Download ppt on soil erosion and conservation

Back to home page What is the History of the Field Research Station, and what is it presently like?

as representative for the series. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Elkmound and Plainfield soils. Also included are some areas of slightly steeper Plainbo soils. Runoff is medium, and the erosion hazard is moderate. This soil is subject to soil blowing. Management practices are needed to conserve moisture, maintain plant cover, and control erosion and soil blowing. Most areas of this soil have been used for crops in the past/


Conservation Choices 30 Environmental Farming Practices That Protect Water Quality and Conserve Natural Resources Recommended by USDA NRCS, Soil and Water.

a year. An overflow pipe is installed through the dam to control the water level and allow water to spill through the dam without causing erosion. How it helps. Prevents soil erosion and protects water quality by collecting and storing runoff water. Provides water for livestock, fish and wildlife, and recreational opportunities. Adds value and beauty to a farm or farmstead. Provides a water supply for emergencies such as/


This lecture will help you understand: The relationship between soils and agriculture Fundamentals of soil science Soil erosion and degradation Principles.

This lecture will help you understand: The relationship between soils and agriculture Fundamentals of soil science Soil erosion and degradation Principles of soil conservation The green revolution Pest management Pollination Genetically modified food Preserving crop diversity Feedlot agriculture and aquaculture Sustainable agriculture Pre-activity Read the “No-till” policy in place in Brazil – What is the biggest reason they needed this policy? – Explain how it works – Does this work /


Soil Characteristics, Degradation, and Conservation.

land- use. Shelterbelt A plantation usually made up of trees and shrubs to protect against wind and prevent soil erosion. Tillage The agricultural preparation of soil by ploughing, ripping, or turning it. Different levels of tillage: –Intensive: leaves 15% or less of crop residue in the soil –Reduced: leaves 15%-30% of crop residue in the soil. –Conservation: Leaves a minimum of 30% of crop residue in the/


South Dakota Conservation Districts Continuing Education Module 5: Legal Responsibilities of a Supervisor.

districts. These are SDCL 38 ‑ 7 (Division of Resource Conservation and Forestry), 38 ‑ 8 (Conservation Districts) and 38 ‑ 8A (Soil Erosion and Sediment Damage Control).  It was not until 1982 that all areas of the state were covered by conservation districts.  These districts were developed as “Soil Conservation Districts”, later expanded to “Soil & Water Conservation Districts, then in 1968 changed to “Conservation Districts” to represent their wide range of responsibilities. Legal Responsibilities/


Employing Conservation Tillage Practices Employing Conservation Tillage Practices.

organic matter content near the surface of the soil. Conservation tillage reduces water and wind erosion by at least 40 to 50 percent. This practice also improves organic matter content near the surface of the soil. Conservation tillage has its advantages and disadvantages when compared to conventional tillage. Conservation tillage has its advantages and disadvantages when compared to conventional tillage. Soil prepared by conservation tillage tends to be cooler than clean/


Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture prepared by Jay Withgott Scott Brennan Jay Withgott 6 Soils,

future of food Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings This lecture will help you understand: Soil science fundamentals Soil erosion and degradation Soil conservation policies Pest management and pollination Genetically modified food and preserving crop diversity Feedlot agriculture and Aquaculture Organic agriculture Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Central Case: No-Till Agriculture in Brazil Southern Brazil’s farmers were suffering/


Chapter 8 Land Resources and Uses. Wapusk National Park Just southeast of Churchill MB Just southeast of Churchill MB Wild and remote landscape Wild and.

for 10–15 years Receive subsidy Receive subsidy Reduced soil erosion Reduced soil erosion Wildlife habitat Wildlife habitat Soil Conservation Policies Consider a career as a remediation specialist Consider a career as a remediation specialist Be involved in the planning of removing contamination from soil, groundwater, and other natural sites Be involved in the planning of removing contamination from soil, groundwater, and other natural sites Eco Canada Career Focus Case/


Chapter 18 Land Resources. Overview of Chapter 18 o Land Use World land use World land use US land use US land use o Wilderness Park and Wildlife Refuges.

grown during a season Soil Conservation o Terracing: reduces erosion on steep slows Retains water and controls runoff Retains water and controls runoff Good choice for mountains Good choice for mountains Soil Conservation o Contour Farming – on gentle sloping land Plowing and planting crops in rows across rather than up and down the slope Plowing and planting crops in rows across rather than up and down the slope Soil Conservation o Strip Cropping/


TO SCREW UP (AND FIX) THE SOIL Mrs. D. Withering Crops.

