Free download ppt on sources of energy for class 10

10/28/03 1NICADD Test Beam Simulator Jeremy I. McCormick Project Description Classes Geometry Hits Processing Command Interface Particle Generation Text.

Hits and Tracks TBCellHit TBSensitiveDetector TBTrackInformation TBEdepMap Classes 10/28/03 5NICADD Test Beam Simulator Class Diagram Directed Assoc. Association Inheritance 10/28/03 6NICADD Test Beam Simulator /Source 1 to n MC particles fixed or random E, pos & mom theta, phi within min, max energy spectra /tbeam/doRun no_events for multiple events Particle Generation 10/28/03 15NICADD Test Beam Simulator 10 pi+ pos = (0, 0,1990) theta = 0-10 phi = all E = 2-10 GeV charged traj only GPS Conical Example 10/


The area that shows the amplitude of the wave is – A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 1 2 3 4.

‘A’? A A. On/off switch C. Wires/conductors B. Source of electrical current D. Load Switch Electric bills are calculated based on the amount of energy consumed. The consumption is measure in units of Newton meters Millijoule seconds Megavolt minutes Kilowatt hours Which of these has the greatest number of different simple machines? A pair of scissors A bicycle A screw driver A simple car jack Objects/


Creating a Sustainable Energy Future Alex Glenn State President Progress Energy Florida, a subsidiary of Duke Energy.

: Solar Output (KW) 17 18 Solar Intensity: United States Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory 19 Wind Power Generation Potential Wind Potential Rated from Class 1 to 7 Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory New Nuclear Generation: Levy County Proposed Site Levy Milestones Achieved 21 Purchased site1/2008 Filled Combined Construction & Operating License (COL) Application7/2008 FPSC Determination of Need approved8/2008 Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) agreement/


The 10 Types of Energy. What do you know?  Name as many sources of energy as you can identify in this room.

explore the 10 types of energy, you will be assigned a source to research and create a poster presentation to present to the class.  You should include the following items: Definition of your energy source. Give three examples with images of your energy source. How is your energy source currently being used? Be creative and think of a way you could use this energy source that is not already being used.  Time Limit – 3 days for research/


Work, Power, and Machines

. Energy Transformations Mechanical energy can change to nonmechanical energy as a result of friction, air resistance, or other means. The Law of Conservation of Energy energy cannot be created or destroyed. doesn’t disappear, it changes to another form. if total energy in a system increases, it must be due to energy that enters the system from an external source. SYSTEMS open systems (most) closed system when flow of energy into and out of/


Adapting the city. Building & Infrastructure David Hytch Information Systems Director, Transport for Greater Manchester.

for 4m tons of CO2 We recognise the problem Now to do something about it Adapting Mitigating Business Continuity Transport Adapting Energy Green Sourced Managed Re-useable Design & Build Educate BREEAM Materials Transport Mitigation New and existing infrastructure Metrolink 5 million fewer car journeys Cycling Walking Roads Bus Freight Cars Rail Travel Planning Smart Ticketing Park & Ride Transport Approach Change Behaviour Deliver best in class/


LAB 3 NS2 Preliminaries. Contents TCL/OTCl Fundamentals Creating Network Setting Connections Generating Traffic Inserting Errors Configuring for multicast.

for multicast Creating Wireless Nodes Fundamentals of/Class kid -superclass mom kid instproc greet {} { $self instvar age_ puts “$age_ years old kid: What’s up, dude?” } set a [new mom 40] set b [new kid 10] $a greet  40 years old mom: How are you doing? $b greet  10/sender create a multicast receiver attach traffic source Enabling multicast capability set ns [new /node-config –agentTrace –routerTrace –macTrace Node Configuration: Energy $ns node-config –energyModel EnergyModel –initialEnergy –txPower/


© AberdeenGroup 2009 Energy Management: Driving Value in the Industrial Environments Mehul Shah Research Analyst Matthew Littlefield Sr. Research Analyst.

 Survey Demographics  Making the Best-in-Class  P.A.C.E.  Capabilities: Enablers  Recommended Actions © AberdeenGroup 2009 25 Enablers for Energy Management Source: Aberdeen Group, April 2009 69% 62% 60% 56% 50% 56% 40% 33% 29% 39% 27% 31% 24% 22% 0% 50% 100% Energy Efficient Hardware Employee Training & Certification Updated Energy Delivery Systems Technology to automate collection and monitoring of energy data Consultants Best-in-ClassIndustry AverageLaggards/


INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY AND POWER Lecture 1 ERT 244 / 4 ENERGY AND POWER IN BIOSYSTEMS NOOR SHAZLIANA AIZEE BT ABIDIN.

