Free download ppt on indian culture

Ms. Arti Chopra India Unity Diversity Indian Culture, Indian Music, Indian Architect, Heritage, Festivals of India, Multicultaralism, Multicultural Education.

worshipped in India. The numerous and varied festivals that are held throughout the year offer a unique way of seeing Indian culture at its best. Indian Festivals Some of the festivals celebrated in India…. Makar Sankranti : Makar Sankranti : 14 th Jan. Makar Sankranti/, adopted in 1986, is a variation, Multis e gentibus vires (from many peoples, strength).motto of the province of Saskatchewan Indian Culture : Unity in Diversity(1947) It is said that “Unity in Diversity” and it is known for India. India is a/


Effects of Colonialism/Imperialism on India. Dadabhai Naoroji, former president of the Indian Congress, described the effects of British imperialism on.

went down. Some of these crops turned the land infertile. Positives Positives: Social and Cultural Dadabhai Naaoroji, former president of the Indian Congress said about the benefits of British imperialism: “Let us speak out like men and/works to instill a sense of pride in Indian heritage and culture. Theosophical Library – Madras, 1913 Social and Cultural Important institutions were created that became the epicenter of the study of Indian culture, languages, and literature. Translated ancient writers /


Survivors of the New Imperialism Europeans extend their culture, government and economy.

lay with their own Hindu or Muslim cultures. Most British knew little about Indian achievements and dismissed Indian culture with contempt. A few British admired Indian theology and philosophy and respected India’s ancient heritage. During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each other’s culture. INDIAN ATTITUDESBRITISH ATTITUDES 4 Indian Nationalism The British believed that western-educated Indians would form an elite class which/


©2005 KPMG, the Indian member firm of KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved. 1 SPI / IT AUDIT / TAX / ADVISORY / ICE PCMM - CBAIPI.

opportunities at various levels @ Focused career counseling and planning @ To enhance the motivation level of people and build strong employee bondage @ Create a culture of sharing as an expectation, by many people graduating as mentors ©2005 KPMG, the Indian member firm of KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved. 70 Continuous Capability Improvement - Alternate Practice E Institutionalization across the location E/


Communication between cultures 8TH EDITION Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents © Cengage 20121Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents.

from Central Asia established the Mughal Empire – Established the strongest dynasty in all of Indian history – Nominally held power until the mid-1800s – Indian culture flourished under Mughal rule – A civil service was established to administer the country – Religious/the dominant trader on India’s southeast coast until 1813 © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents31 Indian history The Indian National Congress was established in 1885 to address the excesses of British colonial rule /


The Challenge of Finding Culturally Competent Mental Health/Addiction Counselors/Facilities for the Native American Population in Indiana American Indian.

and wait Emotional control, contemplation Euro-American Competition Individual Achievement Overt identification of accomplishments, physical exhibition Advice giving, counseling Points made by aggressive verbal behavioral Action over inaction, direct confrontation Cultural Differences Indian Patience, group decisions by discussions and consensus Generosity and sharing, material possession given away, respect earned by giving rather that saving Indifference toward the future, saving for one’s/


The Indian Child Welfare Act: History, Purpose and Application Presented by: Kris Goodwill – Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians.

Welfare of SNR, 617 N.W.2d 77 (Minn. 2000). Application of the Act The court should consider the deprivation of the rich Indian heritage that would occur if the children were placed in a white foster home. Cultural and socioeconomic considerations to justify placement in a white foster home is inappropriate under ICWA. In re JRH, 358 N.W.2d 311/


INDIAN KILLER some critical lines Ms Isabella Marinaro.

”? Ms Isabella Marinaro those questions are Alexie’s own ones, but projected inside his characters Ms Isabella Marinaro in his production Alexie carefully and consciously blends elements of popular Indian culture and spirituality the drudgery of poverty- ridden reservation life to create his characters and their worlds the result Ms Isabella Marinaro thus his characters are as likely to listen to /


American Cultures I Honors Chapter One Collision of Cultures Chapter One Collision of Cultures.

