Most under canopy/at canopy edge Focus on seed **dispersal** Survival higher away from canopy Focus on seed **dispersal** Why? 1) Rodent predation greater under canopy Focus on seed **dispersal** Why? 2) **Dispersed** more likely near opening created by death **of** shrub Many chaparral shrubs re-sprout after fire, including Fremontodendron Resprouting Fremontodendron Focus on seed **dispersal** **Measure** distance each seedling to nearest: –Re-sprouting shrub –Dead/

. December, 11th 2008 Workshop on Emittance Diagnostics 21 1.Interceptive techniques: slits, pepper-pot masks –Performed in a **dispersive** location –Spatial and energetic contribution is separated 2.Non-interceptive technique: –**Measurement** **of** the beam size in a **dispersive** section –If emittance contribution is negligible compared to **dispersion** contribution: –Way to continuously verify that energy spread is below the requirement –Maximum energy resolution for small beam/

ungrouped and grouped data, we can use a calculator to find the mean and the standard deviation. 21.3 Standard Deviation The following table summarizes the advantages and disadvantages **of** the three different **measures** **of** **dispersion**. **Measure** **of** **dispersion** Advantage Disadvantage 1. Range Only two data are involved, so it is the easiest one to calculate. Only extreme values are considered which may give a misleading impression/

in the market (approved method) Provides direct **measurement** **of** Chromatic **Dispersion** Accurate **measurements** Higher dynamic range: 55 dB (with 0dB laser power) High repeatability Can **measure** over non-bi-directional components (EDFA, filters…) Differential Phase Shift Method Drawbacks The phase **of** the pulse is sensitive to temperature, **dispersion** value, modulation frequency and wavelength step. The combination **of** the modulation frequency, **dispersion** and the wavelength step can result in a/

IBD Slope to **Measure** **Dispersal** Palumbi 2003 (Ecol. App.) -Simulations can predict the isolation-by-distance slope expected for a given average **dispersal** distance (Palumbi 2003 Ecol. Appl., Kinlan and Gaines 2003 Ecology) Palumbi 2003 - Simulation Assumptions Palumbi, 2003, Ecol. App. 1. Kernel 3. Effective population size 2. Gene flow model N e = 1000 per deme Linear array **of** subpopulations Probability **of** **dispersal** Distance from source/

data values is. Basic Business Statistics, 11e © 2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc.. **Measures** **of** **Dispersion** Variation Standard Deviation Coefficient **of** Variation Range Variance **Measures** **of** variation give information on the spread or variability or **dispersion** **of** the data values. Same centre, different variation Basic Business Statistics, 11e © 2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc.. **Measures** **of** **Dispersion**: The Range Simplest **measure** **of** **dispersion** Difference between the largest and the smallest values: Range = Xlargest – Xsmallest/

inequality in top half. The above for broad PP. Preliminary estimations suggest similar results for narrow PP. Effect **of** PP on wage **dispersion** 27 Conclusions PP receipt falls for women and is stable for men between 1998 and 2008 True for broad and narrow **measures** **of** PP Robust to controls for demographic and job traits Positive selection into PP on ability (observed and unobserved/

about skills, gender and part- time/full-time workers at the firm level. Increased wage **dispersion** might be due to: Changes in the composition **of** workers in the firm Higher female participation Larger share **of** part-time workers –We use remuneration instead **of** hourly wages –Analysis **of** TFP: we do not **measure** all inputs properly –Using employer-employee data on Norway we can deal with some/

in x ( i.e., a **measure** **of** the Gaussian profiles spread in the x dimension- symmetrically on either side **of** the peak - at a fixed time) [L2]. By anaolgy to the C(x’,t) expression: In other words if we **measure** the spread (standard deviation) **of** the response curve (**of** a spike input) we should be able to compute the **dispersion** coefficient for the reactor. There are/

in Grenoble area **Dispersion** **of** Rayleigh waves - Sedimentary basin - **Measurement** by LGIT **Measurement** by BRGM Wave length **of** Rayleigh waves - Sedimentary basin - **Measurement** by LGIT **Measurement** by BRGM **Dispersion** and Wave-length **of** Rayleigh waves - Rock site - **Dispersion** curve Wave-length **Dispersion** and Wave-length **of** Love waves - Rock site - **Dispersion** curve Wave-length **Dispersion** and Wave-length **of** Rayleigh waves - Microtremors - **Dispersion** curve Wave-length Comparison **of** wave-lengh **of** observation with ESG/

thus expensive instrumentation Key instrument specifications: 0.05 to 80 ps range Short **measurement** time, < 30 s Accurate to 1% High dynamic range, 50 dB NetTest PMD 440 PMD Analyser **Measuring** Chromatic **Dispersion** Number **of** different techniques, phase shift method is one **of** the best Very important for DWDM systems, Impact **of** chromatic **dispersion** rises with bit rate and channel count Key instrument specifications: 1310 nm and/

