Download ppt on work life and leisure

The Tyne foundry As depicted here by Kathe Kollwitz, conditions on farms were often bad enough to drive many people to go to the cities to find work.

much of the heartache of life for the working classes in her sketches. Here, a man grieves the death of /  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear Places of living & work before and after? -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) -/ aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC cant handle leisure -1799 Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve conds  Jail for 3 mos; Boss/


Activities and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults Lesa Lorenzen Huber Indiana University.

forms of leisure (visiting and other informal social life) Decreases in some forms of leisure (visiting and other informal social life) Summary of BLSA Findings Older adults spend the most time on obligatory and passive leisure Older adults spend the most time on obligatory and passive leisure They spend the least time on committed activities and active leisure. They spend the least time on committed activities and active leisure. Time spent on paid work has/


Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self-Reliance (1844)

life.   A mere life of ease is not in the end a very satisfactory life, and, above all, it is a life which ultimately unfits those who follow it for serious work in the world. The man must be glad to do a mans work, to dare and endure and to labor; to keep himself, and/ of society to the demands which the situation makes for a further growth of institutions and a readjustment to an altered industrial situation. The leisure class is the conservative class. …exigencies do not readily produce in the members of /


C HAPTER 4 GETTING INVOLVED : FROM KILLING TIME TO CENTRAL LIFE PURPOSE.

or her to an activity is a very important issue to those who operate commercial sport facilities, manage resorts, or work. Thus they develop lots of schemes to get people to try the activities they are promoting. L EISURE PREFERENCE, LEISURE CONSTRAINTS, AND LEISURE PARTICIPATION ACCOMMODATION  Some researchers have pointed out that in many cases, individuals don’t really overcome or negotiate a constraint/


Work, Leisure, and Their Integration Work, Leisure, and Their Integration Implications for the Deaconate In Honor of Deacon Bill TothNADD April 24, 2015.

our age.... [L]et there be no false opposition between professional and social activities on the one hand, and religious life on the other (Gaudium et spes, 43). Big Questions  What am I Working for?  What am I Resting in?  What am I Living for? WORK LEISURE INTEGRATION Work as Job Economic Return (extrinsic motivation) “If work is so great how come they pay us to do it/


Oh Muse!  Mnemosyne  Stories, poems and songs  Apollo  Art, science, literature, history, astronomy, drama  Orpheus  Museum, amusement, music.

of men dislikes and has always disliked learning and art…it wishes to be distracted from life rather than to have it revealed; to be comforted by traditional truths rather than to be upset by new ones. --Van den Haag As Leisure Moves to the Middle Classes…  As leisure moves to the middle classes, it becomes controlled by time (these people do work and leisure *gasp*)  Leisure as a/


7. Income Redistribution. Outline 1.Definitions of Poverty 2.Measurement of Poverty and Inequality 3.Income Distribution and the Life Cycle 4.Policy Issues:

Income Current Spending Current Wealth (Financial, Real Assets, Human Capital) Life-time Income Ex ante inequality Inequality of opportunity. 1. Definitions of Poverty/Leisure Goods Work More 3. Effects of Income Taxes Leisure Goods Work More 3. Effects of Income Taxes Leisure Goods Work More 3. Effects of Income Taxes Leisure Goods Greater Utility Work More 3. What you can afford Leisure Goods Work More These are combinations of work and goods you can afford. 3. What you can afford Leisure Goods Work/


Meanings of Leisure Leisure’s meanings through ….. The humanities

, was to enlighten the students as how much work was necessary, how to use free time, and its value to life. Plato believed the ultimate expression of humanity occurred in leisure. We had to know when we had worked enough (to meet our necessities) and when to stop working and start leisure Leisure was “non-work,” and was connected with choice and freedom and associated with the work schole. Schole simply meant an opportunity or/


C HAPTER 3 WHAT WE DO WITH OUR TIME : THE RHYTHM OF DAILY LIFE.

