Free ppt on dispersion of light

Connection-Oriented Networks1 Chapter 8: Optical Fibers and Components TOPICS –WDM optical networks –Light transmitted through an optical fiber –Types.

proportional to the dispersion of the transmission fiber. Approximately, a spool of 15 km of dispersion compensating fiber is placed for every 80 km of transmission fiber. Dispersion compensating fiber introduces attenuation of about 0.5 dB/km. Connection-Oriented Networks21 Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) It is due to the fact that the core of the fiber is not perfectly round. In an ideal circularly symmetric fiber the light gets polarized/


11 Components of Optical Instruments Lecture 5. 22 Spectroscopic methods are based on either: 1. Absorption  2. Emission  3. ScatteringX (Inst A. B)

A prism is a wavelengths selector that depends on the dispersion ability of the incident radiation by the prism material. Dispersion: The variation of refractive index with wavelength, or frequency. Polychromatic light: is composed of several wavelengths, so dispersion of these wavelengths will be different when they are transmitted through the prism. Dispersion pattern for white light: As decreases the dispersion increases and well separated. تناسب عكسي مع الطول الموجي 31 32 Incident beam Red Orange/


1 Dispersion (Terminology)   How do we quantify the spatial separation of wavelengths on the exit focal plane? Angular Dispersion : D a = dθ/dλ (property.

= n 2 sin θ 2 A prism is a transparent optic that is shaped to bend light. Since the refractive index of a material varies with wavelength, prisms are useful for dispersing different wavelengths of light. Chemistry Department, University of Isfahan 4 Dispersion of white light by a prism Dispersed light Incident White light Chemistry Department, University of Isfahan 5 Dispersion by a prism (a) quartz Cornu types and (b) Littrow type Chemistry Department, University/


Intermode Dispersion (MMF) v gmin  c/n 1. (Fundamental) v gmax  c/n 2. (Highest order mode)  /L  - 50 ns / km Depends on length! Group Delay 

Typically D pol = 0.1 - 0.5 ps nm -1 km -1/2 Self-Phase Modulation Dispersion : Nonlinear Effect At sufficiently high light intensities, the refractive index of glass n is n = n + C I where C is a constant and I is the light intensity. The intensity of light modulates its own phase. For   1 ps km -1  I max  3   W cm -2.  n/


Astronomical Spectroscopy Notes from Richard Gray, Appalachian State, and D. J. Schroeder 1974 in “Methods of Experimental Physics, Vol. 12-Part A Optical.

so that the slit width is approximately the same as the average seeing. Otherwise you will lose a lot of light. 4 Design Considerations: Resolution vs Throughput Without the disperser, the spectrograph optics would simply reimage the slit on the detector. With the disperser, monochromatic light passing through the spectrograph would result in a single slit image on the detector; its position on the detector/


Propagation of Light Through Optical Fiber. Outline of Talk Acceptance angle Numerical aperture Dispersion Attenuation.

path in optical fiber Meridional ray passes through the fiber axis Skew ray Dispersion & Attenuation Dispersion Sun light Disperse light Dispersion is a phenomenon that causes the separation of a wave into spectral components with different wavelengths, due to a dependence of the waves speed on its wavelength.wavewavelengths Prism Types of Dispersion Material Dispersion Modal Dispersion Waveguide Dispersion Types of Dispersion f1f1 f2f2 n1n1 n2n2 Changing optical path length due to a changing refractive/


Seed Dispersal. Reproduction in plants — getting the flowers pollinated Plants have adaptations to help them in pollination. Flowers that are pollinated.

the adaptations that help these fruits/seeds to be dispersed? angsana shorea Dispersal by wind small light dry wing-like Dispersal by wind small light dry wing-like Mrs Theresa Teo GE2003 Edited Mr Lin Lixun GEO2009 Dispersal by Wind Plants which depend on the wind for the dispersal of seeds usually have light seeds or wings or a parachute of fine hairs or feathery hairs that act like many/


Dispersants: Chemistry, Environmental Fate & Effects, and Their Use as a Spill Response Option Ellen Faurot-Daniels California Department of Fish and Wildlife.

- Microbial degradation -Emulsification -Spreading -Natural dispersion -Sedimentation Spreading and Advection Spreading: The movement of oil horizontally on water surface due to gravity, inertia, friction, viscosity and surface tension. Advection: The movement of oil due to influences of winds and/or currents. Spreading dominates during the initial stages of a spill. Evaporation Evaporation: The preferential transfer of light and medium-weight components of oil from the liquid phase to/


Seed Dispersal Mrs. Nell 6 th Grade General Science Class.