, tidal, and ocean thermal energy sources The potential of sustainable small hydro (<10 MW) power, Photovoltaic (PV) systems, wind energy, Geothermal and solar thermal sources will be more significant as energy sources in future. PV will then be the largest renewable electricity source with a production of 25.1% of global power generation in 2040. Other non-combustible RES Wave energy Tidal energy Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) RENEWABLES Biorenewable Energy Sources Biomass Bioalcohols Bio-oil/


20 THERMO-SYSTEMS Sold In The United States Examples of Solar Drying Plants in the USA: Kent County, DE Natchez, MS Rio Vista, CA Confidential and Proprietary.

Confidential and Proprietary to Parkson Corporation 10 Active Solar Dryer 180 Trucks / yr Evaporation: 14,400 t/yr 900 Trucks / yr ~$450,000/yr savings for 10MGD plant with $40 per ton/of the THERMO-SYSTEM Green, sustainable technology ― Low energy consumption - sun is primary energy source ― Very low operating costs Robust, easy to operate ― Very low operator attention required ― Very low maintenance requirements Flexible methods of operation Proven technology - large installation base Class A and Class/


AECL - OFFICIAL USE ONLY / À USAGE EXCLUSIF - EACL Changing the Energy Paradigm? the Impact of Fukushima on the future of Nuclear Power John Saroudis Regional.

10 Loss of Power - Heat Sinks for EC6 All electrical power available Loss of Grid (Loss of Class IV) Loss of Grid + Stand By Class III Diesels Loss of AC Generation (Loss of Class IV & Class III & EPS DGs) Station Black Out (Loss of Class IV/III/II/I & EPS DGs & SARHRS DG) Available Power Sources Class IV from Grid Class III Standby Diesels Class/ to 2035 AECL - OFFICIAL USE ONLY / À USAGE EXCLUSIF - EACL 21 Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2010 U.S. Generating Capacity to 2035 AECL - OFFICIAL USE ONLY //


Lighting. Artificial Light Units of Measurement Input Power – Watts Light Output – Lumens Efficacy* (of light source) – Lumens per watt Efficiency (of.

of light source) – Lumens per watt Efficiency (of a light fixture) – Stated as a percentage Light Levels (at work plane) – Footcandles * The amount of energy service or useful energy delivered per unit of energy input. Often used in reference to lighting systems, where the visible light output of/Base- Medium Skt. MOL- 5 5/16" Lumens- 1300 Filament Class- C,CC-8 Candlepower- 3,600 PAR = Parabolic Aluminized Reflector/ last 35,000 hours (non- LED’s for CANS 10.5 Watts Replaces 65W 55 lumens per Watt SACRIFICE/


ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Class 10.

Astronomy Class 10 Spectra Wednesday, January 31 “Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are.” Spectra: Key Concepts (1) A hot, transparent gas produces an emission spectrum. (2) A cool, transparent gas produces an absorption spectrum. (3) Every type of / from you. If a wave source moves toward you or away from you, the wavelength is changed. The reason for Doppler shifts: Wave crests are bunched up ahead of the light source, stretched out behind. If a light source is moving toward you, the /


山下智弘 JST CREST/ 神戸大学 Borrowing especially from presentations of M. Asai(SLAC) Geant4 Japan 2007 17-19 Oct, RCNS, based on Geant4 9.0.p01.

Oct, 2007 @ RCNS, based on Geant4 9.0.p01 Outline I. G4VPrimaryGeneratorAction class II. Particle gun III. General particle source IV. Using Particle gun I. G4VPrimaryGeneratorAction class  This class is one of mandatory user classes control the generation of primaries. This class itself should NOT generate primaries ○ invoke GeneratePrimaryVertex() method of primary generator(s) to make primaries.  Constructor of G4VPrimaryGeneratorAction Instantiate primary generator(s)) Set default values to it(them/


LASER APPLICATIONS TO MEDICINE AND Prof. Dr. Moustafa. M. Mohamed Vice Dean Faculty of Allied Medical Science Pharos University Alexandria Dr. Yasser khedr.