% of the land in Burkina Faso was said to be degraded But agricultural yields have increased due to soil and water conservation Bad Soil: Erosion Erosion: the process of soil and humus particles being picked up and carried away by water and wind Occurs any time soil is bared and exposed Soil removal may be slow and gradual (e.g., by wind) or dramatic (e.g., gullies formed by a single storm) Vegetative cover/


Residual/Transported Soils, Erosion, and Erosion History.

NRCS) within the Dept. of Agriculture to conserve the nation’s soils. The government created the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) (now the NRCS) within the Dept. of Agriculture to conserve the nation’s soils. The NRCS maps and surveys soil to plan methods of soil conservation. The NRCS maps and surveys soil to plan methods of soil conservation. http://soils.usda.gov/ http://soils.usda.gov/ http://soils.usda.gov/ Erosion History: Late 1900’s Modern technology has/


Chapter 12 Soil Resources. Soil Problems o Soil Erosion Def: wearing away or removal of soil from the land Def: wearing away or removal of soil from the.

a series of different crops in the same field over a period of years It lessens insect damage and disease, helps retain essential nutrient minerals, decrease erosion, and helps maintains soil fertility It lessens insect damage and disease, helps retain essential nutrient minerals, decrease erosion, and helps maintains soil fertility Soil Conservation o Contour Plowing Plowing around hill instead of up-down Plowing around hill instead of up-down Decreases/


Energy Resources Energy is used for domestic purpose, agricultural purpose, production of industrial goods and for the transportation purpose. In fact.

of vegetation, which increase the effect of climatic agent. Overgrazing accounts for 35% of world’s soil erosion while deforestation is responsible for 30% and unsuitable method of farming cause 28% of soil erosion. Soil conservation Practices: To conserve the soil following practices are employed: 1)Conservational till farming: In traditional method of ploughing, top soil is broken up and smoothed to make a seed planting surface, which make it susceptible to/


Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Slides prepared by Jay Withgott and Heidi Marcum Copyright © 2008.

remove fewer trees over longer periods of time -Minimizes soil erosion Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings U.S. programs promote soil conservation Food Security Act of 1985: Farmers that adopt soil conservation plan receive price supports and other benefits Conservation Reserve Program (1985) -Farmers are paid to place highly erodible land into conservation reserves -Trees and grasses are planted instead of crops -Saves 771 million/


Agricultural Productivity Growth and Environmental Externalities “Can Soil Conservation Practices Increase Upland Farm Productivity?” Agnes C. Rola, Asa.

likely during the base year than later years. In-Situ Impact of Technology Adoption (Soil Erosion) on Upland Farm Productivity All production inputs have the right signs and directly related to production Adoption of soil conservation increases production implying that controlling erosion increases productivity among upland farms In-Situ Impact of Technology Adoption (Soil Erosion) on Upland Farm Productivity Drought dummy for (1997=8;others=0) drastically reduced/


Residual/Transported Soils, Erosion, and Erosion History.

(SCS) (now the NRCS) within the Dept. of Agriculture to conserve the nation’s soils. The government created the Soil conservation Service (SCS) (now the NRCS) within the Dept. of Agriculture to conserve the nation’s soils. The NRCS maps and surveys soil to plan methods of soil conservation. The NRCS maps and surveys soil to plan methods of soil conservation. Erosion History: Late 1900’s Modern technology has allowed the U.S. to increase/


Soil conservation practices Contents Soil conservation practices Soil conservation practices Crop rotation Crop rotation Wind break Wind break Cover.

Soil conservation practices Contents Soil conservation practices Soil conservation practices Crop rotation Crop rotation Wind break Wind break Cover crop and mulching Cover crop and mulching Conservation tillage Conservation tillage Residue management Residue management Grassed waterways Grassed waterways Buffer strips Buffer strips Diversion terraces Diversion terraces Erosion prevention Erosion prevention Soil conservation practices What is soil conservation? What is soil conservation? Soil conservation /


This lecture will help you understand: The relationship between soils and agriculture Fundamentals of soil science Soil erosion and degradation Principles.

