Download ppt on indus valley civilization

Warm-Up List some things that you feel would be needed for a civilization to be successful…

writing Hieroglyphics: Egypt Cuneiform: Sumer Alphabet: Phoenicia The Fertile Crescent 4 Early River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) Egyptian Civilization - Nile River Harappan Civilization - Indus River Ancient China - Huang He (Yellow) River PP Design of T. Loessin/ book of Genesis as well as a “flood story” from India.  Tablet XI The Indus Valley civilization flourished around 2,500 B.C. in the western part of South Asia, in what today is Pakistan/


Museum Entrance Indus River Valley Egypt Chinese River Valley Welcome to the Museum of Ancient Civilizations. Curator’s Offices Rome Greece Mesopotamia.

due to its location. Its surrounding rivers provided water and fertile soil. Although its location did cause frequent flooding which forced the Indus people to build an irrigation system. Return to Exhibit Indus River Valley Map Linked citation goes here “River Valley Civilization.” Rivervalleycivilizations.com. N.D. Web. 11 Oct. 2011. Return to Exhibit Silk Cloth Silk was considered a delicacy and rare which made/


By: CZ World Studies A. The Geography of South Asia Main Idea: Geography helped shaped the development of the Indus Valley Civilization.

the world, with an annual average of 450 inches. B. The Indus Valley Civilization Main Idea: The Indus Valley civilization was the first great civilization of ancient India. B. The Indus Valley Civilization Farming and Trade – The Himalayas form a protective barrier from the /buried with their heads to the north.  The Decline and Disappearance of the Indus Valley Civilization  We still do not know why the Indus Valley civilization disappeared.  There may have been a sudden, catastrophic event or maybe a/


Chapter 3, Section Chapter 3 Early Civilizations in India (2500 B.C.–256 B.C.) World History: Connection to Today.

of Harappa Chapter 3, Section This map shows the layout of Mohenjo-Daro, one of the principal cities of the Indus Valley civilization. The larger eastern area contained the residential and commercial sections of the city, which were laid out in a grid/b) plain c) mountains d) plateaus Chapter 3, Section 1 Section 1 Assessment Which of the following is true about the Indus Valley civilization? a) Its people were monotheistic. b) Its people were polytheistic. c) Most people were merchants. d) Its people were /


Ancient India SWBAT: Explain features of the ancient Indus River Valley civilization.

within last 100 years, but still a work in progress Writing not deciphered yet -No names of kings, tax records, literature, famous victories, etc. We do know: Indus Valley civilization covered largest area of any civilization until the rise of Persia more than 1,000 years later!! Group Activity! Task… Topics: Geography City’s Structure/Layout Government Economy Religious Beliefs Decline/Disappearance Groups are/


INDUS RIVER VALLEY VIRTUAL TREASURE CHEST BY: DYLAN DRAPER, MORIAH HAIRSTON ALANNA HAIRSTON, PAYTON DONAVANT.

reproductions of art, books, games, videos and other objects to represent one of the ancient river civilizations. Our group chose the ancient Indus Valley Civilization (India). TYPE OF RESOURCE: BOOK ITEM LOCATION: http://www.amazon.comhttp://www.amazon.com ITEM PRICE/OVERVIEW: This poster illustrates the ruins of the Great Bath at Mohenjo-Daro. It shows the uniqueness of the Indus Valley Civilizations because it contained a complex system of drains and a sewage system. According to one scholar, "only the Romans/


Chapter 1: From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations, 8000-1500 B.C.E.

and may have been a nexus of trade in copper, tin, and precious stones from the northwest. 5. The Indus Valley civilization is characterized by a high degree of standardization in city planning, architecture, and even the size of the bricks. /ecological change. 2. Ecological changes that probably led to a decline in agricultural production and the eventual collapse of the Indus Valley civilizations include the drying up of the Hakra River, salinization, and erosion. When urban centers collapsed, so did the /


2 | 1 Map 2-1, p. 28 The First River-Valley Civilizations, 3500–1500 B.C.E.

and may have been a nexus of trade in copper, tin, and precious stones from the northwest. The Indus Valley civilization is characterized by a high degree of standardization in city planning, architecture, and even the size of the/ but the peasants probably adapted and survived. 2 | 44 Political and Economic Comparisons Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley civilizations all developed along river systems where they were assured an adequate water supply for agriculture. They all developed political /


Ancient India History & Geography Lesson 1

room, but some had multiple rooms and stories. Some contained inner courtyards and brick staircases that led to upper floors or roofs. Most buildings were made from baked bricks. Indus Valley Plumbing The Indus Valley Civilization was advanced in many ways: Plumbing – many homes were equipped with bathrooms including toilets and baths Houses received water from wells in their home’s courtyard or from a/


Ancient River Valley Civilizations

in back                                                                  Sumerian Economy Sumerians (Mesopotamians) were known to trade with the Egyptians, the Indus Valley civilizations and the Chinese. In later years, these trade routes became Silk Road. Sumerians invented the /system did Egypt have? Indus Valley civilization G:What modern day countries was the Indus Valley civ in? Indus River Valley This civ is still mysterious. The writing has not been translated. Indus River civilization We do know the/


THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION Early River Valley Civilizations: 3500 B.C.–450 B.C Chapter 2.