Countries to North America England -- Democratic forms of local gov’t; tradition of hard- working, zealous individuals, English language France -- Language, culture, and religion introduced to Canada and Louisiana and to many Indians west of Appalachians; large-scale trade with Indians Spain -- Schools, hospitals, and printing presses established by missionaries; Spanish language in the Southwest; teaching of Christianity and handicrafts to Native Americans/


Looking to the West (1860-1900).

land and made them citizens of the U.S. Assimilating: they wanted to get rid of Indian culture to get rid of the “Indian Problem” Picture: the phoenix indian school Attempts to Change Native American Culture Many people believed that Native Americans needed to give up their traditions and culture, learn English, become Christians, adopt white dress and customs, and support themselves by farming and trades/


ShoShoni Indians (1960-1990) The word Shoshone originates from the word Newe which means “The People” The Shoshone Tribes were nomadic people whose area.

proclamation stating the reasons and plans for the island. Some consisted of a museum including a cultural education center of all Indian cultures President turned nation against the reclaim and it fell back into Federal hands 19 months later –/middle class to upper class population. However Since 1975, the political climate has increasingly supported the inclusion of American Indian culture and language in Native education and the training of Native teachers. Study Guide Questions: What did boys and girls /


Cultural Awareness in Therapy with American Indian Clients By Patti Higgins.

all religious healing traditions lies in restoring sacred power (Garrity, 1998). Circle as symbol of rebirth Lowery (1998), there are four intersecting "circles" that characterize American Indians perspective of alcoholism and recovery from substance abuse. (1. cultural wellness, 2. oppression of colonization, 3. alcoholism at betrayal of spirit, 4. time for healing. ) Talking circles Drumming circles Medicine wheels (circular) Fire pit of/


Who are the Indians? Defining the real object of archaeological study.

. One needs to question whether it is still a useful concept: It may be that it locks Indian groups in time, using descriptions of groups at the time of Contact. Pan-Indian cultural activities and massive influences of media have "blended" lots of cultural traits.--Plains and Southwest stereotypes are dominant Doesnt account for the ability of groups to adjust to white and other/


1 Xwlemi Elh>Tal>Nexw Squl NORTHWEST INDIAN COLLEGE Anne Marie Karlberg Institutional Assessment and Research Coordinator Northwest Indian College

, ITV, independent) faculty/student service collaboration with student clubs incorporate educational site students & faculty into activities instructors visit site students 28 Xwlemi Elh>Tal>Nexw Squl NORTHWEST INDIAN COLLEGE Challenges approaching assessment in a culturally appropriate and meaningful way lack of time / manpower reporting results back to the tribal college community (i.e., formal presentations, informal brown bag lunches, posting information on/


Geothermal Projects and Indian Tribes: Dealing with Cultural Resources Issues Michael P. O’Connell Stoel Rives LLP 206-386-7692 O R.

consultation; consultation determined no tribal historic properties were affected) www.stoel.com Other Land  Most states have laws protecting Indian graves and cultural resources  NHPA and NEPA when federal action is involved www.stoel.com Other Land Cases  Lummi Nation v. Golder/.stoel.com 3. Identify Historic Properties Within APE  Consult with SHPO and any Indian tribe that might attaches religious and cultural significance to historic properties in the APE  Agency’s level of effort: Reasonable and/


Native American Cultures in North America

the men were able to travel over the mountains to trade with the Plains Indians. Native American Culture Southwest Tribes: Hopi Native American Culture Southwest Tribes: Hopi Background Information Hopi means “peaceful people” Lived in Arizona area/patterns for war paint, religious ceremonies, and festive decoration. Native American Culture Plains Tribes: Pawnee Native American Culture Plains Tribes: Pawnee Shelter Most Pawnee Indians lived in settled villages of round earthen lodges. Pawnee lodges were made/


1 Xwlemi Elh>Tal>Nexw Squl NORTHWEST INDIAN COLLEGE Anne Marie Karlberg Assessment Coordinator Northwest Indian College

how well they think they have mastered each of the outcomes on course evaluation forms at the end of the quarter Course Outcomes 23 Xwlemi Elh>Tal>Nexw Squl NORTHWEST INDIAN COLLEGE Cultural Outcomes (examples) Students will be able to… know their tribal inherent rights and understand why those inherent rights are important practice their traditional ways of living (e.g., art/


MODEL ICWA JUDICIAL CURRICULUM MODULE II HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES ON ICWA.