Then the seed sprouts into a tree. Water Lily Seed Dispersal by Wind Seeds are light & have wings or fluffy parachutes which can get caught in the wind. Thistle Seed Dispersal by Explosion Seed pods dry out and split open in an /explosive action. This throws the seeds away from the parent plant. Geranium Seed Dispersal by Animal Sticky seeds cling to the fur of/


Dispersions Dispersed systems consist of :particulate matter (dispersed phase). dispersion medium (continuous medium). dispersed phase dispersion medium.

as a hazy beam or cone. This is due to the fact that sol particles absorb light energy and then emit it in all directions in space. This ‘scattering of light’, as it is called, illuminates the path of the beam in the colloidal dispersion. The phenomenon of the scattering of light by the sol particles is called Tyndall effect. The illuminated beam or cone formed by the/


Plants and the Colonization of Land

did NOT develop. Adaptations to land Problem 1 – accessing resources on land Location of Resources in TWO Very Different Places Above ground – light, Below ground – water and minerals How to access these two different environments /Plant that makes SPORES – HAPLOID CELLS Why make spores? Efficient at dispersal of “babies” Wind dispersed Evolutionary Trends in Alternation of Generations Initially in the evolution of land plants, gametophytes were the dominant generation. Larger than sporophyte Sporophyte /


Chapter Twenty-Four: Fiber Optics

it would in others Single-mode fibers are relatively free from dispersion except for intramodal dispersion Graded-index fibers reduce dispersion by taking advantage of higher-order modes One form of intramodal dispersion is called material dispersion because it depends upon the material of the core Another form of dispersion is called waveguide dispersion Dispersion increases with the bandwidth of the light source Examples of Dispersion Losses Losses in optical fiber result from attenuation in the/


COLLOIDS.

micelles conc. Not greatly increase Stable dispersion in presence of electrolytes CMC↓ with electrolytes Unstable dispersion in presence of electrolytes Optical Properties of Colloids 1-Faraday-Tyndall effect – when a strong beam of light is passed through a colloidal sol, the path of light is illuminated (a visible cone formed). - This phenomenon resulting from the scattering of light by the colloidal particles. Optical Properties of Colloids The same effect is noticed when/


Diffraction gratings By M. Ravi Kiran. Introduction Diffraction grating can be understood as an optical unit that separates polychromatic light into constant.

estimate is given by B = w’. P where w’– exit slit width P – reciprocal of linear Dispersion. FREE SPECTRAL RANGE It is the range of wavelengths in a given spectral order for which light from adjacent orders are not superposed. Mathematically, F λ = λ 1 /m where λ 1 is the wavelength of light diffracted in the m th order. The greater the free spectral ranges the less is/


Dispersion and Electromagnetic Radiation

around the hill to the house. Dispersion and Electromagnetic Radiation Contents Dispersion and Electromagnetic Radiation Explaining dispersion The Electromagnetic Spectrum Uses and dangers of EM radiation Summary activities Glossary (1) dispersion – The splitting of light ray light into the range of colours that make up that light, e.g. when white light is split into the colours of the rainbow. electromagnetic spectrum – The complete range of electromagnetic waves that have different wavelengths (and/


Sep 19th 2012. THE PRESENTATION Introduction This presentation has 2 parts Part 1 :is about giving a broad idea about the concepts of Optical Fiber and.

occurs at 1244 nm and 1383 nm. 2-Rayleigh scattering: Scattering causes the dispersion of light energy in all directions, and one of the directions is the backward direction in this case the scattering is called "backscattering". Forward light scattering (Raman scattering) and backward light scattering (Brillouin scattering) are two additional types of scattering those can occur under high power conditions. Sep 19th 2012 Attenuation Vs. Wavelength/


Biology 177: Principles of Modern Microscopy Lecture 03: Microscope optics and introduction of the wave nature of light.