far-infrared (10.6 mm), and are used for cutting hard materials. Types of lasers Excimer /of atoms of aluminum is replaced with Cr 3+ ions. Pump source: flash lamp The ends of ruby rod serve as laser mirrors. Ruby Laser How Ruby laser works? 1. High-voltage electricity causes the quartz flash tube to emit an intense burst of light, exciting some of Cr3+ in the ruby crystal to higher energy levels. 2. At a specific energy/ of Class 3B may also cause skin burns; * Class 4 lasers - high power devices capable of /


1 RASCAL 4.0 Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis National Radiological Emergency Preparedness Conference March 30, 2010 George Athey,

for Consequence Analysis National Radiological Emergency Preparedness Conference March 30, 2010 George Athey, Athey Consulting James (Van) Ramsdell, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Part 3 - Lou Brandon, Nuclear Regulatory Commission Paul Holland, Exelon Energy/Classes B and E 2 & 8 mph wind speeds, no precip Byron Unit 2: Source Term 3 Release Pathway 4 Release Pathway Options 5 Minimum 10/ State of the Art Reactor Consequence Analysis (SOARCA) source terms Create New Reactor models for RASCAL Continued/


Measuring the Temperature of Hot Solar Flare Plasma with RHESSI Amir Caspi 1,2, Sam Krucker 2, Robert P. Lin 1,2 1 Department of Physics, University of.

temperatures on order of a few times 10 7 degrees Densities of ~10 10 to ~10 12 cm -3 Energy content of ~10 32 -10 33 ergs Generally, loop structure with thermal emission from the looptop, non-thermal emission from footpoints 3 Basic flare model (cartoon and data) (Tsuneta 1997) 4 X-ray Flare Classification Photometers on board the GOES satellites monitor solar soft X-rays GOES class is determined by/


July 4, 2006 P. Padovani, Unidentified  -ray Sources 1 The Blazar Sequence: Validity and Predictions Paolo Padovani (ESO) Blazar properties The Blazar.

energy emission ( TeV ~ 2 10 26 Hz); all known (few) TeV sources are HBL. HFSRQ would increase statistics and constrain IR background (  star formation history)  HE +  IR  e + + e _  max for ~ 1.33  m (E/TeV)  Low-L sources more numerous than high-L sources/ P. Padovani, Unidentified  -ray Sources 18 The lack of extreme HFSRQ 1.X-ray selected samples/2006 P. Padovani, Unidentified  -ray Sources 19 Counting sources: HBL vs LBL Question: which sub-class is intrinsically more numerous? Selection band /


High Energy  -rays Roger Blandford KIPAC Stanford.

SN energy in seconds –Birth cry of stellar black hole? Special supernovae –Binary NS merger?? LIGO! –NS magnetosphere flare (10 15 G) Environmental impact Ultrarelativistic outflow –“AGN on speed” –  opacity used to understanding sources Across the universe –Cosmological probes Expect Unscripted Discoveries 22 ii 08P511 Future TeV Options ~0.04 - 200 TeV ~ 50 telescopes Large FOV ~1’ PSF per photon ~10 x VERITAS sensitivity ~ $100M class/


10/28/031 NICADD Test Beam Simulator J. McCormick Jeremy I. McCormick Project Description Geometry Hits Processing Command Interface Particle Generation.

TBEdepMap 10/28/031 NICADD Test Beam Simulator J. McCormick Class Diagram: Associations 10/28/031/10/28/031 NICADD Test Beam Simulator J. McCormick Particle Generation General Particle Source 1 to n MC particles random starting regions random theta / phi within max / min random energy /tbeam/doRun no_events for multiple events 10/vtype == PhysVolInfo::ABSORBER) { theHit->IncrAbsEdep(edep); } 10/28/031 NICADD Test Beam Simulator J. McCormick End of Event TBSensitiveDetector::EndOfEvent() { Copy Hits to HC } /


Electro-Optical Systems The almost last lecture of Weapons Class.

lies between X-rays and microwaves Sources of EO Radiation Turbojet exhaust, a tank engine, or a person Lasers may serve as illuminator for an IR weapon’s guidance Man-made artificial illumination (lights, flares, etc) Natural sources Sources (Radiators) Selective Emitters –Narrow wavelength band – line spectra –Excitation of individual atoms or molecules Thermal –Continuous spectrum of wavelengths with some max radiated energy at some particular λ –Radiates in/