and Massacres  Role of Religion  Removal, Trail of Tears  Dawes Allotment Act  Treaties, Termination  Less than fully human Goals included: Claiming Indian land, spreading religion, forcing cultural norms on Indian families, and eliminating the Indian race Removal Conditions created by these policies became the rationale for removing children from their parents. Removal In Minnesota  U.S. - Dakota War of 1862  Sandy Lake Tragedy, 1850/


Indian Child Welfare Summit Ken Levinson October 9, 2012.

they pertain to family organization and childrearing practices. i.Any expert witness having substantial experience in the delivery of child and family services to Indians, and extensive knowledge of prevailing social and cultural standards and childrearing practices within the Indian child’s tribe. i. A professional person having substantial education and experience in the area of his or her specialty. An expert is/


Classical Civilization: India

the Vedic and Epic ages, the Aryans (Indo-Europeans), originally from central Asia, impressed their own stamp on Indian culture. During these ages, the caste system, Sanskrit (language), and various belief systems were introduced. Sacred books called/caste superseded loyalty to any overall ruler. Religion, particularly Hinduism, was the only uniting influence in Indian culture. IV) Religion and Culture Two major religions, Hinduism and Buddhism, marked classical India. Hinduism, the religion of India’s /


Pre-Columbian America U.S. History, Fall 2002. Problem of Prehistory First Immigrants and Major Eras Cultural Diversity in Post-Archaic Period –Mississippian:

: very few documents for historians to examine European conquerors systematically destroyed many of the documents that existed 2.European bias: most of the existing documents that describe Indian cultures written by Europeans or by Indians being watched by Europeans Problem of Prehistory 1.Primarily non-literate: very few documents for historians to examine European conquerors systematically destroyed many of the documents that existed/


Humility vs. Self Esteem Jon Reyhner What do American Indian Students Need for Academic Success? National Indian Education.

found that Navajo and Ute students with a strong sense of cultural identity could overcome the structural inequalities in American society and the discrimination they faced as American Indians. In a study of students on three reservations in the upper/ Critical Thinking Help Seeking On March 8-10, 2004, the Bureau of Indian Affair’s Office of Indian Education Programs (OIEP) held its third Language and Culture Preservation Conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico. OIEP director Ed Parisian welcomed the /


Lesson 19.2: The Indian Wars

buffalo hides into clothing, shoes, and blankets and used buffalo chips (dried manure) as cooking fuel. Bones and horns became tools and bowls. A Clash of Cultures In the 1830s, the federal government began moving Indians into a huge area that included almost all of the land between the Missouri River and Oregon Territory. Most treaties made by the government with Native/


1 Nurturing Native Languages and Cultures Jon Reyhner

families. Parent involvement includes parents learning the language and volunteering to help clean the preschool. 36 On March 8-10, 2004, the Bureau of Indian Affair’s Office of Indian Education Programs (OIEP) held its third Language and Culture Preservation Conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico. OIEP director Ed Parisian welcomed the large gathering of Bureau educators to this meeting, emphasizing the BIA’s/


Period 2: 1607-1754 Europeans and American Indians maneuvered and fought for dominance, control, and security in North America, and distinctive colonial.

increased the flow of trade goods and diseases into and out of native communities, stimulating cultural and demographic changes. 2.2.II.B Spanish colonizing efforts in North America, particularly after the Pueblo Revolt, saw an accommodation with some aspects of American Indian culture; by contrast, conflict with American Indians tended to reinforce English colonists’ worldviews on land and gender roles. 2.2.II/


Cultural Identity of Children of Indian Diaspora Smitha G Barki “Information Design and Technology” Georgia Institute of Technology.

6 Ethnographic Study  Attending Sunday classes with children aged 5-13  Studying traditional classrooms methods of teaching Indian Culture  Detailed interviews with children and teens to understand why ages 5-12 like Sunday classes and why teens do not Cultural Identity of Children of Indian Diaspora 7 Result of Ethnographic Study  Traditional Classroom method fails to hold interest of older children  Teens are concerned/


Substance Abuse and Effective Treatment for Adult American Indians and Alaska Natives MICHELE HENSON, B.S., C.H.E.S. MPH CANDIDATE, UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA.