LIFE SPAN  Where business has succeeded, people can consider satisfying noneconomic needs.  Half of the expansion in wealth-production capacity was used to create leisure time by cutting the hours worked while steadily increasing pay A N AVERAGE DAY IN THE USA  The American Time Use Survey found in 2006, persons in the United States, ages 15 and/more rushed.  While increased free time should slow down our pace of life and make us more leisurely, for many, the opposite appears to be happening.  Even as /


Living Conditions and Poverty in Andalucía

Age (U) Subjetive Health status (+) Subjective social class (+) Household composition Nº of dependent persons (-) Household type and marital status (+) Socio-economic Occupation (-) Durables ownership (+) Leisure expenditure capacity (+) Habitat Semi-urban (-) Social capital Contacts with friends and known people (+) Results and conclusions 1. Individual leisure behavior model (leisure is life domain that conforms overall happiness) Control for individual heterogeneity in satisfaction variability. 2/


Chapter 2 History of Recreation. Tracing the Roots of Leisure in the United States & Canada Development of leisure was influenced by the following: Historical.

. For example, senators enjoyed almost unlimited leisure, while coloni struggled to make a comfortable life. This is similar to the present day where distinct economic classes enjoy various degrees and types of leisure. Differences Between the Play of Greeks and Romans The Greeks saw leisure as an opportunity for well-rounded development. The Romans perceived leisure to be primarily rest from work. The Romans were on an almost/


Psychological Aspects The Natural Environment Here we go again? So what is leisure? Perceived freedom Deals with psychological aspects A person does what.

people  Too many scary critters Behavioral Ecology How do people behave in environments? Social Environmental Work Kaplan and Kaplan The Experience of Nature What is really going on? Why are we drawn to / How much does leisure satisfaction affect life satisfaction? Chapter 9 Partnerships  Partnerships involve cooperation among public agencies, nonprofit organizations, and/or private sector enterprises.  Mechanisms involve long-term binding contracts, cooperative agreements, and other agreements among /


1 Building Ontologies from the Ground Up When users set out to model their professional activity Mark A. Musen Professor of Medicine and Computer Science.

90 Pedal cyclist injured in collision with other nonmotor vehicle, unspecified pedal cyclist, traffic accident, while engaged in leisure activity V16.91 Pedal cyclist injured in collision with other nonmotor vehicle, unspecified pedal cyclist, traffic accident, while/of these two foes Researchers to unlock the book of life; Whole misadventured piteous overthrows Can with their work bury their clans’ strife. The fruitful passage of their GO-markd love, And the continuance of their studies sage, Which, united,/


E-Marketing by DMOs – Techniques and keys to success Dr Roger Carter Managing Director, TEAM UNCTAD Expert Group Meeting on ICT and Tourism for Development.

, “Marketing Tourism Destinations Online”, 1999, + successor publication “E-Business for Tourism, published in October 2001 Recent work for European Travel Commission and for tourism organisations in Cape Town/Western Cape, Seychelles, Estonia, Slovenia, Madeira, Ireland and throughout the UK Agenda The marketing communications life-cycle and its application to leisure and business tourism segments The drivers of change for DMOs Nine keys to future success in e/


Llad Phillips1 Jobs and Crime. Llad Phillips2 A theme for this course US and CA criminal justice systems will be case studies, but are there larger issues.

Rates? Does the Business Cycle Affect Crime Rates? Does an Individual’s Life Cycle Affect Crime Rates? Does an Individual’s Life Cycle Affect Crime Rates? Why do some people live socially unproductive lives? /and leisure Only their learning histories differ Only their learning histories differ 24 hours0 hours Leisure (learning) Earnings $480 $ 0 high low value slope of the iso-preference curve through the 24 hour endowment is the lowest wage at which you are willing to work $96 dropout is unwilling to work/


A Life Plan for Effective Human Relations

rights reserved. The Need for New Models of Success Others who gave up leisure time and time with family and friends retained their jobs, but have discovered that they feel unfulfilled Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. One-Dimensional Model Success measured in terms of work life Emphasized Working long hours Reaching work-related goals Meeting standards set by others Everything with meaning was connected to/


Presenter: Marcela Kepicova, ABD, MA, EdS, LPC, NCC CHANGES IN LEISURE ACTIVITY INVOLVEMENT IN WIDOWED OLDER ADULTS: REVITALIZING LIVES THROUGH VOLUNTEERING.