Class 2b: Natural Resources and Energy. Today’s class What is a resource? Ecological footprints Natural resources and resource-based economies Example:

capacity to do work or transfer heat (Nearly) All energy comes from the sun Primary energy sources: heat or do work directly Secondary sources: turn turbines to generate electricity Energy 90% of US energy from fossil fuels Remainder nuclear, hydro Different geography for each source –Coal, natural gas –Hydro –Nuclear –Solar –Wind Oil Worldwide and in US, 40% of energy 2/3 of US use is transportation Cheaper to import oil than/


All sources cited at end. 1. Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are very short bursts of gamma rays from a distant point in space. They are believed to be associated.

about long duration bursts and this presentation will focus on them. Duration curves for three GRBs. As you can see, no two GRBs are alike. 5 Astronomers/of the source and got the first glimpses of the optical source of the gamma rays. Beppo-SAX’s original observations of GRB970228 HST’s follow-up observation of GRB970228 GRB970228 Host Galaxy 10/ago might have seeded our solar system, providing the needed influx of energy to urge a vast disk of sun-circling dust to begin forming into small chunks, which /


Solar Energy Labs – Part 1 ENGR 1181. Todays Learning Objectives  After todays class, students will be able to: Describe and build both a calibration.

to a voltage The voltage output of the Light Sensor Board is proportional to the intensity of sunlight (I solar, Watts / m 2 ) The calibration equation for the Solar Light Meter is: I solar = 5.0 N decimal (Watts / m 2 ) I solar Amplifier Photodiode V Output Use the Solar Energy Meter to measure the intensity of a light source  Place the spotlight in the ring/


Water Inorganic Not energy-yielding Essential. Objectives After reading Chapter 7 and class discussion, you will be able to: –Define terms associated.

Water Inorganic Not energy-yielding Essential Objectives After reading Chapter 7 and class discussion, you will be able to: –Define terms associated with water and body fluids –Describe the fluid composition of the body –Describe water balance Objectives Identify sources of water and % of water in selected foods Discuss symptoms of dehydration Apply oral rehydration therapy (ORT) Describe functions of water Functions of Water Transport Solvent Lubricant Maintain blood volume/


Lec 18: May 31st, 2006EE512 - Graphical Models - J. BilmesPage 1 Jeff A. Bilmes University of Washington Department of Electrical Engineering EE512 Spring,

and progress reports must be turned in, in class and using paper (dead tree versions only)./… Outline of Today’s Lecture Lec 18: May 31st, 2006EE512 - Graphical Models - J. BilmesPage 7 Books and Sources for Today Various sources on approximate/ Lec 18: May 31st, 2006EE512 - Graphical Models - J. BilmesPage 10 Recall general MP Lec 18: May 31st, 2006EE512 - Graphical Models -/Energy Lec 18: May 31st, 2006EE512 - Graphical Models - J. BilmesPage 24 Bethe Free Energy Lec 18: May 31st, 2006EE512 - Graphical/


EE535Stephen Daniels, Oct 2009 EE535: Renewable Energy: Systems, Technology & Economics Session 2: Energy & Power.

, photosynthesis of sunlight to biomass Atomic Energy –E = mc 2 Question for class: Is atomic energy a renewable resource? EE535Stephen Daniels, Oct 2009 Energy Resources of the Earth* Direct Conversion Pyrolysis Fermentation Digestion Gravitational Salination Evaporation Waves Currents Thermal Difference Osmotic Solar Photo Synthesis Limnic Oceanic Direct Conversion Geothermal Gravitational Coal Oil Gas Shale Fission Fusion Fossil Mineral RenewableNon-Renewable * Source : Renewable Energy Focus Handbook/


Heavy Fermions Student: Leland Harriger Professor: Elbio Dagotto Class: Solid State II, UTK Date: April 23, 2009.

of orbitals per unit energy. Combine this with the probability of occupation: Heat Capacity How reliable is this model? Classical particles in a box (Ideal Gas) ~10 2 too big Quantum particles in a box (Fermi Gas) of same order Experimental Agreement Metalγ (exp) γ 0 (free electron) γ/γ0γ/γ0 Ag0.6460.651.00 Cu0.6950.501.39 Rb2.411.971.22 Li1.630.752.17 Source/