. Gilder, D.A., Lau, P., Corey, L., Ehlers, C. (2008). Factors Associated with Remission from Alcohol Dependence in an American Indian Community Group. American Journal of Psychiatry 165(9), 1172-1178. Gone, J.P., Calf Looking, P.E. (2011). American Indian Culture as Substance Abuse Treatment: Pursing Evidence for a Local Intervention. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 43(4), 291-296 Hartmann, W.E/


5: The Cultures of Colonial North America,

later did Eunice, under her Iroquois name Aongonte, return to Deerfield with her Iroquois family. C: North American Regions From Deerfield to Kahnawake Crossing Cultural Boundaries Indian America Participation in the fur trade showed the remarkable ability of Indians to change and adapt to new conditions by: participating in the commercial economy; using metal tools; and building homes of logs as frontier settlers/


Louisiana’s First Inhabitants

Kept trading records with bundles of sticks and knots of string. Used shell beads, pearls, and quartz as currency. Historic Indian Culture Agriculture Clans and Family Crime and Punishment Diet Three basic crops were corn, beans, and squash. Within each tribe were/, murder, or witchcraft deserved the death penalty. Ate fish, deer, and buffalo Wasted no part of the animal Historic Indian Culture Personal Appearance Religion Society and Women Villages Men were about 5.5 ft. tall; women about 5 ft. Believed in /


Project # 1: Native American Cultural Groups

50 Tribes: Use page 46 map in SS textbook Science Textbook both Temperate Deciduous Forest and Tropical Biomes (Southern Florida) pages 534 & 535 Cultural site http://native-american-indian-facts.com/Southeast-American-Indian-Facts/Southeast-American-Indian-Facts.shtml Cultural site http://www.cabrillo.edu/~crsmith/noamer_soeast.html Geography site (video short 1:30 min.) http://www.zaneeducation.com/Videos/Geography/US_Geography/The_South_East/Location_and_Physical_Features/


Exhibiting Native American Cultures: Points of Contact Museum Studies Special Topics, A460/560 Larry J. Zimmerman, Ph.D., RPA Indiana University-Purdue.

. One needs to question whether it is still a useful concept: It may be that it locks Indian groups in time, using descriptions of groups at the time of Contact. Pan-Indian cultural activities and massive influences of media have "blended" lots of cultural traits.--Plains and Southwest stereotypes are dominant Doesnt account for the ability of groups to adjust to white and other/


Training the Cultural Resource Manager

many resources and places to go for additional information or help. Glossary ACHP Advisory Council of Historic Preservation ADA Americans with Disabilities Act AIRFA American Indian Religious Freedom Act APE Area of Potential Effect CRM Cultural Resource Management/Manager FGS Final Governing Standards GIS Geographic Information System HABS Historic American Buildings Survey HAER Historic American Engineering Record HALS Historic American Landscape Survey/


Does Receiving Traditional Healing as a Vocational Service Lead to More Successful Outcomes? Post Employment Training American Indian Rehabilitation Cycle.

like court ordered.” A tribal drug court might recommend that clients do this. She went onto acknowledge that “Mainstream society like even Indian Health Service [do not] recognize yet though it’s changing but yet [do not] recognize cultural and traditional ceremonies as a part of a person’s treatment plan.” She did agree that “for spiritual leaders who have to document/


Substance Abuse and Effective Treatment for Adult American Indians and Alaska Natives: Culture and Resilience over Addiction MICHELE HENSON, B.S., C.H.E.S.

. Gilder, D.A., Lau, P., Corey, L., Ehlers, C. (2008). Factors Associated with Remission from Alcohol Dependence in an American Indian Community Group. American Journal of Psychiatry 165(9), 1172-1178. Gone, J.P., Calf Looking, P.E. (2011). American Indian Culture as Substance Abuse Treatment: Pursing Evidence for a Local Intervention. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 43(4), 291-296 Hartmann, W.E/


Difference Between American and Indian culture. American vs Indian culture No two cultures are the same. The American and Indian cultures have very vast.

