone by splitting its molecules apart  Halocarbons = human-made compounds made from hydrocarbons with added chlorine, bromine, or fluorine/


Chapter 18.7 Ozone Depletion. OZONE DEPLETION IN THE STRATOSPHERE  Less ozone in the stratosphere allows for more harmful UV radiation to reach the earth’s.

a role in malignant melanoma. Epidermis Squamous Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Sweat gland Dermis Squamous cells Thin layer of dead cells Basal layer Melanocyte cells Blood vessels Ultraviolet B Ultraviolet A Hair Basalcell PROTECTING THE OZONE LAYER  To reduce ozone depletion, we must stop producing all ozone-depleting chemicals. Figure 20-23 Fig. 20-23, p. 490 What Can You Do? Stay out of the sun/


Stratospheric Ozone Depletion ES 110: Introduction to Environmental Science 3-5 Sep 2008.

+ O2O2 O + O2O2 O + O2O2 O2O2 O2O2 + + O 3 (ozone) heat O + O 3 ( ozone ) O + O2O2 UV O 3 (ozone) + Causes of Ozone destruction Polar stratospheric clouds Volcanic eruptions Dynamic Equilibrium creation of ozone breakdown of ozone Anthropogenic Ozone Depletion creation of ozone breakdown of ozone Modern Impacts to Ozone I Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) What are they? How do they impact the ozone layer? Development of CFCs 1928:DuPont scientists develop CFCs “ideal/


THE OZONE SHIELD CHAPTER 13 SECTION 2.

reach the surface of the Earth. Essential Questions What are the potential consequences of humanity with continued thinning of the ozone layer? What does the ozone layer do and what can we do to protect it? what chemicals are currently causing the majority of ozone depletion? Objectives Explain how the ozone layer shields the Earth from much of the sun’s harmful radiation Explain how chloroflurocarbons damage the/


G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment Chapter 18

of decreased ocean uptake of CO2 from atmosphere by phytoplankton and CFCs acting as greenhouse gases Solutions: Protecting the Ozone Layer CFC substitutes Montreal Protocol : 1987; 35 nations to cut CFC by 35% in 2000 Copenhagen Protocol: phase out of all ozone depleting chemicals Protecting the Ozone Layer If we immediately stop, it will take 50 years to return to 1980 levels and about 100 years/


Global Policy to Protect Stratospheric Ozone 20th Anniversary in 2007 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer.

, production cap). 1986. Negotiations on a protocol to the Vienna Convention for controlling CFCs resumed. 1987. Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer achieved in a 9-month period. Production ban, phase-out, Multilateral fund. Subsequent amendments: 1990 and onward Ozone Regime 1987 Montreal Protocol. –Centerpiece of the regime. –50% cuts on 5 CFCs and 3 Halons by 2000. –10-year grace/


Ozone Depletion: The Story of a Successful Environmental Agreement and Some Linkages and Parallels to Climate Change Susan Solomon 1.Antarctic ozone depletion:

in latitude Ground-based and airborne expeditions measured a host of important chemicals….ClO, OClO, NO, NO 2, HCl….. -> Massive perturbations to Antarctic chlorine chemistry on PSCs, capable of depleting the ozone layer very effectively. Poles Apart: Arctic and Antarctic Solomon, Portmann and Thompson, PNAS, 2007 Records in the Antarctic are more systematic and complete than in the Arctic - a legacy of the/


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