? 75% 88.9% Coefficient **of** Variation 12.3 – **Measures** **of** **Dispersion** Coefficient **of** Variation The coefficient **of** variation expresses the standard deviation as a percentage **of** the mean. It is not strictly a **measure** **of** **dispersion** as it combines central tendency and **dispersion**. For any set **of** data, the coefficient **of** variation is given by for a sample or for a population. Example: Comparing Samples 12.3 – **Measures** **of** **Dispersion** Coefficient **of** Variation Example: Comparing Samples Compare/

.com Analytical Common Species Methods –––––––––––––––––– Sulfur Dioxide NOx CO Oxygen Ammonia Mercury H2S CO2 VOC’s SO2 www.isa.org mip.cemtrex.com Sulfur Dioxide One **of** the most common combustion processes **measurements** inmeasurements inall MethodTechniqueTechnologyAdvantagesAdvantagesDisadvantages Non-**Dispersive** Infrared (NDIR) Hot Wet ex-situ Cold dry ex-situ In-situ Beer Lambert Law Filter photometer Simple, proven, Cost-effective Multi-component Interference (water/

energy) and matter (molecules, atoms, or ions) Spectrometry - Quantitative **measurement** **of** the intensity **of** one or more wavelengths **of** radiant energy Spectrophotometry - The use **of** electromagnetic radiation to **measure** chemical concentrations (used for absorption **measurements**) DEFINITIONS Spectrophotometer - Instrument used for absorption **measurements** Optical Spectrometer - Instrument that consists **of** prism or grating **dispersion** devise, slits, and a photoelectric detector Photometer - Instrument that uses a/

strongpoint is considerably different from that for a sector defense. Battle positions and strongpoints are restrictive **measures** which limit maneuver. Reduced **dispersion** will create shorter interval evacuation lines and a more centralized, controlled medical operation. The reduced **dispersion** also creates increased risk **of** high casualty rates. Evacuation out **of** a BP or strongpoint may be difficult or temporarily impossible. c. Covering Force Support. (1) Problem/

satisfy redundant data provide updated initial conditions, IMU error parameters, and covariance 8 Initial conditions IMU error parameters Statistical analysis **of** Landing location FADS pressures Altimetry **Measurement** space Representative **of** true and unknowable ICs, IMU parameters, and uncertainties NC STATE UNIVERSITY INSTAR Results: IC & IMU **Dispersions** 9 **Dispersed** initial state to within given uncertainties, 10,000 cases (Gaussian distribution), 26 valid trajectories within 150 m/

LOCO (Linear Optics from Closed Orbits) Adjusts the linear parameters in the model to fit real machine data. Data used: corrector orbit response and **dispersion** response. Model response – **Measured** machine response = Error Minimise error by adjusting a set **of** model parameters. Fit Parameters normally include: – BPM/Corrector gains and coupling – Corrector gains and coupling – Quadrupole strengths – Skew Quadrupole strengths 20/10/20107Eugene Tan/

is replaced with a large aperture that holds a detector or transducer that is continuously exposed tn the entire spectrum **of** **dispersed** radiation. spectrometer :is an instrument that provides information about the intensity **of** radiation as a function **of** wavelength or frequency. PRINCIPLES **OF** FOURIER TRANSFORM OPTICAL **MEASUREMENTS** 7I Fourier Transform (FT) The instruments we have been talking about work over the frequency domain (we are/

probability distribution above the mean or above zero is not included in this meaning **of** risk **Dispersion** Meaning **of** Risk **Dispersion** **of** a probability distribution is a **measure** **of** how far apart or **dispersed** the outcomes are. Variance is one **measure** **of** **dispersion** (also, standard deviation, etc.) Which bet is more risky in this sense? – Win $1 or lose $1 on a coin toss – Win $10 or lose $10 on a/

which populations can differentiate) Avian **dispersal** Definition **of** **dispersal** ‘natal **dispersal**’: **measured** by the linear distances between natal and first breeding sites ‘breeding **dispersal**’: **measured** by the distances between the breeding sites **of** successive years ‘non-breeding **dispersal**’: **measured** by the distances between the wintering sites **of** successive years natal **dispersal** generally involves much larger distances than the other types Avian **dispersal** Definition **of** **dispersal** species generally form pairs on/

