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Oxidation-Reduction Alexander Darmanin, Marcus Pabian & Lyn Cheah.

Number 3, pg. 351 – 369. References Zoller, U. (1990). Comments and criticism Students’ misunderstandings and misconceptions in college freshman chemistry (General and organic). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Volume 27, Number 10, pg. 1053 – 1065. Weblinks: AUS-e-tute n.d. (2011). Chemistry tutorial: Oxidation and reduction. Retrieved from: http://www.ausetute.com.au/redox.html Bodner Research Lab (2011). Oxidation and reduction. Retrieved from: http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/


Chapter 17: Alcohols and Phenols Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition ©2003 Ronald Kluger Department of Chemistry University of Toronto.

an alkoxide such as NaH, sodium amide NaNH 2, and Grignard reagents (RMgX) Alkoxides are bases used as reagents in organic chemistry Based on McMurry, Organic Chemistry, Chapter 17, 6th edition, (c) 2003 16 /Organic Chemistry, Chapter 17, 6th edition, (c) 2003 53 Summary -Alcohols Synthesis Reduction of aldehydes and ketones Addition of Grignard reagents to aldehydes and ketones Protection of OH as TMS) ether Reactions Conversion to alkyl halides Dehydration Oxidation Based on McMurry, Organic Chemistry/


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condition may exist Fe 3+ + e - Fe 2+ Insoluble Fe(III) Soluble Fe(II) epilimnion Hypolimnion – anoxic due to O 2 consumption by organic matter Redox Chemistry in Natural Waters The pε Scale Oxidation and reduction are controlled by the activity of electrons which are present: pε = - log 10 {e - } Low pε (large {e - }) means electrons are available (reducing environment) High pε (small {e - }) means electrons/


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Water Stability – Natural Waters Surface water Ocean water Bog water Organic rich lake water Organic rich waterlogged soils Organic rich saline water Copper Pourbaix Diagram Oxidized Species E Independent acid and base chemistry Predominant species pH dependent redox pH independent redox Reduced Species Copper Pourbaix Diagram Aqueous species Stability field for passivating film Equilibrium between species in contact with a solid Equilibrium between species Natural pH Stability/


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look at Figure 4.12 on p. 145. Applications of Oxidation and Reduction Everyday life: to clean (bleach) our clothes, sanitize our swimming pools (“chlorine”), and to whiten teeth (peroxide). In foods and nutrition: redox reactions “burn” the foods we eat; antioxidants react with undesirable free radicals. In industry: to produce iron, steel, other metals, and consumer goods. Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry Potassium dichromate Initially the solution turns the orange of Cr2O72/


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Learning. All Rights Reserved “The greater the difficulty, the more glory in surmounting it “The greater the difficulty, the more glory in surmounting it. Skillful pilots gain their reputation from storms and tempests” Epictetus Objectives Explain the difference between organic and inorganic chemistry Discuss the different forms of matter: elements, compounds, and mixtures Explain pH and the pH scale Describe oxidation and reduction (redox) reactions LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?) As a professional/


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name is 1,3-dihydroxypropanone. The common names for these and other monosaccharides, however, are so firmly rooted in the literature of organic chemistry and biochemistry that they are used almost exclusively to refer to these compounds. Therefore, throughout our discussions of the chemistry and biochemistry of carbohydrates, we use the names most common in the literature of chemistry and biochemistry. Chemists commonly use two-dimensional representations called Fischer projections/


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of separations from other actinides Formation of Am and Cm metallic state and properties Number of phases, melting points Compounds Range of compounds, limitations on data Solution chemistry Oxidation states Coordination chemistry Organic chemistry reactions Questions What is the longest lived isotope of Am? Which Am isotope has the highest neutron induced fission cross section? What are 3 ligands used in the separation of Am? What are the/


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. ( b ) (a) one-phase (b) two-phase (c) three-phase (d) no-phase SURFACE CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 8 Introduction -Adsorption is the phenomenon of concentration or assimilation of a gas or liquid on the surface of a solid or/in water). The titrant is a ligand. Here, EDTA is a hexadentate ligand and forms complex with Ca2+. Indicator used in this titration is also a ligand. In this particular case, the indicator is Eriochrome Black-T (EBT, an organic dye). Redox Titrations Titrations involving oxidationreduction/