This lecture will help you understand: The relationship between soils and agriculture Fundamentals of soil science Soil erosion and degradation Principles of soil conservation The green revolution Pest management Pollination Genetically modified food Preserving crop diversity Feedlot agriculture and aquaculture Sustainable agriculture Pre-activity Read the “No-till” policy in place in Brazil – What is the biggest reason they needed this policy? – Explain how it works – Does this work /


Weathering and Erosion Section 4 Section 4: Erosion Preview Key Ideas Erosion Soil Erosion Soil Conservation Gravity and Erosion Erosion and Landforms.

Weathering and Erosion Section 4 Section 4: Erosion Preview Key Ideas Erosion Soil Erosion Soil Conservation Gravity and Erosion Erosion and Landforms Weathering and Erosion Section 4 Key Ideas Define erosion, and list four agents of erosion. Identify four farming methods that conserve soil. Discuss two ways that gravity contributes to erosion. Describe the three major landforms shaped by weathering and erosion. Weathering and Erosion Section 4 Erosion When rock weathers, the resulting rock particles do not/


You have learnt from the lessons in the earlier Modules that soil properties influence soil health. These soil properties in turn are affected by the agricultural.

practices that harm the soil structure; Conserving the soil from erosion and other soil degrading effects; Adopting integrated nutrient and pest management practices, Rectifying soil problems like acidity and alkalinity. Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics Course on Soil and Soil Health Module III: Soil Health Management Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics Lesson 3: Conserving the soil from degrading effects Course on Soil and Soil Health Module III: Soil Health Management After successful/


How does soil erosion and quality effect your life?

used for purposes other than its best use is likely to experience more soil loss.  A conservation practice is a structure, measure, or activity that protects, enhances or manages soil and other resources. Conservation practices range from simple to complex.  Some soil conservation practices are:  1. Terracing is the use of terraces to reduce soil erosion. A terrace is a long ridge of earth that follows the contour of/


Food, Soil, and Pest Management Chapter 12. Soil: the foundation for agriculture  Land devoted to agriculture covers 38% of Earth’s land surface  Agriculture.

several methods  Removing plants accelerates erosion  Rill erosion moves the most topsoil, followed by sheet and splash forms of erosion  Water erosion occurs most easily on steep slopes  Erosion in the U.S. declined between 1982 and 2001 Soil conservation measures Despite conservation measures, the U.S. still loses 6 tons of soil for every ton of grain harvested Various types of soil erosion Splash Sheet Rill Gully Soil erosion is a global problem  Humans/


Food, Soil, and Pest Management Chapter 12. Soil: the foundation for agriculture  Land devoted to agriculture covers 38% of Earth’s land surface  Agriculture.

several methods  Removing plants accelerates erosion  Rill erosion moves the most topsoil, followed by sheet and splash forms of erosion  Water erosion occurs most easily on steep slopes  Erosion in the U.S. declined between 1982 and 2001 Soil conservation measures Despite conservation measures, the U.S. still loses 6 tons of soil for every ton of grain harvested Various types of soil erosion Splash Sheet Rill Gully Soil erosion is a global problem  Humans/


12 Soil and Agriculture CHAPTER. Possible Transgenic Maize in Oaxaca, Mexico In 2001, genetically modified (GM) transgenes were found in native Oaxacan.

them on publicly owned land. Ranching is the raising and grazing of livestock. Overgrazing causes and worsens many soil problems. Range managers encourage grazing limits and enforce them on publicly owned land. Lesson 12.2 Soil Degradation and Conservation Forestry Practices Lesson 12.2 Soil Degradation and Conservation Forestry practices, such as clear-cutting, can increase erosion. Today, practices that reduce soil erosion, such as selective logging, are increasingly common. Forestry practices, such/


Entire Year Environmental Review. SUSTAINABLE To use resources in such a way as to meet needs now and provide for needs in the future. Without depleting.

order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act 1935 Secretary of Agriculture conducts soil erosion surveys and prevention measures Soil Conservation Service to conduct these activities Emphasis was given to engineering operations, methods of cultivation, growing of vegetation and other land uses as preventative measures. Subsequent amendments set goals of decreasing soil erosion and maintaining the navigability of rivers. Amendments authorized the/


Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Soil and Its Uses Chapter 13 14 th Edition A Study of Interrelationships.

have been leached B horizon, which accumulates materials leached from above C horizon, which consists of slightly altered parent material. Soil erosion is the removal and transportation of soil by water or wind. Proper use of conservation practices such as contour farming, strip farming, terracing, waterways, windbreaks, and conservation tillage can reduce soil erosion. Land unsuitable for crops may be used for grazing, lumber, wildlife habitats, or recreation. 50