: Begin with one convex lens. Another example: Add a second convex lens. Another example: Can determine real image formed by two convex lenses. Dispersion: Separation of white light into spectral colors as a result of different amounts of refraction by different wavelengths of light. Dispersive prisms typically triangular Optical instruments requiring single colors Back to Sir Isaac Newton Monochromator: Optical instrument for generating single colors Used in optical/


Measuring Dispersion in Signals from the Crab Pulsar Jared Crossley National Radio Astronomy Observatory Tim Hankins & Jean Eilek New Mexico Tech Jared.

million times brighter than average Very Bright pulses We can observe high-time- resolution single pulses Dispersion Measured using the time of arrival difference between pulses at two frequencies Dispersion = velocity of light depends on frequency Radio wave propagation through ionized charges undergoes dispersion For cold plasma, lower frequencies propagate slower Dispersion Dispersion is important because: It must be properly removed to see pulse structure in its original/


Conceptual Physical Science 5th Edition Chapter 11: LIGHT

in white. Dispersion Dispersion process of separation of light into colors arranged by frequency Components of white light are dispersed in a prism (and also in a diffraction grating) When white light passes through a prism, green light is bent more than Dispersion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR When white light passes through a prism, green light is bent more than A. blue light. violet light. red light. None of the above. C. red light. When white light passes through a/


יסודות אופטיקה ופוטוניקה ביו-רפואית Fundamentals of biomedical optics and photonics מרצה:ד"ר דביר ילין חדר 265 שעות קבלה: יום ג 15:00-16:00 מתרגל:ליאור.

beams Propagation in medium Maxwell equations & waves Elementary electromagnetic waves Assumptions: Medium: linear, homogenous, non-dispersive, isotropic. Light: monochromatic An oscillation is a time-varying disturbance: A wave is a time-varying disturbance that also propagates in space. A wave transports energy without any permanent transfer of the medium. Plane waves Solutions for the Helmholtz equation: (proof in next slide) The real electric/


Fiber Optic Cables Design

speeds through even a single mode fiber The amount of dispersion of a fiber depends The spectrum range of the light injected The nominal operating wavelength Dispersion vs. Wavelength zero-dispersion wavelength. For standard single-mode fibers, this is in the region of 1310 nm. zero-dispersion wavelength means maximum information-carrying capacity. Anomalous and normal dispersion In a standard SMF: the dispersion D > 0 for l >1.31 mm this/


Kyland-USA, Kansas City, MO DYMEC is a registered trademark of Kyland-USA.

is extremely high, around 100 THz-km Kyland-USA, Kansas City, MO Fiber Optic Specifications Attenuation Loss of signal, measured in dB Dispersion Blurring of a signal, affects bandwidth Bandwidth The number of bits per second that can be sent through a data link Numerical Aperture Measures the largest angle of light that can be accepted into the core Kyland-USA, Kansas City, MO Attenuation and/


COLLEGE OF PHARMACY Dr. Mohammad Javed Ansari, PhD. Contact info: PHARMACEUTICS II PHARMACEUTICS II (PHT 312)

cone.  The light spots corresponding to the particles are counted and average particle size may be calculated.  Electron Microscope: It is capable of taking pictures of the actual particles even those approaching molecular dimensions.  It is used to observe size, shape and structure of colloidal particles. 9 June 2015 Properties which are related to the motion of particles with respect to the dispersion medium 1. Brownian/


Center for Photonic Communication and ComputingLaboratory for Atomic and Photonic Technology Manifestation of General Relativity in Practical Experiments.

AOM2 VCO2 Test Chamber Reference Chamber Center for Photonic Communication and ComputingLaboratory for Atomic and Photonic Technology Enhancement of General Purpose Interferometric Sensing Using Using Fast Light Model: With no dispersion: With anomalous dispersion: Center for Photonic Communication and ComputingLaboratory for Atomic and Photonic Technology Slow-Light Enhanced Rotation Sensing: Experiment  Det Dye Laser AOM PBS Pump Probe Spinning Sodium Vapor Cell HWP S-polarized/


Lagrangian dispersion of light solid particle in a high Re number turbulence; LES with stochastic process at sub-grid scales CNRS – UNIVERSITE et INSA.