Difference Between American and Indian culture American vs Indian culture No two cultures are the same. The American and Indian cultures have very vast differentiation between them..While the culture of America is a mixture of different cultures, the Indian culture is unique and has its own values. Family difference One of the major differences that can be seen between American and Indian culture is in family relations. While the Indians are very much family/


Program Evaluation for American Indian Education:

). Educational Leadership and integrity: Doing things the same, differently. American journal of education, 119,4, 617-631. Huffman, Terry. (2010). Theoretical perspectives on American Indian education. AltaMira Press, Lanham, MD. Keddie, A, et al (2013) Beyond culturalism: addressing issues of Indigenous advantage through schooling. Australian association for research in education, 40, p 91-108 Marks, G.N. (2007) Do schools matter for/


Many ethnic American Indian groups live throughout the United States, including the state of North Carolina. What is an ethnic group? “An ethnic group.

*We can use artifacts to help understand American Indian culture and way of life. Source: Harcourt Social Studies: North Carolina Geography, History, and Culture By: Harcourt School Publishers Many American Indians get support from organizations to help them achieve /built that were considered sacred. Source: http://www.aaanativearts.com/cherokee/cherokee-culture.htmhttp://www.aaanativearts.com/cherokee/cherokee-culture.htm Cherokee Indians build a fire twelve times a year called the New Moon Ceremonies /


USE OF CULTURAL TRADEMARK TO PROTECT NATIVE HAWAIIAN ARTS Hale Ku’ai Study Group Maile Meyer, Maile Andrade, Co-Chairs Leighton Chong, Danielle Conway-Jones,

SERVICES INDICATES / CERTIFIES ORIGIN, QUALITY, AUTHENTICITY, &/OR ENDORSEMENT OF GOODS OR SERVICES DISTINGUISHES FROM NON-APPROVED GOODS/SERVICES EXAMPLE OF USE OF CULTURAL TRADEMARK: INDIAN ARTS & CRAFTS PROBLEM: CULTURAL ARTS & CRAFTS ARE UNIQUE TO INDIAN TRIBES UNIQUENESS ATTRACTS OUTSIDE PRODUCERS AND VENDORS CHEAP, MASS-PRODUCED FAKES FLOOD INTO INDIAN MARKET ARTISANS CANNOT COMPETE WITH MASS-PRODUCED FAKES ARTISANS CANNOT EARN A LIVING FROM THEIR WORK/


Jimmy Pitts Period 6.  Who are the Indian People?  Native inhabitants of the western hemisphere represent over 2000 cultures  Possibly arrived via.

of Clovis tradition) develop Folsom points  Growing complexity of Indian communities  Passing of Pleistocene Epoch preceded by a wave of migrants known as the Athapascans (NaDene people) settled the forests of the northwest  Desert Culture in Western America  Pursuit of small game and intensified /D 6.A 7.C 8.A 9.B 10.D  Indian America was an important part of the Eighteenth century world  Although they were affected by the spread of colonial culture they remained in control of their lands (for now)  /


The First Nations Peoples. Table of Contents Directions The First Americans Cultural Regions Map of Cultural Regions Activity Page #1 Northwest Coast.

Activity Page #1 Define the following words: –community –natural resources –Native American –cultural region In your binder, write these questions and answers. Answers should be in complete sentences. –In which region do we live? –What tribes were from our region? Cultural Regions Northwest Coast The Northwest Coast Indian Culture was in what is today the states of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. Many small/


 2011 LDK Associates, LLC 1 Working in Indian Country Revisiting the Basics “…governments or agencies just don’t know us. The biggest letdown of government.

most, of us work and operate in a traditional business environment defined by social and business norms. However, what few realize is that in our own country there are cultural microcosms—American Indian tribal governments, for one, where the business environment may differ significantly from what we practice on a broader scale.  2011 LDK Associates, LLC 17 A Paradigm Shift Applying our/


American Indian Health Disparities and Culturally Sensitive Counseling Donald Warne, MD, MPH Oglala Lakota Executive Director Aberdeen Area Tribal Chairmen’s.