&P ratings define credit risk as likelihood **of** default and associated financial loss No mention **of** **dispersion** **of** outcomes or concave Bernoulli functions Fisher 1959: Chances **of** default and marketability **of** bonds explained 75% variation in yield Altman 1989: Realized yields net **of** defaults increase with lower rating for all except B and CCC bonds; not explained by **dispersion** **measure** **of** risk Empirical Failure **of** EU48 Moody’s Ratings(2012, p/

upstream “dead volume” volume flow rate = ? Peclet Number Ratio **of** advection to **dispersion** how far does advection carry the fluid/width **of** tracer plume High Peclet means primarily advection (_______________) Low Peclet means lots **of** mixing plug flow Characterize a Tank: Tracer Studies Tracers Desirable properties Candidates **Measuring** techniques Choosing a tracer concentration **Measurement** range Interferences Density matching Pulse vs. Step Requires design calculations! Crucial/

sources (from ring.. QM7...) –Consider mis-matches from ring Include beta matching procedure in sim Look further at 2 skewQ performance. Consider alternate approaches –Single-step coupling correction? –Alternate method **of** **dispersion** **measurement** (without ring E-ramp)? FFS Orbit-Steering Goal: to provide initial orbit steering in FFS and maintain with FB Several orbit-steering methods have been developed and are ready for/

16 (12am-8am) 8 hours Our program: 0) preparation 1)commissioning **of** our new software for the on-line; orbit response **measurement** (SYSID) 2)**dispersion** response **measurement** and orbit control excitation (SYSID+ 1:1 steering) 3)orbit correction and **dispersion** correction (take proof-**of**-principle plots) (BBA) 4)orbit correction and **dispersion** correction with emittance **measurement** (BBA+emittance **measurement**) 9 SCP, SLAC Control Program SLC, SLAC Linac facet_getMachine(); facet_setMachine/

16 (12am-8am) 8 hours Our program: 0) preparation 1)commissioning **of** our new software for the on-line; orbit response **measurement** (SYSID) 2)**dispersion** response **measurement** and orbit control excitation (SYSID+ 1:1 steering) 3)orbit correction and **dispersion** correction (take proof-**of**-principle plots) (BBA) 4)orbit correction and **dispersion** correction with emittance **measurement** (BBA+emittance **measurement**) 11 SCP, SLAC Control Program SLC, SLAC Linac facet_getMachine(); facet_setMachine/

, France Acknowledgements : A. S. Müller, P. Castro Introduction / I 2 This lecture is an introduction to the most commonly used methods to **measure** the key parameters **of** an accelerator lattice. The lattice parameters that will be covered are : **Dispersion** function Twiss parameters: –Betatron function , –Phase advance , –Betatron function dericative = (1+d /ds)/2. The errors on and are frequently referred to as/

below have the same mean and median (7). Find the range **of** each set. Range **of** Set A: 12.3 – **Measures** **of** **Dispersion** Range 13 – 1 =12 Range **of** Set A:9 – 5 =4 One **of** the most useful **measures** **of** **dispersion** is the standard deviation. 12.3 – **Measures** **of** **Dispersion** Standard Deviation It is based on deviations from the mean **of** the data. Find the deviations from the mean for all data values/

independant, then the covariance is equal to 0 Descriptive and inferential statistics Position parameters: Mean Mode Mediane **Dispersion** parameters: Standard deviation Variance Maximum Minimum Coefficient **of** variation Covariance Coefficient **of** correlation Covariance **measures** the degree **of** dependance **of** two variables: Are the values **of** each **measurement** drift independantly away from the centre **of** gravity, or are they drifting away together? If x and y are independant, then the covariance/

well in both UV and Vis. - It should also be appreciated that the **dispersion** **of** a prism is nonlinear since it is dependent on wavelength. (**Dispersion** increases for shorter wavelength) 37 - Prisms are very good wavelength selectors in the / accelerated to other more positive dynodes and thus huge amplification **of** signal results (~10 6 electrons for each photon). 94 95 96 Disadvantages: -Photomultiplier tubes are limited to **measurement** **of** low radiant power radiation since high radiant powers would damage the/

a 16% trimmed mean to mitigate the effects **of** extremes in its analysis **of** the Consumer Price Index. 4A-43 Variation is the “spread” **of** data points about the center **of** the distribution in a sample. Consider the following **measures** **of** **dispersion**:Variation is the “spread” **of** data points about the center **of** the distribution in a sample. Consider the following **measures** **of** **dispersion**: StatisticFormulaExcelProCon Rangex max – x min =MAX(Data)- MIN/