Science and Engineering series, Springer  At large times, this scenario reduces exactly to the Fokker-Planck-type equation Lagrangian dispersion of light solid particle in a high Re number turbulence; LES with stochastic process at sub-grid scales 7/13 Log-brownian stochastic/ structure function : with sub-grid model no sub-grid model  inertial range is very restricted Lagrangian dispersion of light solid particle in a high Re number turbulence; LES with stochastic process at sub-grid scales 10/13/


Synchrotron radiation

ring LS and damping rings Specific lattices are used in synchrotron light sources (FODO) TME like lattices DBA TBA QBA MBA controlled dispersion in straight sections Other specific techniques fare used or reducing the / low emittance lattices Small emittance  Strong quadrupoles  Large (natural) chromaticity  strong sextupoles (sextupoles guarantee the focussing of off-energy particles) Courtesy A. Streun strong sextupoles reduce the dynamic aperture and the Touschek lifetime  additional sextupoles are/


Physics 1230: Light and Color Chapter #2: Geometric Optics

comes out Primary Question about the Rainbow The colors in rainbow are caused by: (A) Dispersion of light; (B) Absorption of light; (C) Total internal reflection and dispersion of light; (D) Light sources of different color; (E) Scattering; Scattering of light: how we see fog, clouds, milk Clouds –water droplets, crystals of ice, or both; Fog – water droplets; There are tiny droplets in milk too; Why we see clouds, fog, and milk being/


EDEXCEL IGCSE / CERTIFICATE IN PHYSICS 3-3 Light Waves

under water / ray diagram - NTNU How a fish sees the world - NTNU Fibre optic reflection - NTNU Dispersion with the effect of filters - Freezeway.com Dispersion of light using a prism - NTNU - prism apex angle can be changed Prism showing light dispersion for different colours - Explore Science Prism - multishape prism and single light ray - no extra reflections - netfirms Wave Effects - PhET - Make waves with a dripping faucet, audio speaker/


Journey 1: Energy to begin. Learning objectives:  To recognise that seeds grow into flowering plants  To find out about the different kinds of plants.

Fazakas, Image 2 © Denis Ignatov A Sunflower Image 1 © Craig Jewell, Image 2 © Nick Benjaminsz Activity 2 Seed dispersal Seed dispersal is a very important part of a plant’s life. Seeds can be scattered in many ways:  Wind: seeds must be very small and light to be carried by the wind.  Water: seeds fall into rivers and streams and get carried away by/


Chapter 14 Section 14.1 Types of Mixtures. A mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances that are not chemically combined.

the low beams. Also, because the high beams are aimed more directly into the fog, more of their light is reflected back toward the driver, making it more difficult to see. Questions Q: Explain Why do dispersed colloid particles stay dispersed? Q: Explain Why do dispersed colloid particles stay dispersed? The particles do not settle out because they have polar or charged layers surrounding them. These/


Components of Optical Instruments 2004. 4 Yongsik Lee.

exit windows   Use Dust and light-tight housing   Coat interior with light absorbing paint ► Dispersion   ability to separate small wavelength differences   Linear dispersion (D) or reciprocal linear dispersion (D -1 )   variation in across the focal plane ► Light gathering   light collection efficiency   f/number Dispersion of grating ► ► dispersion   Ability to separate different wavelengths   range of wavelengths exiting the monochromator   Related to dispersion and entrance/exit slit/


Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison Wesley Chapter 11: LIGHT.

., publishing as Pearson Addison Wesley Dispersion process of separation of light into colors arranged by frequency Components of white light are dispersed in a prism (and also in a diffraction grating) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison Wesley When white light passes through a prism, green light is bent more than A.blue light. B.violet light. C.red light. D.None of the above. Dispersion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR Copyright © 2008/


9/12/20151.  Most optical fibers are used for transmitting information over long distances.  Two major advantages of fiber: (1) wide bandwidth and (2)

a parabolic index of refraction 9/12/201524  Dispersion - spreading of light pulses in a fiber  limits bandwidth  most important types ▪ Intramodal or chromatic dispersion ▪ material dispersion ▪ waveguide dispersion ▪ profile dispersion ▪ Intermodal/multimode dispersion ▪ polarization mode dispersion (PMD) 9/12/2015 25  Chromatic Dispersion  caused by different wavelengths traveling at different speeds  is the result of material dispersion, waveguide dispersion or profile dispersion  for the fiber/


9/12/20151.  Most optical fibers are used for transmitting information over long distances.  Two major advantages of fiber: (1) wide bandwidth.

a parabolic index of refraction 9/12/201541  Dispersion - spreading of light pulses in a fiber  limits bandwidth  most important types ▪ Intramodal or chromatic dispersion ▪ material dispersion ▪ waveguide dispersion ▪ profile dispersion ▪ Intermodal/multimode dispersion ▪ polarization mode dispersion (PMD) 9/12/2015 42  Chromatic Dispersion  caused by different wavelengths traveling at different speeds  is the result of material dispersion, waveguide dispersion or profile dispersion  for the fiber/