Chairmen’s Health Board HIV/STD/TB/Hepatitis Symposium May 20, 2010 Fargo, ND Overview  Overview of AI Health Policy  AI Health Disparities & HIV/STD  Cultural Competence in AI Healthcare  Strategies to reduce Health Disparities AMERICAN INDIAN HEALTH POLICY  Do people have a legal right to healthcare in the US?  Approximately $2.5 trillion spent annually on healthcare in the US  Nearly/


1 The University of Kansas and Haskell Indian Nations University Present The Shifting Borders of Race and Identity of Native American and African American.

has effects that hurt all individuals: White, Blacks, Asians, Hispanics and Native American Indians. Racism decreases productivity. Racism decreases productivity. It is possible to develop diversity and thus change our current cultural norms. It is possible to develop diversity and thus change our current cultural norms. Identifying the steps involved in developing diverse systems gives people a map to follow. Identifying the steps/


The New Imperialism Europeans extend their culture, government and economy.

lay with their own Hindu or Muslim cultures. Most British knew little about Indian achievements and dismissed Indian culture with contempt. A few British admired Indian theology and philosophy and respected India’s ancient heritage. During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each other’s culture. INDIAN ATTITUDESBRITISH ATTITUDES 4 Indian Nationalism The British believed that western-educated Indians would form an elite class which/


Indian Residential Schools Part 1 - The Report Presented by Gail Smith.

, Anglican, United and Presbyterian Churches involved Catholic, Anglican, United and Presbyterian Churches involved Indian Act – government’s responsibility to educate native children – Treaty Rights Indian Act – government’s responsibility to educate native children – Treaty Rights Churches’ and Governmental Assumptions Aboriginal culture were unable to adapt to modern Canadian society Aboriginal culture were unable to adapt to modern Canadian society Without intervention, native people would/


12 KEY EVENTS IN THE TREATY MAKING PROCESS. BACKGROUND INFORMATION #1 THINK ABOUT THIS For any culture to survive, it needs two things; an economic basis.

. 1951 Amendment: This amendment made life easier on Natives because the more restricting parts of the Act were amended and removed. Natives could practice customs and culture, could appear off- reserve, they could hire legal counsel, and Indian women were now allowed to vote in band councils. 1951 Amendment The 1885 amendment was the most damaging because it took away the Aboriginals/


Holt McDougal, Physical Geography The Big Idea The physical geography of the Indian Subcontinent features unique physical features and a variety of climates.

Great Britain led to the division of India into several countries. Religion and the caste system are two important parts of Indian culture. Holt McDougal, Ancient Civilizations Early Empires Around 2300 BC the Harappan civilization began in the Indus River Valley. The / country of Bangladesh. Holt McDougal, Main Idea 4: Religion and the caste system are two important parts of Indian culture. One of the world’s oldest religions Hinduism—the dominant religion of India Believe everything in the universe is part/


1 A Culture of Literacy Jon Reyhner BME 210, Fall 2015, ppt-1.

Median Earnings in 2001 by Educational Level Source: Postsecondary Education Opportunity 22 Unemployment Rate in 2001 Source: Postsecondary Education Opportunity 2007 National Indian Education Study Data  Persistent disparities in education outcomes.  Limited use by teachers (<10%) of Native language and culture content standards.  Only 4% of students sampled (N=5,100) were learning how to speak and read their tribal language. 24/


Traditionalism and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Reservation American Indians David G. Perdue MD MSPH University of Minnesota Division of Gastroenterology.

when you are sick or ill?” Traditionalism & Colorectal Cancer Screening among Reservation American Indians Cultural Identity Questions: “What language do you usually speak at home, your own American Indian language, English, or both?” “How much do you identify with your own /, 1.3)0.8(0.5, 1.2) Traditionalism & Colorectal Cancer Screening among Reservation American Indians Logistic Regression FOBTEndoscopy Number of cultural identity factors endorsed Adjusted OR 95% CI Adjusted OR 95% CI 01.0--1.0-- 10.6/


India & The Indian Ocean Basin 451 to 1600 C.E.. Classical India Recap: Two occurrences where India was unified into a single state: 1) The Mauryan Empire:

decentralized. Then Muslim invaders would begin to move into the subcontinent, doing much to shape Indian politics and culture after 1000 C.E. Postclassical India Though politically disunited, India remained a coherent and distant /caste had become the principle basis of social organization in Southern India. Indian cultural landscape underwent a thorough transformation during the postclassical era as well. Indian cultural landscape underwent a thorough transformation during the postclassical era as well. /


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