UTEP/EPISD Border Air Quality Education www.BAQed.utep.edu Grade 5 – Alternative Energies www.BAQed.utep.edu Roxanne Ramos, Theresa Turner, Blanche Herrera,

energy resources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, and biofuels; Wind – 2-3 class periods Solar – 1 class period Biofuel – 1 class period Action Plan – 1 class period Introduce activities that allow students to experience generating electricity from alternative energy sources Develop a plan of action to reduce energy/ to increase rotations 15-20 milliamps of electricity generated Activity 4 Solar Cells Capture the Suns Energy 10 minutes to find the best angle for the solar cell and the best /


Wind Energy Science and Engineering John Galisky Space, Technology and Robotic Systems Academy Lompoc High School Lompoc, CA

for further training Typical Wind Lessons - Not Technical Beaufort Scale Pinwheels Student Reports Demonstrations Discussion Activity All very interesting but very little of the science and technology related to the current wind industry is presented. In fact, most textbooks are pretty negative about the future of wind and misrepresent the technology miserably. This is strange because… Wind Energy is the Fastest Growing Energy Source/classes based on the orientation of the rotor Vertical AxisHorizontal/ Leaders 10 kW 50/


Emission and high-energy particles in jets, outflows and bubbles in galaxies and beyond galaxies Kinwah Wu Mullard Space Science Laboratory University.

superclusters, filaments, voids 10 28 G cm 2 10 21 - 10 25 G cm 2 ~10 41 G cm 2 10 21 - 10 23 G cm 2 ~10 42 G cm 2 ??? non-directional magnetic flux in co-moving frame High-energy emission High-energy electromagnetic radiation How about High-energy non-photonic radiation? -Synchrotron/) What we have found: 1.Cen A is not a typical neutrino source or not even a source 2.X-ray and neutrino fluxes of AGN are not universally scaled across the sub-classes 3.The jet models by Koers & Tinyakov (2008) and Becker & /


CHAPTER 6 LIPIDS and MEMBRANES 1. WHAT IS LIPID ?? Are a diverse group of water-insoluble organic compounds. Lipid is soluble in nonpolar organic solvents.

of the body are a rich source of energy. Combinations of lipids and protein are of particular cellular importance especially in membrane structures and also as a means of/therefore it is also used for the synthesis of esters from fatty acids and alcohol through the esterification reaction. 10 Basic composition of a triacylglyceride. The glycerol backbone/the bilayer. Membrane proteins: There are 3 classes of membrane-bound proteins, divided based on their mode of attachment to the lipid bilayer. 1)Integral /


P HYSICAL S CIENCE SPS9 Students will investigate the properties of waves. What you need to know – next empty page All waves transfer energy. What you.

created? Waves are created when a source of energy causes the particles in a medium to vibrate. 2 nd Period  Agenda - 4/10/2014  Waves PowerPoint  Waves Math  Do questions 1-4 page 503 and 1-5 page 507  Make up Tests on Energy and Thermodynamics during advisement.  Test on waves on April 18, 2014  Bring Your Textbook to class tomorrow P HYSICAL S CIENCE SPS9/


Energy What is Energy Energy: The ability to do work or the ability to change and move matter. Without energy, the world could not function. Changes.

source that is not readily or easily replaced. Examples include: Propane, Petroleum, Coal, Natural Gas. ISN Check Blue Grid: 10/2/14 (Thursday), p. 17 Write a Summary at the bottom (1-2 sent.) Write 3 questions using the Green grid at back of ISN 1 Level One Question 1 Level Two question 1 Level Three question Worksheets: Energy Transfer Diagrams Energy Types Due tomorrow Class/


1 Conventional “Nonrenewable” Energy. 2 Evaluating Energy Resources U.S. has 4.6% of world population; uses 24% of the world’s energy;  84% from nonrenewable.

of living organisms millions of years ago The fossil fuels used in energy generation are:  Natural gas, which is 70 - 80% methane (CH 4 )  Petroleum  Coal www.www.lander.edu/rlayland/Chem%20103/chap_12.ppt 6 Problems with Fossil Fuels Nonrenewable resources Impurities = major source of pollution Produce large amounts of/ America 2.3% of world reserves uses nearly 30% of world reserves; 65% for transportation; increasing dependence on/Oil Sands Mixture of roughly 90% sand, clay and water and 10% bitumen, a/


Energy Systems AnalysisArnulf Grubler Energy Data A brief summary.