meaning of their work, and establishing satisfying life through work and social connections (Blustein, 2006)  OAs that engage in post-retirement work or volunteering report more positive levels of mental well-being than those who do not work or volunteer (Schwingel, A., Niti, M.M.,& Pin Ng, T., 2009 ) Life Satisfaction: Contributing Factors Health (physical and/or psychological) Marital status Social Support Work/Leisure activities High Level of Life Changes Religion/Spirituality/


THE BUSY LIFE IN AMERICA BY ERIN HURST. TABLE OF CONTENTS  Reflection Paper I  How Busy Are Americans?  Average Time Use Per Day For Americans  Why.

the salaries of those at the top have risen strongly, while those below the median have stagnated or fallen. Thus rising inequality encourages the rich to work more and the poor to work less” (Economist). THE EVOLUTION OF LEISURE TIME Thompson, Derek. "How Did Work-Life Balance in the U.S. Get So Awful?" The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 1 June 2013. Web. 1 May 2015/


Section 3 Life in the Industrial Age Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Cities Grow and Change Education, Leisure, and Arts Quick Facts: Increase in Leisure.

Governments passed laws requiring education for all children Support Lower class children in school only as long as law required Vocational and technical training schools offered opportunities for working class Not All Equal Education, Leisure, and Arts Section 3 Life in the Industrial Age Education, Leisure, and Arts Education lagged behind for girls as it did for the lower classes Some countries did not require girls go/


Chapter Fifteen Sport and leisure Objectives To explore the significance of the difference between ‘leisureandwork’.To explore the significance of.

divisions of class, ethnicity, age, gender and ability are reproduced through sports and leisure activities. To compare the figurational and postmodern approaches to theorising sports and leisure.To compare the figurational and postmodern approaches to theorising sports and leisure. Leisure and work Leisure and sport are vast and important areas of social and personal lifeLeisure and sport are vast and important areas of social and personal life Leisure and sport are activities that are considered distinct/


Chapter 2 1. The Importance of Physical Activity Experience How often and in what ways does physical activity occur in your life?

injuries 52 Table 2.1 Physical Activity Experience: Words to live by! Your life is filled with physical activity experiences. Your life is filled with physical activity experiences. Think carefully about how these experiences contribute to your independence; your ability to perform necessary personal, social, and work- related tasks; and your enjoyment of life. Think carefully about how these experiences contribute to your independence; your ability/


Chapter 8 8 Leisure and Technology Paul A. Schlag C H A P T E R.

. Schlag C H A P T E R Learning Outcomes Understand historical and contemporary perspectives of technology and leisure. Understand technology’s impact on leisure. Consider how technology affects your leisure. Learn how technology can add to or detract from wellness. Consider how you can improve your life through appropriate use of technology during leisure. Definitions 1.Applying knowledge for some useful purpose 2.The tools developed/


WORK, LEISURE & RETIREMENT. Why Work? material needs material needs self-esteem, self aspect self-esteem, self aspect social acceptance social acceptance.

some kinds of work and decline in other kinds of work behavior. Retirement and Leisure RETIREMENT Definition of retirement in 3 ways Definition of retirement in 3 ways As a process As a process As a paradox As a paradox As a change As a change RETIREMENT AS A PROCESS The process of retirement begins as soon as one thinks about what life after employment might/


Leisure All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

— the weekly programme : 12 million viewers A 3 Leisure outside the Home  Bingo hall A 3 Sport  Sports and social class  “class consciousness is fundamental to the British sense of national identity. Differences of accent, dress, taste and life style all serve as markers of class” (Raw and Walker, 1994, p. 5)  fox hunting: upper-class; football: the working class; cricket A 3 Sport & the British/


Chapter 04 All-Cause Mortality. All Cause Mortality Today, the average life expectancy of a person living in the United States is among the lowest in.

not associated with all-cause mortality rates Physical Activity and All-Cause Mortality The Seventh Day Adventist Study (leisure time study) The associations of work and leisure-time physical activity with all-cause and disease-specific mortality rates were examined among nearly 9500/of the association of changes in physical activity with all-cause mortality rates, as well as estimated years of life gained by changing from low to high levels of physical activity Men were dichotomized into two groups at each/


S PENDING MONEY FOR LEISURE : THE BEST THINGS IN LIFE ARE FREE.