Mt Kenya University EGE 412: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION Credit Hours: 3 Pre-requisites: EGE 122 and EGE 222 George Eshiamwata.

services: the services provided by the environment/ecosystem and ecological processes including regulation of water flows and maintenance of water quality, the formation of soil, prevention of soil erosion, and nutrient cycling that maintains soil fertility, degradation of wastes and pollution, pest and pathogen control, pollination and climate regulation through carbon storage and sequestration Environmental issues Environmental conservation maintenance of the environment, maintenance of the habitat/


Chapter 15 Soil Resources

condition Change in vegetation changes climate, further decreasing precipitation levels Soil Conservation Conservation Tillage Crop Rotation Residues from previous year’s crops are left in place to prevent soil erosion Includes no tillage Crop Rotation Planting a series of different crops in the same field over a period of years Lessens pest and insect disease Soil Conservation Contour Plowing Strip Cropping Terracing Plowing around hill instead of up/


Chapter 14: Food & Soil Resources

control Integrated pest management Irrigation efficiency Perennial crops Crop rotation Use of more water- efficient crops Soil conservation Subsidies for more sustainable farming and fishing Increase Soil erosion Soil salinization Aquifer depletion Overgrazing Overfishing Loss of biodiversity Loss of prime cropland Food waste Subsidies for unsustainable farming and fishing Population growth Poverty Decrease Solutions Sustainable Agriculture Sustainable Agriculture Waste les food Reduce or eliminate meat/


Soil Erosion Peter Kinnell

= R K LS C P A = Long term average annual soil loss (~ 20 years) caused by sheet and rill erosion R = rainfall-runoff (erosivity) factor [CLIMATE] K = soil (erodibility) factor ● LS = topographic factors (L re slope length S re slope gradient) C = crop/crop management factor [VEGETATION] P = soil conservation practice factor Universal Soil Loss Equation Soil Loss = f (climate, soil, topography, landuse) A = R K LS C P Developed/


Land Use & Soil Erosion Agriculture = dominant land use Urban Sprawl = new land use threat Excessive soil erosionsoil components moved to new location.

organic matter, reduce erosion Erosion Factors (water) 3)Topography Slope grade and length Controlling Water Erosion of Soil clean tillage: crop residues turned into soil soon after harvest; often fall plow 1)contour farming 2)Strip cropping 3)Terracing 4)Gully reclamation 5)Conservation tillage 6)Cropland Reduction Programs Moldboard Plow Contour Farming Farming perpendicular to slope (across slope) -- Jefferson Reduces water runoff (65%), erosion, and siltation Link to/


2011 PE Review: Michael C. Hirschi, PhD, PE, D.WRE Professor and Assistant Dean University of Illinois

Topography – Slope length – Steepness Management – Reduce local erosion – Change runoff path – Slow and spread runoff => deposition USLE/RUSLE A = R * K * LS * C * P A = average annual soil erosion (T/A/Y) R = rainfall erosivity (awful units) K = soil erodibility (awful units) – R * K gives units of T/A/Y LS = topographic factor (dimensionless) C = cover-management (dimensionless) P = conservation practice (dimensionless) USLE/RUSLE – background Empirical approach/


WATER CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES. Water conservation “ The conservation treatment meant to reduce or prevent sheet erosion while achieving.

penetration into soil and conserve soil moisture ► To control runoff and soil erosion. Planting grass on risers. Planting grass on risers. The planting of suitable grasses on the risers of bench terraces. Objective. To prevent soil erosion from the risers and to maintain the stability of the terraces. Cover crops ► Plants which are grown to cover the surface of the ground with dense foliage, to control soil erosion and improve the soil. Objectives Objectives/


EEP 101/econ 125:Market for Environmental services (ES) and poverty DAVID ZILBERMAN.

of U,S. Agriculture is excess supply. Another problem has been soil erosion. Conservation programs traditionally paid farmers to take erosive land out of production The biggest program of U,S. Agriculture is excess supply. Another problem has been soil erosion. Conservation programs traditionally paid farmers to take erosive land out of production Conservation programs are “Green” policies, and are looked favorably by international trade agreements aimed to reduce farm/


Chapter 18 Land Resources and Conservation Mojave Desert.