(1000 toe): Disposition IEA: Energy Balances (common energy unit) and Energy Statistics (physical units) PE Accounting Methods of IEA/BP Substitution equivalent for nuclear –Calculate PE as: “…the primary heat equivalent of the electricity produced by a nuclear power plant with an average thermal efficiency of 33%.” –Primary energy form = heat - Geothermal: assumes 10% thermal efficiency Direct equivalent for hydro, solar, wind –“ Hydro shows the energy content of the electricity produced in/


Activity B1-WA due by 4 pm Friday 03/28 Chapter 5 Mallard HW quiz – Due by 12 AM Thursday 03/27 Chapter 5 quiz in class on Thursday 03/27 Tuesday, March.

–Converts chemical energy to kinetic energy (energy of flowing charges) Electric Circuits Electric circuit –Unbroken path of material carrying electricity Circuit components 1. Source 2. Closed path 3. Device to use electrical energy Ohm’s/of a periodic motion Period, T – the length of time required for one cycle Frequency, f – number of cycles that occur during a unit of time f = 1 / T Amplitude – distance traveled above or below equilibrium position Simple Oscillations Properties of Periodic Waves Speed of/


Gallery Walk 2/25 & 2/26 You will be conducting a gallery walk to observe the energy projects You should be taking notes on you observations, as you will.

7.Hybrid Cars 8.Natural Gas 9.Geothermal 10.Biomass or ethanol Grouping Meet with other people who support your energy topic. You will be compiling a mini presentation for the class to discuss pros, cons, and why this energy source is something the US should pursue. Short /orbits Click the first link Run the simulation and complete the Lab Activity Sheet. This is due by the start of next class for a HW grade (10 points) Choose the picture you think shows the gravity forces on the Earth and the Sun. A. B. C/


Student Objective To explain how energy transformations produce electricity 1 Warm Up Predict: How EXACTLY does a generator produce electricity?

wire coil? (Notice there is NO battery in this setup.) Tests for electric current. 5 Spinning Magnet Coils 6 The moving magnet can push electrons in a wire. If the magnet or the coil keeps moving we get electricity. Mechanical energy makes electrical energy. 7 Generators In most generators, a source of mechanical energy turns huge turbines such as this one. The turbine is attached to/


Stacy. DO NOW Answer the questions about macromolecules at the top of the class notes sheet you picked up.

that join atoms in compounds. In a chemical reaction, bonds are broken or bonds are formed Energy and Chemical Reactions Energy Every chemical reaction either absorbs or releases energy. Chemical reactions that release energy occur on their own, or spontaneously. Chemical reactions that absorb energy will not occur without a source of energy. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2/


Skyline marketing Transforming the Network: Implications for Telecom Power Marketing Intelec 2004 Chicago September 22, 2004.

on copper or fiber DLC (COT) Central Office Service Drop F2 Service Terminal Building Entrance Terminal “Subscriber” MTU or MDU Class 5 Switch CO Loop ~ 296 M “Equipped” Loops in Major Telcos ~ 168 M “Working” Loops in Major /2,000-10,000 A) skyline marketing Global Telecom Power Market, 2008 5-Year CAGR = 6% Source: Skyline est. skyline marketing Power Product/System Features Energy efficiency –90-92+%; thermal performance Power density –Smaller size, weight for same output Ease of handling –Installation/


1 Geology 1001/1101 Sec 003 Chris Paola Class 14: the Anthropocene.

Sec 003 Chris Paola Class 14: the Anthropocene 2 Chapter 14 HUMAN IMPACT ON EARTH’S ENVIRONMENT Jordan, The Essential Earth 1e © 2008 by W. H. Freeman and Company 5 What is burning? CH 4 + 2O 2  CO 2 + 2H 2 O + energy methane oxygen carbon dioxide / “Give me half a tanker of iron, and I’ll give you an ice age” – John Martin, former Director, Moss Landing Marine Lab JMA Potential for Reducing CO 2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Generation CO 2 Capture and Storage Mobil Source: IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D /


The Evolution of AGN Obscuration Ezequiel Treister (ESO) Meg Urry (Yale) Julian Krolik (JHU) Shanil Virani (Yale) Priya Natarajan (Yale)

sources) - Optical incompleteness (no redshifts) - X-ray classification: “K correction” Meta-Survey 7 Surveys, 2341 AGN, 1229 w Ids 631 Obscured (no broad lines) 10 42 10 24 cm -2. Very hard to find (even in X-rays). Observed locally and needed to explain the X-ray background. Number density highly uncertain. High energy (E>10/ Optical class: Galaxy IR source (IRAS) Radio source (NVSS/for the observed properties of the X-ray background. The obscured AGN fraction decreases with increasing luminosity. Ratio of/


1 High Energy Radiation from Black Holes Gamma Rays, Cosmic Rays, and Neutrinos Chuck Dermer Naval Research Laboratory Govind.