Light Complete Physics pages for IGCSE 139 to 168.

a fish sees the world - NTNU Fibre optic reflectionFibre optic reflection - NTNU BBC Bitesize Revision: Optical fibres Dispersion Dispersion - Powerpoint presentation by KT Dispersion of light using a prismDispersion of light using a prism - NTNU - prism apex angle can be changed Prism showing light dispersion for different coloursPrism showing light dispersion for different colours - Explore Science DispersionDispersion - Crocodile Clip Presentation Sequential Puzzle on Colour Spectrum order- by KT/


A pulse forming mechanism is needed otherwise lasers run “continuous wave” (CW) Three types of pulsed operation Pulsed Lasers 1.Gain switched (micro or.

velocities and the medium length L. The phase delay: The group delay: The group delay dispersion (GDD): so: Units: fs 2 or fs/Hz GDD = GVD L Manipulating the phase of light Recall that we expand the spectral phase of the pulse in a Taylor Series: So, to manipulate light, we must add or subtract spectral-phase terms. and we do the same for the/


11 Components of Optical Instruments Lecture 5. 22 Spectroscopic methods are based on either: 1. Absorption 2. Emission 3. Scattering.

, Cont… Lecture 6 28 Prisms A prism is a wavelengths selector that depends on the dispersion ability of the incident radiation by the prism material. Dispersion, as discussed earlier, is the variation of refractive index with wavelength, or frequency. Since a beam of a polychromatic light is composed of several wavelengths, the dispersion of these wavelengths will be different when they are transmitted through the prism. One can see/


§2 Optical Fibres – a brief introduction Anatomy of a Fiber Cable Fig. 2.1: Anatomy of a fiber.

, causing pulse to spread ● The unit of modal dispersion is ps/km Chromatic dispersion - physics Chromatic dispersion: for the same mode, e.g., LP 01 mode, different wavelength components travel at different speed. Unit: ps/(km.nm) Chromatic dispersion consists of two contributions: material dispersion and waveguide dispersion Material dispersion: refractive index ands hence the speed of light in materials are wavelength dependent Waveguide dispersion: the power distribution in the core/cladding/


Optical Fiber Communications Objectives To discuss the key advantages of optical fiber communication To introduce optical fiber communication system To.

fiber is 8 – 12  m. Optical Fiber Communications Transmission properties of optical fibers The most important transmission properties of optical fiber are attenuation and dispersion. Attenuation limits how far a signal can travel through a fiber before it becomes too weak to be detected. How to measure the fiber attenuation? By the amount of light lost between input and output. Optical Fiber Communications Fibre Attenuation/


Aim: How can we explain polarization and dispersion? Do Now: Why do athletes wear polarized sunglasses?

? Demo What’s Happening? Only transverse waves (like light) can be polarized Can sound waves be polarized? NO!!! Dispersion When polychromatic (white) light is passed through a prism, it is separated into its component colors What is Polychromatic Light? Which light bends the least? Which light bends the most? red violet Why? Speed of light inside prism depends on the wavelength of light v = fλ (f is const!!) λ red = highest/


RAY OPTICS - II 1.Refraction through a Prism 2.Expression for Refractive Index of Prism 3.Dispersion 4.Angular Dispersion and Dispersive Power 5.Blue Colour.

) = μ A But i + e = A + δ So, A + δ = μ A or δ = A (μ – 1) Dispersion of White Light through Prism: The phenomenon of splitting a ray of white light into its constituent colours (wavelengths) is called dispersion and the band of colours from violet to red is called spectrum (VIBGYOR). δrδr A BC D White light δvδv Cause of Dispersion: sin i μ v = sin r v sin i μ r = sin r r/


Opto Electronics Syed Abdul Rehman Rizvi The Islamia University of Bahawalpur.