’s difficult to determine how much money we spend for leisure.  For example, many things we may buy have connections between work and leisure. We may buy a car to get to work and drive to tourism resorts during weekend. Some sports clothing is also worn to work.  Many expenditures are illegal and thus are never reported.  While it is difficult to precisely determine how much is spent/


HPR 322 Chapter 14 Leisure Wellness and Education.

via social learning theory Decrease of quality time or meaningfulness in life Individuals seek more meaningful leisure experiences Desire to develop appropriate skills, knowledge, attitudes required for successful participation. You can teach them leisure wellness skills Leisure Wellness Access to information Decision Making Clarify Leisure-related values Traditional strategies Instructional programs and services Leisure Barriers Attitudinal – ex. Must be athletically gifted to participate in physical/


MONDAYTUESDAYWEDNESDAYTHURSDAYFRIDAYWeekend 10:00 – 12:00 PACE Oak Park Leisure Centre 10:00 – 11:00 Active Steps Darlaston Townhall 10:15-11:15 Palfrey.

Park Lime Pits Walk FREE Manor Arms, Rushall Saturday: 9:30 – 12:00 Fun 4 Life FREE Fitzone – Walsall Gala Baths 10:45 -11:45 Family FitnessSession Fitzone & Dance Studio Walsall/LEISURE HAVE MOVED OFFICES. OUR NEW TELEPHONE NUMBER IS 01922 658080 A specialised exercise programme for people who have previously experienced a fall, are frightened of or at risk of falling. The programme is designed to reduce your risk of falling, by using exercises that work on balance, strength, stamina, posture, mobility and/


Llad Phillips1 Jobs and Crime. Llad Phillips2 Week One: Tuesday & Thursday Review Today: What is the relationship between crime and economics?   Life.

same values for income and leisure Only their learning histories differ Only their learning histories differ 24 hours0 hours Leisure (learning) Earnings $480 $ 0 high low value slope of the iso-preference curve through the 24 hour endowment is the lowest wage at which you are willing to work $96 dropout is unwilling to work for $4/hr Llad Phillips71 Productive Life Cycle Social Institution Family/


God and Leisure. Question About Leisure As a follower of Jesus, what is the best way for me to enjoy and benefit from leisure?

to enjoy and benefit from leisure? Where we can find true pleasure Pleasure in the presence of God, delighting in Him. “The joy of the Lord is your strength” (Nehemiah 8:10). Where we can find pleasure Pleasure in the presence of God, delighting in Him. Rejoicing in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus. “I have come that they may have life, and have it/


Replenishing the Wellspring: Exploring Counselor Wellness and Resiliency Presented by Elizabeth Venart (2008) Power Point information developed by Elizabeth.

the number of “one-way caring relationships” in a counselor’s life outside of work. – Figley (2002) recommends that counselors have large support systems comprised of diverse types of relationships. – Williams and Sommer (1995) advocate supervision in order to reduce stress, decrease secondary trauma, and promote feelings of self- confidence and control. Coping Self Leisure Leisure Stress management Stress management Self-worth Self-worth Realistic beliefs Realistic/


Meanings of Leisure Leisure ’ s meanings through ….. The humanities Ancient history Contemporary connotations.

education in Ancient Greece was to enlighten students as how much work was necessary, how to use free time, and its value to life. –Schole and Ascholia –The highest purpose of work was to escape into leisure –Believed the ultimate expression of humanity occurred in leisure Ancient Greece: Aristotle Leisure was activities performed for their own sake Leisure was activities performed for their own sake The goodness of humans/


Llad Phillips1 Jobs and Crime. Llad Phillips2 Last Tuesday:

same values for income and leisure Only their learning histories differ Only their learning histories differ 24 hours0 hours Leisure (learning) Earnings $480 $ 0 high low value slope of the iso-preference curve through the 24 hour endowment is the lowest wage at which you are willing to work $96 dropout is unwilling to work for $4/hr Llad Phillips87 Productive Life Cycle Social Institution Family/


Llad Phillips1 Jobs and Crime. Llad Phillips2 Week One: Tuesday & Thursday.