use an evolution equation for the population density p(x,y,t), Mathematical Model **Dispersion** kernels (1) Assess how the use **of** different **dispersion** kernels may modify the speed **of** the propagating front. Apply **dispersion** kernels obtained from real **dispersion** data on human populations 3 and check the consistency **of** the results with the **measured** front speed for the Neolithic transition. The logistic growth 4 is well-known/

in the sample. **Measures** **of** dispersionMeasures **of** **dispersion** In a normal distribution 68% **of** individuals will fall between –1 and +1 SD 95% **of** individuals will fall between –2 and +2 SD 99% **of** subjects will fall between –3 and +3 SD. **Measures** **of** dispersionMeasures **of** **dispersion** The standard deviation is related to the variance. The standard deviation is the square root **of** the variance **Measures** **of** dispersionMeasures **of** **dispersion** The normal distribution **of** large samples (>30/

Validate turbulence characteristics from the COSMO model To use: turbulence **measurement** campaign (LITFASS-2003) Validate simulated concentrations To use: tracer experiment (TRANSALP) 5 High resolution COSMO runs for **dispersion** applications in complex terrain Balázs Szintai (balazs.szintai@meteoswiss.ch) LITFASS-2003 **Measurement** campaign conducted in the area **of** Lindenberg Main goal: **measurement** **of** turbulent fluxes in an inhomogeneous terrain Case study: 2003-05-30 : convective/

in Excited Vibrational States **of** Polyatomic Molecules William F. Polik Department **of** Chemistry Hope College Holland, MI, USA Outline Background **Measurement** –**Dispersed** Fluorescence Spectroscopy –H 2 CO, HFCO, and D 2 CO Results Modeling –Anharmonic Multi-Resonant Hamiltonian –Polyad Quantum Numbers Computation –Spectroscopically Accurate Calculations Applications BACKGROUND Potential Energy Surfaces The PES is a description **of** total molecular energy as a function **of** atomic arrangement Chemical/

B. This provided us a better sampling than what was previously obtained with the slit/pinhole masks. The **measured** geometric distortions in the **dispersion** (X) and the cross-**dispersion** directions (Y) are shown in Figures 4 and 5. As can be seen by the histogram distribution **of** the identified line separations in Figure 6, we obtained a good sampling over the whole detector. Since/

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS –**Measures** **of** **Dispersion**” 4.0 **Measures** **of** **Dispersion** **Measures** **of** **Dispersion** – Describe how far individual data values have strayed from the mean (average) – The ways to **measure** the **dispersion** **of** our data are range, variance (sample & population) and standard **of** deviation. 3.0 **Measures** **of** **Dispersion** RANGE 1.The simplest **measure** **of** **dispersion** and is calculated by the difference between the highest value and the lowest value in the data set. 2.The range **of** a sample is/

Copyright © 2014 by Nelson Education Limited. 3-12 Variation Ratio (v) is one **of** only a few **measures** **of** **dispersion** for nominal-level variables. v provides a quick, easy way to quantify **dispersion**. Variation Ratio is simply the proportion **of** cases not in the modal category. That is: v has a lower limit **of** 0.00 (no variation/all cases are in the mode) and increases to/

zones. Additionally, the OPFOR makes extensive use **of** passive air defense **measures**, including C 3 D, maneuver, and **dispersal** throughout the support zone. Movement. The OPFOR /**of** **dispersion** is that the enemy attack should not destroy two adjacent units simultaneously. A maximum **of** one-third **of** a unit should be vulnerable to a single precision weapon attack. TRADOC DCSINTTSP FM 7-100.1, Chapter 9, Air Defense Support Previous SlideStart **of** Presentation 55 Other Survivability **Measures** 9-108. Other **measures**/

KEX1 steers vertically? inferred roll is ~100 mrad (!) … or something else? 15th ATF2 Project Meeting, January 24 2013 M. Woodley20/44 BS3X Skew Quadrupole (?) Issues: origin **of** observed anomalous vertical **dispersion** in EXT/FF? – **measured** vertical **dispersion** in DR at extraction point is small we have had problems with BS3X in the past – BS3X had to be physically rolled ~ -4 mrad (March 17, 2010/

would be Max - Min = 9 - 2 = 7 units. 3.Sometimes, rather than reporting the range, researchers will simply report the Max & Min scores. **Dispersion** 1.Now, let’s consider the standard deviation, which is the most commonly used **measure** **of** **dispersion** (i.e., the counterpart to the mean). 2.Potential Pop Quiz Question: What information does the standard deviation provide, in your own words/