and Conservation Harvesting Practices Clearcuttin’ Phil says “Clearcutting is the cheapest method!” Land Use in the Natural Areas Provide habitat, flood & erosion control, & groundwater recharge.Provide habitat, flood & erosion control, & groundwater recharge. Natural areas also break down pollutants and recycle wastes.Natural areas also break down pollutants and recycle wastes. Provide recreation (camping, hiking, fishing)Provide recreation (camping, hiking, fishing) Deforestation Increased loss of soil/


Food, Soil, and Pest Management

we produce food more sustainably? Section 10-6 How can we produce food more sustainably? Reduce soil erosion Soil conservation involves using a variety of ways to reduce soil erosion and restore soil fertility, mostly by keeping the soil covered with vegetation. Some of the methods farmers can use to reduce soil erosion: Terracing and contour planting are ways to grow food on steep slopes without depleting topsoil. Strip cropping involves planting/


Soil and Agriculture 12 CHAPTER

Practices Ranching is the raising and grazing of livestock. Lesson 12.2 Soil Degradation and Conservation Ranching Practices Ranching is the raising and grazing of livestock. Overgrazing causes and worsens many soil problems. Range managers encourage grazing limits and enforce them on publicly owned land. Lesson 12.2 Soil Degradation and Conservation Forestry Practices Forestry practices, such as clear-cutting, can increase erosion. Today, practices that reduce soil erosion, such as selective logging, are/


Zambia Field Study An Evaluation of Social, Economic and Environmental changes on a village level.

indicator of soil erosion High Erosion Some Erosion Protection High Erosion Protektion Erosion control in the Study Area The Kaioozi camp conservation farming techniques are practiced in order to control erosion : 1.Simple Conservation Farming - SCF 2.Vetiver Conservation Farming - VCF 3.Agroforestry Conservation Farming – ACF Simple Conservation Farming Vetiver Conservation Farming Agroforestry Conservation Farming Cajanus Cajan Field Methods - Visible Signs of Erosion Denuded Pebbles Rills and Gullies/


Soil Erosion and Land Tenure Regularization in Rwanda: A historical perspective Alfred R. BIZOZA (PhD) Director of Research, IPAR- Rwanda Associate Professor.

Rwanda 4. After 1994  In the post 1994 period, the state focused more than before on bench terraces and conservation objectives became closely linked to attaining food self-sufficiency and exporting cash crops,  Experts supports bench terraces as an effective way to combat soil erosion and to maintain water and soil nutrients but if well maintained.  However, terracing huge investments in inputs like fertilizers which farmers often find/


FWM 203 PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION IN TROPICAL AFRICA DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY.

.Coastal Erosion 3.Riverine Erosion 4.Sheet Erosion 5.Gully Erosion EFFECTS OF EROSION 1.It renders farmland barren. Imo State, Abia, Enugu, Cross river. 2.It can result in desertification 3.Siltation of water courses and breeding site of aquatic animals 4.It causes overall reduction in water quality of creeks, river and coastal areas 5.It removes top soil that is rich in nutrient and organic matter CONSERVATION/


Water Conservation Starts with YOU! Jed Rau, Conservation Technician Lord Fairfax Soil and Water Conservation District.

tractor stuck or losing productive acreage Agricultural Water Conservation Practices Cropland Water Conservation Streambank stabilization – stream eroding into crop fields? Pull the bank back, shape, add appropriately sized rip-rap, plant strip of grass 35’ wide between crops and altered stream bank. This reduces both damaging erosion and runoff from field into stream. Nutrient Management Planning – take soil tests regularly (at least once every three years/


Geology: Processes, Hazards, and Soils G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 10 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment.

the land to remain with crops residues and cover vegetation without disturbing the topsoil.  Conservation tillage: disturb soil as little as possible while planting crops. Minimum tillage and no-till farming allow for the land to remain with crops residues and cover vegetation without disturbing the topsoil.  Soil Conservation: reducing soil erosion and restoring soil fertility. Most often done by keeping the soil covered. Solutions: Soil Conservation  Cropping methods: various cropping methods are used/


REVISED UNIVERSAL SOIL LOSS EQUATION-Version 2 Predicting Soil Erosion By Water: A Guide to Conservation Planning RUSLE2.