Generations of Light wave Systems  First generation  Operating near 800 nm and used GaAs semiconducor laser, commercially available in 1980  Operated at bit rate of 45 Mbps and repeater spacing of about 10 km (larger compared that of coaxial cable)  Dec the instl and maintenance cost  Second generation  Operating near1300 nm where fiber loss is1 db/km (typically0.5db/km) and fiber exhibit minimum dispersion.  Uses/


Refraction: TIR and Dispersion AP Physics: M. Blachly Light and Optics.

given by Snell’s law: Example Problem Light, traveling in glass, strikes an optical interface at an angle of 50  as measured from the normal. What is the angle of refraction? Refraction of Sound Dispersion Dispersion is the separation of light into colors by refraction Animation Dispersion The index of refraction of a material varies somewhat with the wavelength of the light. Dispersion Most famous example of dispersion is the rainbow Rainbow Total Internal Reflection Simulator/


上海师范大学电气信息系 Chapter 3 Lightwave Fundamentals. 上海师范大学电气信息系 Contents Reflection at a plane boundary Resonant cavities Polarization Dispersion, pulse distortion,

Recall that v = c/n. For glass, n varies with wavelength. Thus, waves of different wavelengths (frequencies) travel at different speeds. Dispersion: Wavelength dependent propagation velocity. Material Dispersion: Dispersion caused by the material. Waveguide Dispersion: Dispersion caused by the structure of the waveguide. 上海师范大学电气信息系 Consider a pulse of light emitted by a source which contains a range of wavelengths (say 1, 2, 3 ). Input Power t t t 1 t T/


Quantification of Chromatic Aberration In the Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cell Emily England, Wes Clary, Daniel Reaman, Wendy Panero School of Earth Sciences,

anvil in order to reach the spectrometer. Benedetti et al., 2007 Dispersion of Light Through System Walter and Koga, 2004 The effect of dispersion is to focus blue more tightly than red. Therefore, an image that appears in focus in one color of light will be out of focus in another color. This leads to a loss of both spectral and image resolution. 2.5 mm The birefringence color/


INTRODUCTION Surface chemistry is the study of processes that occur at the interface of two bulk phases. The bulk phases can be of the type : Liquid -

colloidal form suitable for injection. and scatter the light of blue colour. This is an application of the Tyndall effect.  5. Food: Many food materials are colloidal in nature. For example, butter-milk (emulsion of fat in water), cheese, fruit jelly, eggs, whipped cream, protoplasm, blood, etc. Ice cream is a dispersion of ice in cream. Bread is a dispersion of air in baked dough.  6. Artificial rain/


AQA GCSE 3-2A Light GCSE Physics pages 234 to 253 April 10 th 2010.

a fish sees the world - NTNU Fibre optic reflectionFibre optic reflection - NTNU BBC Bitesize Revision: Optical fibres Dispersion Dispersion - Powerpoint presentation by KT Dispersion of light using a prismDispersion of light using a prism - NTNU - prism apex angle can be changed Prism showing light dispersion for different coloursPrism showing light dispersion for different colours - Explore Science DispersionDispersion - Crocodile Clip Presentation Sequential Puzzle on Colour Spectrum order- by KT/


2/25/20161.  Most optical fibers are used for transmitting information over long distances.  Two major advantages of fiber: (1) wide bandwidth and (2)

a parabolic index of refraction 2/25/201622  Dispersion - spreading of light pulses in a fiber  limits bandwidth  most important types ▪ Intramodal or chromatic dispersion ▪ material dispersion ▪ waveguide dispersion ▪ profile dispersion ▪ Intermodal/multimode dispersion ▪ polarization mode dispersion (PMD) 2/25/2016 23  Chromatic Dispersion  caused by different wavelengths traveling at different speeds  is the result of material dispersion, waveguide dispersion or profile dispersion  for the fiber/


OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION RAMESH BHARTI. Major elements of an optical fiber link.

the signal in the core, significant in single mode conditions Material Dispersion: Refractive index n is a function of wavelength, exists in all fibers, function of the source line width Effects of Dispersion and Attenuation Dispersion for Digital Signals Modal Dispersion The Nature of Light Quantum Theory – Light consists of small particles (photons) Wave Theory – Light travels as a transverse electromagnetic wave Ray Theory – Light travels along a straight line and obeys laws/


Slow fast Light passing from a medium in which it is ________ to one in which it is __________________ : 11 22 refracted reflected Now _______________.

, liquids and solids at the speed c false more slower natural resonance slower dispersive frequency The Dark Side of the dispersion of light: ROYGBIV the visible spectrum _______________________is the ____________________of a wave into its different _______________________. incident white light Blue bends ___________ because_________________________ Blue has a ___________________ index of refraction. Dispersion separation frequencies red blue glass block it changes v more more higher Notice: The/


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