29. The Organic Chemistry of Metabolic Pathways Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition ©2003 Ronald Kluger Department of Chemistry University.

cycle are given in Figure 29.6 This cycle of reactions converts acetyl CoA to two equivalent of CO 2 and CoA with transfer of energy to numerous acceptors and formation of reduced coenzymes Based on McMurry, Organic Chemistry, Chapter 29, 6th edition, (c) 2003 44 The Cycle Requires Oxygen Oxidizing coenzymes NAD + and FAD are needed for key reduction steps The reduced coenzymes NADH and FADH2 are reoxidized/


Chapter 19. Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions

19, 6th edition, (c) 2003 Mechanism of the Wittig Reaction Based on McMurry, Organic Chemistry, Chapter 19, 6th edition, (c) 2003 19.13 The Cannizzaro Reaction: Biological Reductions The adduct of an aldehyde and OH can transfer hydride ion to another aldehyde C=O resulting in a simultaneous oxidation and reduction (disproportionation) Based on McMurry, Organic Chemistry, Chapter 19, 6th edition, (c) 2003 The Biological Analogue of the Canizzaro Reaction/


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12 Organic Molecules — Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Polysaccharides 13 Organic Molecules — Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Polysaccharides 14 Organic Molecules — Lipids Triglycerides Phospholipids Sterols 15 Organic Molecules — Lipids 16 Organic /Chemistry and Microbiology Charges on Molecule/ pH Polarity of Molecule/Hydrophobicity RedOx/electron transfer 28 Change in pH effects charges 29 Like dissolves Like Nonpolar molecules 30 How Soap Works 31 ReDox (Reduction Oxidation) 32 ReDox (Reduction Oxidation/


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O W:+6 0 H: 0 +1 6 e - transfer from 3H 2 to W Chapter 8. (L31)-Oxidation and Reduction Hydrogen: An important reductant..Hydrogen can also reduce many organic compounds Example: C 2 H 4 + H 2 = C 2 H 6 ethylene ethane C:-2 -3 H:/the negative to induce reaction on a light-sensitive paper to obtain the pictures. Chapter 8. (L31)-Oxidation and Reduction Antioxidants..In food chemistry, certain reducing agents are called antioxidants. Example: ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is used to react with oxygen to avoid /


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to an oxidation Redox reactions in organic chemistry  The inter conversions of alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes and carboxylic acids and of alcohols and ketones, each achieved by successive insertion of oxygen, correspond to oxidative processes (oxidation numbers -3  -1  +1  +3 and 0  + 2). Redox reactions in organic chemistry  The types of reagents that are commonly encountered and capable of facilitating oxidations and reductions are indicated in Figs. Redox reactions in organic chemistry  Not all/


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KMnO 4 is the strongest oxidizing agent and can be used in acidic, neutral or alkaline medium Other oxidizing agents: Tollens’ reagent, Fehling’s reagent, ozone Oxidation New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 3B11 37.2 Interconversions of Functional Groups of Organic Compounds (SB p.125) 1.Mild Oxidation by Potassium Manganate(VII) Under mild oxidation by alkaline KMnO 4, alkenes are oxidized to diols Potassium Manganate/


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1 Fuel Cycle Chemistry Chemistry in the fuel cycle §Uranium àSeparation àFluorination §Fission products Advanced Fuel Cycle §Fuel development §Separations.

2 Reduction UF 4 U metal UF 6 HNO 3 Solvent extraction purification HF Mg MgF 2 F2F2 10 Fuel Fabrication Enriched UF 6 UO 2 Calcination, Reduction /chemistry Oxidation states §Am (3-6) àAm 3+, AmO 2 +, AmO 2 2+ can be made àAm 4+ rapidly disproportionates in solution except concentrated fluoride or phosphate §Cm (3 and 4) àCm 4+ is a strong oxidizing agent àCm 4+ can be stabilized in high fluoride concentrations forming CmF 5 - or CmF 6 2- 34 Trivalent State In solution forms §Carbonates §Hydroxides §Organic/


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8) Oxidation and Reduction (Half Reactions, Cells, etc.)Oxidation and Reduction 9) Organic Chemistry (Hydrocarbons, Families, Reactions)Organic Chemistry Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff The Atom 1) NucleonsNucleons 2) IsotopesIsotopes 3) Natural RadioactivityNatural Radioactivity 4) Half-LifeHalf-Life 5) Nuclear PowerNuclear Power 6) Electron ConfiguationElectron Configuation 7) Development of the Atomic ModelDevelopment of the Atomic Model Mark Rosengarten and Susan Katzoff Nucleons - particles in the/