EQUATION-Version 2 Predicting Soil Erosion By Water: A Guide to Conservation Planning RUSLE2 UNIT 1 Course Objectives and Topics OBJECTIVES n Understand erosion processes n Learn RUSLE2 and its software n Learn field office applications of RUSLE2 UNIT 2 Overview of Erosion OVERVIEW OF EROSION n Definition of erosion n Erosion processes n Types of erosion n Why erosion is a concern n Uses of erosion prediction tools EROSIONErosion is a process of/


SOIL EROSION on PEI THE DIRTY FACTS. WHAT IS SOIL EROSIONSoil Erosion is.. ▸ The process of soil particles being carried away by the natural processes.

long slopes into a series of shorter ones. – Diversion terraces will transport substantial amounts of runoff and must be permanently vegetated. CONSERVATION PRACTICES STRUCTURAL CONTROLS ▪Hedgerows - are treed windbreaks that protect fields from wind erosion. ▸ They control soil erosion by reducing wind speed at ground level and by trapping snow, leaving soil less exposed during the winter months. ▪Buffer Strips - refers to a permanent vegetated zone bordering/


Soil, Agriculture, and Future of Food Chapter 7. Chapter outline Feeding 7 Billion-Agriculture Practices, Past, Present and Future Soil-Structure, Formation,

): rows of trees planted along edges of fields –Slows the wind –Can be combined with intercropping Conservation tillage: reduces the amount of tilling –No-till farming disturbs the soil even less Conservation tillage saves soil Increases organic matter and soil biota –Reducing erosion and improving soil quality Stores carbon in the soil and reduces fossil fuel use Conservation tillage is used on 40% of U.S. farmland Minimizes increased use of herbicides/


Food, Soil, and Pest Management Chapter 10. WHAT IS FOOD SECURITY AND WHY IS IT DIFFICULT TO ATTAIN? Section 10-1.

in synthetic pesticides exported to other countries can return to the exporting countries on imported food. Reduce soil erosion Soil conservation involves using a variety of ways to reduce soil erosion and restore soil fertility, mostly by keeping the soil covered with vegetation. Some of the methods farmers can use to reduce soil erosion: –Terracing and contour planting are ways to grow food on steep slopes without depleting topsoil. –Strip cropping involves/


1 Some people working in the field (such as Stocking (1985)) have stated that the only long term solution to soil erosion is vegetative protection & fertility.

0.5% N, 0.3% P, 0.3% K);  changes in physical properties of soil due to organic matter which :  increases rainfall infiltration (and so decreases runoff and erosion);  increases water holding capacity and aeration,  improves structure (and so decreases susceptibility to soil crusting);  use as surface mulch to depress weed growth and conserve soil moisture;  can act as delivery agent for microbial control of pests (e.g. - citrus in/


Land and Human Populations. MUCH OF JAMAICA’S LAND MASS IS CONSIDERED AS ONE LARGE WATERSHED. -Watersheds are also called drainage basins or catchment.

grown in harmony with the environment - Health of humans and livestock important - Environment important - Workers important - e.g. Organic agriculture Sustainable Agriculture Cont’d Includes the use of: - Companion cropping/mixed farming - Soil conservation (preventing soil erosion) - Addition of organic matter - Use of alternatives to pesticides Soil Conservation Methods -methods used to: ◦ reduce soil erosion ◦ prevent depletion of soil nutrients ◦ restore nutrients -most methods involve keeping the/


Agriculture and Society Chapter 4 Lesson 4.3. Theme Outline Lesson 4.3 Lesson 4.3 Farming MethodsFarming Methods Preparing the LandPreparing the Land.

, bacteria, as well as plants, insects, and vertebrates Soil contains microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, as well as plants, insects, and vertebrates Healthy soil is vital to healthy crop production Healthy soil is vital to healthy crop production Soil Formation Soil conservation is critical to successful agriculture. Soil conservation is critical to successful agriculture. Soil erosion involves the loss of the ability of land to support crops Soil erosion involves the loss of the ability/


CONTROLLING EROSION ON THE FARM Soils Ag I. Objectives*  Explain how land capability classes relate to wise soil use  Describe the main vegetation methods.

that is economically practical for crop production and aids in soil and water conservation  Techniques differ across the country  Common techniques  Minimum tillage  No till  Zero till  Stubble plant  Chisel plowing  Lot planting  Strip tilling Advantages  Less energy and time are required as the amount of tillage is decreased  Soil moisture levels increase with the increased soil organic-matter level  Soil erosion is better controlled Disadvantages  Increase in weed/


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