same values for income and leisure Only their learning histories differ Only their learning histories differ 24 hours0 hours Leisure (learning) Earnings $480 $ 0 high low value slope of the iso-preference curve through the 24 hour endowment is the lowest wage at which you are willing to work $96 dropout is unwilling to work for $4/hr Llad Phillips67 Productive Life Cycle Social Institution Family/


Vaga Associates The value of leisure and culture to Enfield 13 th January 2004 Nikki Enoch, Mike Collins & Simon Parkinson Better Enfield Partnership.

strategy – accurately assess need and contribute to spatial strategy Champion for joint working Vaga Associates The value of leisure & culture for health Conclusions  Proof of benefits exists and is nationally accepted  Enfield has the parks and the open space  Unfulfilled potential  Opportunities for joint action and influence Better environment Better personal health and well being Better quality of Life Vaga Associates The value of leisure & culture to Enfield References/


1 Nobody to play with? The implications of leisure coordination Stephen P. Jenkins ISER, University of Essex, UK Lars Osberg.

start of each period. Each period, individuals first must commit to specific duration & timing of work hours H, and then after that they arrange their social life H  household money income  utility from material consumption (via sharing rule) Ex ante, utility from social life is uncertain: –search for Suitable Leisure Companions involves uncertainty, since some desired matches may not be feasible. Time spent alone not/


FOREIGH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH PRESS AIR FORCE ENGINEERING UNIVERTISY 3 Unit 5 Section A Will you be a worker or a laborer? FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING.

their _______ into their work, be it physical or mental. (Para. 7) ______________ can make the difference between being bored, unhappy laborers and workers who find meaning and joy in their employment and life. (Para. 6) While social development has created much more leisure time than ever before, modern laborers spend their leisure time in ________________. In modern times, workers and laborers spend their leisure time in different ways/


MONDAYTUESDAYWEDNESDAYTHURSDAYFRIDAYSATURDAYSUNDAY 10:00 – 12:00 PACE Oak Park Leisure Centre 10:15 – 11:00 Willenhall Memorial Park Walk 10:15 – 11:00.

The programme is designed to reduce your risk of falling, by using exercises that work on balance, strength, stamina, posture, mobility and co-ordination. Refreshments are available at some sessions. There is a charge to/Leisure Development Services on 01902 605500 to book an appointment. There is a charge to attend this session. Fun 4 Life is a weight management programme for young people in Walsall between the ages of 8 and 16. The programme is aimed at individuals and their families who are overweight and/


Chapter 6 6 Leisure History and Heritage Lee J. deLisle C H A P T E R.

the aristocrats of Italy Universality of thought and art Age of pageantry and spectacles Physical activity was useful and enjoyable Age of Discovery The enlightenment Empiricism and science on the rise Leisure as an important aspect of human life Recreational activity in school settings Beginning of modern scientific culture Industrial Revolution Centralized work Growth of technology Segmentation of leisure –By day and time –By age –By sex –By economic/


1 Understanding Leisure with Social Psychology Chapter One.

widespread awareness of lifestyle alternatives even if these choices are not available to everyone. 6 Juggling and Balancing the demands of Daily Life (cont ’ )  Most people believe that their lifestyles determine their health and happiness.  People can create their own lifestyles through how they juggle and balance the work, family and leisure aspects of their lives. 7 People-Watching as a Science ( 觀察人們的一種科學 )  Social science addresses the problems/


1 Chapter 3 Leisure as Behavior, Setting and Time ( 休閒是行為、情境與時間 )

have been used to examine how much time people in different segments of society and at different life-cycle stages spend at paid work, leisure, house work and family obligations, and how these patterns change from weekdays to weekends. 20 Time Diaries (cont ’ )  Typically, respondents carry the diaries for one or two weekdays and one weekend day. The entries can be weighted to provide time-use estimates from/


2 Chapter 2 Basic Concepts: Philosophical Analysis of Play, Recreation, and Leisure.

in a wide variety of expensive, prestigious, and sometimes decadent leisure activities. The Meaning of Leisure: Six Views (cont’d) Leisure as unobligated time –Time free from work or work-related responsibilities. –Excludes time devoted to essential life- maintenance activities and other obligations. –Contemporary Americans feel increased time pressure. The Meaning of Leisure: Six Views (cont’d) Leisure as activity –Leisure closely related to recreation and activity. –Makes little allowance for low/