1/13/2015 1 George Mason University General Chemistry 211 Chapter 4 Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions Acknowledgements Course Text: Chemistry:

Oxidation-Reduction (REDOX) Reactions  Movement of Electrons  Redox Terminology  Oxidation Number  Balancing Redox Equations  Redox Titrations Elements in Redox Reactions Reaction Reversibility and the Equilibrium State 1/13/2015 4 Water as a Solvent Nearly all reactions in the environment and, especially in organisms, take place in/ of SO 4 2- ions 1/13/2015 91 Quantitative Analysis Analytical chemistry deals with the determination of composition of materials – that is, the analysis of materials /


Alcohols and Phenols. Based on McMurry, Organic Chemistry, Chapter 17, 6th edition, (c) 2003 2 Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols contain an OH group connected.

strong base to form an alkoxide such as NaH, sodium amide NaNH 2, and Grignard reagents (RMgX) Alkoxides are bases used as reagents in organic chemistry 16 Phenol Acidity Phenols (pK a ~10) are much more acidic than /functional groups This makes alcohols useful in synthesis 20 Review: Preparation of Alcohols by Regiospecific Hydration of Alkenes Hydroboration/oxidation: syn, non-Markovnikov hydration Oxymercuration/reduction: Markovnikov hydration Based on McMurry, Organic Chemistry, Chapter 17, 6th edition,/


Based on McMurry, Organic Chemistry, Chapter 19, 6th edition, (c) 2003 1 Chapter 19. Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions Based on McMurry’s.

, 6th edition, (c) 2003 42 Mechanism of the Wittig Reaction Based on McMurry, Organic Chemistry, Chapter 19, 6th edition, (c) 2003 43 19.13 The Cannizzaro Reaction: Biological Reductions The adduct of an aldehyde and OH  can transfer hydride ion to another aldehyde C=O resulting in a simultaneous oxidation and reduction (disproportionation) Based on McMurry, Organic Chemistry, Chapter 19, 6th edition, (c) 2003 44 The Biological Analogue of the/


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1 Chapter Eighteen General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry Hall © 2005 Prentice Hall © 2005 Electrochemistry Chapter Eighteen.

solution turns blue from copper(II) ions formed. 5 Chapter Eighteen General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry Hall © 2005 Prentice Hall © 2005 In any oxidationreduction reaction, there are two half- reactions: –Oxidation: a species loses electrons to another species. (LEO) –Reduction: a species gains electrons from another species. (GER) Both oxidation and reduction must occur simultaneously. –A species that loses electrons must lose them to/


General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.1 Chapter 13 Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols 13.4 Reactions of Alcohols.

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.8 Oxidation and Reduction In the oxidation of an organic compound,  there is an increase in the number of C—O bonds  there is a loss of H In the reduction of an organic compound,  there is an decrease in the number of C—O bonds  there is a gain of H General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.9 Oxidation and Reduction (continued) General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright/


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Chemistry (Formula Mass, Gas Laws, Neutralization, etc.) Math of Chemistry 6) Kinetics and Thermodynamics (PE Diagrams, etc.)Kinetics and Thermodynamics 7) Acids and Bases (pH, formulas, indicators, etc.)Acids and Bases 8) Oxidation and Reduction (Half Reactions, Cells, etc.)Oxidation and Reduction 9) Organic Chemistry (Hydrocarbons, Families, Reactions)Organic Chemistry/halide compounds: 2 Na + Cl 2  2 NaCl 4 Only found in compounds in nature 4 Have 7 valence electrons 4 Gain 1 valence electron from a /


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CVEN 5424 Environmental Organic Chemistry Lecture 24 – Redox Reactions: Reduction Announcements  Reading  Chapter 14, Sections 14.1-14.3  Problem sets  PS 8 due today  PS / peroxide, peroxy)  nitrate NO 3 -  Fe(III) and Mn(IV) (aqueous and mineral)  sulfate SO 4 2-  disinfection  hypochlorous acid HOCl, chloramine H 2 NCl, ozone O 3  “wet” oxidation  persulfate (S 2 O 8 2- ), S(VI)  permanganate (MnO 4 - ), Mn(VII) oxidation of organic contaminants reduction of oxidants O 2 (g) + 4 H + + 4 e - /