22 Scan across width Ionization from 50 m collimated x-ray spot. 2x6 mm 2 pads PRF – is a **measure** **of** signal amplitude as a function **of** cluster position. (Ar+10%CO2) 22 January 2010 Madhu Dixit 17 Charge **dispersion** signal for a GEM Simulation versus **measurement** (Ar+10%CO2) (2 x 6 mm 2 pads) Collimated ~ 50 m 4.5 keV x-ray spot/

**of** melting point temperature and the heat **of** melting; **measurement** **of** the glass transition temperature; curing and crystallization studies; and identification **of** phase transformations. To determine specific heat capacity, a baseline is established by **measuring** the temperature difference **of**/separated. Coagulation methods 1. Removing water by evaporation 2. Freezing **of** **dispersion** 3. Change in acidity 4. Creating **of** non-dissociating salts 5. Using **of** thermosensibilizers 3. 4. 5. WEB FORMING METHODS Wet-laid /

the order in which specific fibre types are traversed [136]). Different fibre types (standard single - mode fibre, **dispersion** - shifted fibre, **dispersion** - compensated fibre, etc.) respond very differently to non - linear impairments. A full treatment **of** non - linear constraints would be likely to require very detailed knowledge **of** the physical infrastructure, including **measured** **dispersion** values for each span, fibre core area and composition, as well as knowledge/

unduly affected by extreme observations. 5.Should be capable for further algebraic treatment. **Dispersion** Absolute **Measure** **of** **dispersion** expressed in the same unit in which data **of** series is given Relative **Measure** **of** **dispersion** expressed in the percentage or ratio. It is also called coefficient **of** **dispersion**. Methods **of** **Measurement** **Dispersion** 4 Individual series There are 3 main methods **of** **dispersion**- 1.Range 2.Interquartile range and quartile deviation 3.Mean Deviation Range-It is/

xiii] Std dev = 10.23 To be interpreted by looking at the range **of** the distribution Range = 31 – 1 = 30 (theoretical range = 100) CountryValue (%)Switzerland24 France23 Japan12 Cuba31 Guatemala11 USA23 China1 Descriptive stats: central tendency and **dispersion** [xiv] Two **measures** **of** distribution peakedness (kurtosis) symmetry/skewness Descriptive stats: central tendency and **dispersion** [xv] LeptokurticPlatykurtic Mesokurtic Negatively skewed Positively skewed Symmetrical Descriptive stats: central tendency and/

and reaches 0.4 m @ spectrometer screen “Alternative 2”: **dispersion** rises at chicane dipole and is lowered by spectrometer (depends on slope **of** **dispersion**) **dispersion** non-zero @ spectrometer slit “Alternative 1” “Alternative 2” 18 Bunch Length **Measurements** and Slice Diagnostics System for ELBE / SCRF Gun Comparison **of** alternative setups: **dispersion** and beta functions... continued scanning quad “Alternative 4b”: **dispersion** closed after arc for zerophasing, rising again at spectrometer/

the order in which specific fibre types are traversed [136]). Different fibre types (standard single - mode fibre, **dispersion** - shifted fibre, **dispersion** - compensated fibre, etc.) respond very differently to non - linear impairments. A full treatment **of** non - linear constraints would be likely to require very detailed knowledge **of** the physical infrastructure, including **measured** **dispersion** values for each span, fibre core area and composition, as well as knowledge/

the beam orbit b. Considering many BPMs and quadrupoles leads to linear system **of** equations [4]: DFS is applied to overlapping sections **of** the accelerator (36 for ML **of** CLIC). η 0 especially important for ILC: **dispersion** by design Before correctionAfter 3 iterationsAfter 1 iteration Beam profile **measurement** DFS verification at FACET/SLAC Emittance artificially increased (March 2013) Emittance fully recovered x: 43.2x10 -5 m/

) - BPM tilt < 10mrad We have beam based techniques for calibrating gain variation based on turn by turn position data Determining tilt from coupling **measurements** We are exploring a tuning scheme that depends on **measurements** **of** the normal modes **of** the **dispersion** rather than the horizontal and vertical and that is inherently insensitive to BPM button gain variations and BPM tilts. Low Emittance Tuning September 6/

Link with OADM Tx Rx DisCo Tx Rx DisCo OADMOADM OADM X All Optical Network Tx Rx Tx Lots **of** Feedback Loops …Amplifier Issues –**Measurement** accuracy –Signal reduction –Transient response Feedback & Control Lots **of** Feedback Loops … **Dispersion** Compensator Issues –Location –Accuracy –Signal reduction **Dispersion** Compensator **Dispersion** **Measurement** Lots **of** Feedback Loops … Pre-emphasis Shares OSNR, BER or received power equally among channels by adjusting transmit power with time/

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