(figure courtesy R. Blandford) 11/04/200818 Angular Dependence of Energy Extraction Energy Flux i.e., most of the energy extraction takes place along the equatorial plane 11/04/200819 BZ extraction of Power 11/04/200820 The results presented here are used to argue that rotating black holes are the sources of the highest energy radiations For details, see High Energy Radiation from Black Holes (Princeton Univ. Press 2009) Charles/


Suspension Thermal Noise Giles Hammond (University of Glasgow) on behalf of the Strawman Red Team GWADW 2012, 18 th May 2012 LIGO-G1200579.

of Glasgow) on behalf of the Strawman Red Team GWADW 2012, 18 th May 2012 LIGO-G1200579 2 Suspension Design Let suppose that we subtract Newtonian noise. What is the lower limit in frequency for/Class. Quant. Grav., 215012, 2009 A.V. Cumming et al., Class. Quantum Grav. 035003, 2012 Model: –bulk loss –surface loss –thermoelastic loss –weld loss –Bond loss Energy storage in fibre essential to model thermal noise performance 5 aLIGO Thermal Noise (Single Test Mass) 10/ different noise sources with temperature /


Chapter 12 Work and Energy. Work force distance Def n : Work is done when a force is exerted on an object causing it to move a distance in the direction.

the battery charged. The moving pistons and other moving parts also produce heat energy. Objects can convert potential energy to kinetic energy or kinetic energy to potential energy. The diagram below illustrates this relationship. In nuclear reactions some mass is converted into energy. The major source of energy is the SUN. In photosynthesis plants convert sunlight into stored energy in the plants. Animals and humans eat the plants to get/


Energy Flow in Ecosystems How do organisms obtain energy/food? –Autotrophs – make their own food Usually by photosynthesis (light to make food) Also called.

an ecosystem –Each step up has less energy available & fewer organisms –Each step involves losing energy to heat…only a small % of energy actually gets transferred Energy available at each level is reduced from the previous… Why? Energy and Ecosystems Energy Pyramid How much energy is from the sun for each trophic level? Only about 10% energy is moving to the next level… Most of the energy is actually lost in the form/


Energy Flow in Ecosystems. Movement of Energy through Ecosystems  Everything that organisms do in an ecosystem; running, breathing, burrowing, growing,

a steam engine), it is generally not a useful source of energy in biological systems.  Thus, the amount of useful energy decreases as energy passes through the levels of an ecosystem.  This loss of energy limits the number of trophic levels an ecosystem can support. Energy Loss in a food chain  When a plant harvests energy from sunlight, photosynthesis captures only about 1% of the energy available to the leaves.  When a herbivore consumes/


Chemistry of Food, Health and Drugs Professor: G. W. Buchanan.

use its own enzymes, thus depleting it of energy Analysis: rubbish! The enzymes used in digestion are not contained in food! Lecture topics Class #1: atoms, elements, isotopes, origin of food, chemical arithmetic, greenhouse gases, concentrations, states of matter- “MIXED BAG” Class #2: Overview of Organic Chemistry. Energy and food. Class #3: Lipids: Fats and oils Class #4: Carbohydrates Class #5: Amino acids and proteins Class #6: Nucleic acids and genes; minerals/


Announcements  Lab 1 due on Friday  No lab next week  Visit Seattle Aquarium  Pick up ticket before or after class  Monday (10/6) is last day to pick.

waves energy)  The “stronger” or more energetic a wave is, the more sediment it stirs up and tumbles  Waves moving toward shore transport sediment onshore (called onshore transport)  Wave angle results in the transport of sediment parallel to shore  Up-rush or swash from breaking waves moves sediment diagonally up and along beach in direction of longshore transport  Backwash moves sediment downslope 10 Sources & Sinks/


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