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Oxidation-Reduction Titrations PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY PHC 213 1.

blue (ox.). PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY PHC 213 33 PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY PHC 213 34 4. Irreversible Redox Indicators In acid solutions, methyl orange is red. Addition of strong oxidants (Br 2 ) would destroy the indicator and thus it changes irreversibly to pale yellow colour Some highly coloured organic compounds that undergo irreversible oxidation or reduction Methyl Orange PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY PHC 213 35 Properties of Oxidizing Agents 1. Potassium permanganate/


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reduced state than it is in the oxidized state: (Fe 2 O 3 ).  The oxidation of an organic molecule can result in iron, existing as a solid iron oxide mineral (Fe 2 O 3 ), being reduced and there4 dissolve in the water as the reduced form (Fe 2+ ). JC Ngila, UKZN, Chemistry Westville Durban. ngila@ukzn.ac.za 198 Streams and Lakes  The composition of stream and lake water varies from/


10. Alkyl Halides Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition ©2003 Ronald Kluger Department of Chemistry University of Toronto.

proceeds through trialkylcopper intermediate McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition, Chapter 10 (c) 2003 22 10.10 Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry In organic chemistry, we say that oxidation occurs when a carbon or hydrogen that is connected to a carbon atom in a structure is replaced by oxygen, nitrogen, or halogen Not defined as loss of electrons by an atom as in inorganic chemistry Oxidation is a reaction that results in loss of electron density at/


Hall © 2005 Prentice Hall © 2005 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry Chapter Four 1 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions.

: redox reactions “burn” the foods we eat; antioxidants react with undesirable free radicals. In industry: to produce iron, steel, other metals, and consumer goods. Applications of Oxidation and Reduction Hall © 2005 Prentice Hall © 2005 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry Chapter Four 42 Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry Potassium dichromate Ethanol Initially the solution turns the orange of Cr 2 O 7 2– After a while the alcohol/


Lecture Chapter 1: Matter and Change

Chapter 12: Solutions Chapter 13: Ions in Aqueous Solutions and Colligative Properties Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Chapter 15: Acid-Base Titration and pH Chapter 16: Reaction Energy Main Menu Lecture Chapter 19: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 17: Reaction Kinetics Chapter 18: Chemical Equilibrium Chapter 19: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 20: Electrochemistry Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 22: Organic Chemistry Chapter 23: Biological Chemistry Main Menu Visual Concepts Chapter 1: Matter/


Chapter 20: Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition ©2003 Ronald Kluger Department of Chemistry University of.

Chapter 20: Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition ©2003 Ronald Kluger Department of Chemistry University of Toronto Based on McMurry, Organic Chemistry, Chapter 20, 6th edition, (c) 2003 2 The Importance of Carboxylic Acids (RCO 2 H) Starting materials for acyl derivatives (esters, amides, and acid chlorides) Abundant in nature from oxidation of aldehydes and alcohols in metabolism Acetic acid, CH 3 CO 2 H/


WWU -- Chemistry How Do You Hydrate a Double Bond? The problem with this approach is that yields are low, and carbocation rearrangements can complicate.

. Hydroboration, and the reagents that have been developed from these basic methods, have been very useful in the synthesis of important organic compounds, including pharmaceuticals. WWU -- Chemistry Hydroboration has also been used to develop new chemical reagents. Among these are: “Super Hydride” (lithium triethylborohydride) -- a very powerful reducing agent “Selectride” (lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride) -- a very stereoselective reducing agent. Reductions with Selectride give a predominance/


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vascular plants serve as living substrates for microbial activity, which removes BOD and nitrogen, and achieves reductions in phosphorus, heavy metals and some organics through plant uptake. The basic function of the macrophytes in the latter mechanism is to assimilate, concentrate and store contaminants on a short-term basis. Subsequent harvest of the plant biomass results in permanent removal of stored contaminents from the pond treatment system. Diunduh dari/


10. ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION AND BIOGEOCHEMISTRY

in the dissolution of a solid mineral are H2O, H+, OH-, ligands (surface complex building), and reductants and oxidants (in the case of reducible or oxidizable minerals). Thus the reaction occurs schematically in/influence on soils, streams, and lakes. Organic nitrogen is mineralized to ammonium in forest soils, and the ammonium undergoes nitrification, releasing/base cation uptake by trees, nitrogen transformation reactions, and equilibrium soil chemistry under steady-state conditions. The model has not been/


Redox of Natural Waters Redox largely controlled by quantity and quality (e.g. reactivity) of organic matter Redox largely controlled by quantity and quality.

results from microbes (bacteria, archea etc). Oxidation of organic carbon also generates electrons: Oxidation of organic carbon also generates electrons: Because no free /and Mn) reduction Common in groundwater where metal oxides concentrated. Rare in surface water Common in groundwater where metal oxides concentrated. Rare in surface water Fe 2+ commonly precipitates as carbonate or sulfide depending on solution chemistry Fe 2+ commonly precipitates as carbonate or sulfide depending on solution chemistry/


Oxidation-Reduction Reactions” LEO SAYS GER Pre-AP Chemistry Charles Page High School Stephen L. Cotton.

the Lion! LEO the lion says GER –Loss of electrons is oxidation, gain of electrons is reduction LETS LOOK AT HALF REACTIONS Oxidation and Reduction (Redox) Each sodium atom loses one electron: Each chlorine atom gains one electron: LEO says GER : LEO says GER : Lose Electrons = Oxidation Sodium is oxidized Gain Electrons = Reduction Chlorine is reduced General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 Identify each of the/


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) solution with anodic oxidation àAg 3 PO 4 and (NH 4 ) 4 S 2 O 8 àCarbonate solution with electrolytic oxidation 15-4 Am solution chemistry Am(V) §Oxidation of Am(III) in near neutral solution àOzone, hypochlorate (ClO - ), peroxydisulfate àReduction of Am(VI) with/solubility examined 1mM Am 3+ ; 1 mM Am, 1 mM carbonate 15-10 Am solution chemistry: Organics Number of complexes examined §Mainly for Am(III) Generally stability of complex increases with coordination sites With aminopolycarboxylic acids, /


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the need for waste reduction in fine chemicals was not widely appreciated. A second, underlying, reason is the more or less separate evolution of organic chemistry and catalysis. Fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals have remained primarily the domain of synthetic organic chemists who, generally/73, 9482–9485 Y. Imada, H. Iida, T. Naota, J. Am Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 14544-14545 Mechanism For oxidative cleavage of Hydrazine hydrate using Flavin Catalyst Y. Imada, H. Iida, T. Naota, J. Am Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, /


© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Organic Chemistry 6 th Edition Paula Yurkanis Bruice Chapter 20 More About OxidationReduction Reactions.

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Organic Chemistry 6 th Edition Paula Yurkanis Bruice Chapter 20 More About OxidationReduction Reactions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Oxidation is always coupled with reduction. Loss of electrons is oxidation. Gain of electrons is reduction. The oxidation state of a carbon atom equals the total number of its C—O, C—N, and C—X bonds. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Reduction at carbon increases the/


Sample Exercise 4.1 Relating Relative Numbers of Anions and Cations to Chemical Formulas The accompanying diagram represents an aqueous solution of either.

for Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Continued Comment The substance oxidized is the aluminum metal because its oxidation state changes from 0 in the metal to +3 in the cation, thereby increasing in oxidation number. The H+ is reduced because its oxidation state changes from +1 in the acid to 0 in H2. Practice Exercise 1 Which of the following statements is true about the reaction between zinc and copper sulfate? (a) Zinc is oxidized, and/


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Review Organic Chemistry Chemistry 203. Goal of atoms Filled valence level Noble gases (Stable) Bonding 1.Ionic bonds 2. Covalent bonds.

Organic Chemistry Chemistry /of benzene 1. Halogenation: Cl and Br react rapidly with benzene in the presence of an iron catalyst. 2. Nitration: Chemical properties of benzene In presence of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid, one of the/Oxidizing agent Liquid aldehydes are sensetive to oxidation. No oxidizing agent Chemical properties of Aldehydes and Ketones 2. Reduction: Like reducing the alkene (C = C) to alkane (C – C): –Reduction of an aldehyde gives a primary alcohol (-CH 2 OH). –Reduction/


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