Transforming ‘Elderhood’ ‘Rethinking community, service provision & the life choices available in the UK for senior & those with care needs’ Presentation.

life choices available in the UK for senior & those with care needs’ Presentation by Andy Steele Salford Housing & Urban Studies Unit & The Fortunae Group North West Regional Housing Learning & Improvement Network Introduction Audit Commission (2004) report ‘A fundamental shift is needed in the way we think about older people, from dependency and/of care, support, leisure & housing Integral part/Identifying internationally ‘what works & why’ Inter-agency collaboration – flexible working practices Redefining ‘/


The Active Corporate Card Offered By;. The Active Corporate Card Cardiff Council is the County’s biggest leisure provider – which means that one of.

leisure provider – which means that one of our facilities is always close at hand. The Active Cardiff Corporate Card is available at a 25% reduced rate – costing an employee £25.50 per month. This is based on a ‘price for life’/Handle Stress Longer Working Life Healthier Retirement The Active Corporate Card Basic administration; A minimum of 7employees must sign up for the scheme. The organisation nominates an administrator to help co-ordinate the scheme. Employees will sign individual agreements and pay by /


Leisure and Recreation. Lesson aims – 1.1 Consider what is actually meant by leisure time. 1.2 Consider the choices individuals have about how they make.

Consider the link between recreation and leisure, and the benefits to be gained by being active for life. Leisure Leisure time is quite simply the time when you can choose what you want to do. You have to establish some sort of balance in your life as there is a certain amount of time when you have to sleep, eat, maintain good hygiene, work or go to school/


Developed in partnership with: Bringing learning to life.

: The importance of participation in sport and active leisure Foundation Topic 6: Working with specific populations in sport and active leisure Higher Topic 2: Encouraging participation in Sport/Active Leisure Higher Topic 8: Access for all in sport and active leisure Advanced Topic 8: Promoting opportunities for all in the sport and active leisure industry Advanced Topic 9: Developing community cohesion through sport and active leisure Principal learning: Line of Learning Criteria/


Social tourism and well-being: a case study of the Family Holiday Association Scott McCabe

definitions (Farquar 1995) Most often assessed through an assessment of satisfaction with a range of domains of life (Health, housing, education, work/employment, leisure, social life) Objective and subjective measures overlap in some aspects. happiness Most often measured by a variant of Bradburns (1969) affect balance scale Presence of positive and absence of negative affect Doesnt help answer the cognitive components of SWB SWB Meaning in/


Sinan YILDIRIM Hacettepe University School of Sport Sciences and Technology 1.

and Economy Nowadays sports and economy are integrated each other and cant be thought distinct. After industrial revolution economical improvements of people, more leisure time, big organizations, education role of sports, requirement of sports in daily life and/ and coaches who work for youth and sport directorship. Recreation planner who work for official institutions (jails, hospitals, schools…) 22 Scientific Refereed Journal Leisure Studies Leisure Sciences Managing Leisure Journal of Leisure Research/


MONDAYTUESDAYWEDNESDAYTHURSDAYFRIDAYSATURDAYSUNDAY 10:00 – 12:00 PACE Oak Park Leisure Centre 10:15 – 11:00 Willenhall Memorial Park Walk 10:15 – 11:00.

The programme is designed to reduce your risk of falling, by using exercises that work on balance, strength, stamina, posture, mobility and co-ordination. Refreshments are available at some sessions. There is a charge to/Leisure Development Services on 01902 605500 to book an appointment. There is a charge to attend this session. Fun 4 Life is a weight management programme for young people in Walsall between the ages of 8 and 16. The programme is aimed at individuals and their families who are overweight and/


Stress Management For Clients and Their Counselors

and polarized thinking, or magnifying one aspect of situations emotional awareness and regulation developing creative problem solving goal setting and plans for a personal and cultural identity Work and Leisure satisfaction at challenges of task completion and quality of work a sense of competency balancing work and relaxation (doing versus being) Work and Leisure Leisure/ The Most Important Factor: Social Support Systems Personal life/family/friends Community involvement Colleagues What social supports do/


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