NEXT SECTIONMonsoons Seasonal winds—monsoons— dominate India’s climate Winter winds are dry; summer winds bring rain can cause flooding Environmental Challenges Floods along the Indus unpredictable; river canchange course Rainfall unpredictable; could have droughts or floods Indus Valley Civilization Influenced an area larger than Mesopotamia orEgypt  Earliest Arrivals About 7000 B.C., evidence of agriculture anddomesticated animals By about 3200 B.C., people/


INDIA AND CHINA RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS. OBJECTIVES WHI.3 Objective: The student will be able to demonstrate knowledge of ancient river valley civilizations,

two cultures Excelled at war Used chariot Eventually controlled all of India OBJECTIVES WHI.3 Objective: The student will be able to demonstrate knowledge of ancient river valley civilizations, including the Indus River, by: Locating the civilization in time and place Describing the development of social, political, and economic patterns, including slavery Explaining the development of religious traditions Explaining the development of language and/


Ancient India and China Indus and Huang He River Systems.

Deccan, and coastal plains. The rivers of India, particularly the Ganges, are considered sacred. What was the Indus valley Civilization like? Priest-King Rulers Well-organized government; carefully planned out cities with plumbing and sewer systems. They had/cotton. Traded with distant lands, including Mesopotamia. Ancient India and China Mrs. Sanchez World History What was the Indus valley Civilization like? They had a writing system that is still undeciphered. Most people were farmers. They were the first/


Old World Civilizations

the city of Harappa. Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were important centers of the Indus valley civilization. This Indus Valleycivilization” flourished around 4000-1000 B.C. Indus Economy Indus river valley people were mostly farmers. They grew crops like wheat and barley and domesticated animals like chickens. Inhabitants of the Indus valley traded with Mesopotamia, southern India, Afghanistan, and Persia for gold, silver, copper, and turquoise. Trade Economy/


Ancient River Valley Civs

Assyrian would take them over and then the Persians would take them over. Map Showing interaction of the Early River Valley Civilizations Economic Agrarian based as well as widespread use of domesticated animals; what were some examples? trade with the Egyptians and the Indus Valley civilizations. How would historians be able to determine that? What could trade between rival city-states help ensure? Map Showing/


Early Civilizations of India and Pakistan

found only rarely, usually on small clay seals that do not include any long passages Still, we do know that the Indus Valley civilization covered the largest area of any civilization until the rise of Persia more than 1,000 years later. We know, too, that its cities rivaled those of Sumer. Well-Planned Cities Reveal Organized Government Archaeologists’ investigations in /


Indus River Valley Civilization Indus River Valley Civilization.

decline: at first thought invaders NOW environmental changes - video Gradual decline: at first thought invaders NOW environmental changes - videovideo Roots of Indus Valley Civilization Earliest civilizations in Indus Valley was discovered in 1856 by a railroad crew. Earliest civilizations in Indus Valley was discovered in 1856 by a railroad crew. –Harappa –Mohenjo-Dara or “Hill of the Dead” –Both cities shared urban design and architectural features. –3 miles in/


The First River-Valley Civilizations, 3500–1500 b.c.e.

, astronomy, calendar making, irrigation, engineering and architecture, and transportation technology. III.The Indus Valley Civilization A.Natural Environment The central part of the Indus Valley area is the Sind region of modern Pakistan. –Adjacent related areas included the Hakra /a nexus of trade in copper, tin, and precious stones from the northwest. B.Material Culture The Indus Valley civilization is characterized by a high degree of standardization in city planning, architecture, and even the size of/


BR Solve analogy: –Mesopotamia : cuneiform = Egypt:_________ List an example of how the Egyptians achieved each of the 5 characteristics of advanced civilizations?

= Egypt:_________ List an example of how the Egyptians achieved each of the 5 characteristics of advanced civilizations? INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION OBJECTIVES Describe the impact of geography on the Indus Valley civilization. Describe Indus Valley cities and culture. List theories about the decline of the Indus Valley civilization. Geography of the Indian Subcontinent The Indus Valley is located on the subcontinent of India. Himalayas and Hindu Kush Mts. separate India from other lands. Three/


Indus River Valley Civilization. Question How did the cities along the Indus River Valley effectively confront the climatic and environmental challenges.

Similarity in housing indicates little differences between social classes. Religious objects and symbols clearly linked to Hinduism Do Now: What are 3 similarities and differences between the Indus River Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia? Ancient Egypt? Introduction The Indus Valley civilization flourished around 2,500 B.C. Located in western part of South Asia (modern day Pakistan and western India) It is often referred to as Harappan/


INDUS RIVER VALLEY CIV. 1.ABUNDANT FRESH WATER 2.MILD CLIMATE 3.FERTILE SOIL.

? Above: The Great Bath at Mohenjo-Daro. Surrounding pics: various Harappan artifacts. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Three theories about why the Indus Valley civilization ended around 1500 BCE? Harappans abandoning their city. The river may have changed course, natural disaster (caused by heavy monsoons) The people may have overworked the land (overcutting trees, overgrazed, /


Early River Valley Civilizations 3500 BC – 450 BC Ch 2.

BC cities were being built with levees to keep out flood waters Largest cities were Harrapa, Mohenjo-Daro, and Kalibangan Largest cities were Harrapa, Mohenjo-Daro, and Kalibangan Harrapan Civilization- Indus Valley Civilization Harrapan Civilization- Indus Valley Civilization Planned Cities One of the most remarkable achievements was the sophisticated city planning One of the most remarkable achievements was the sophisticated city planning Mesopotamia was a maze of winding/


Cradle of Civilizations (River Civilizations) Submitted by C. Stephen Ingraham 2012 17.

China Song 12.Ancient China -Xia & Shang Dynasties 13.Religious & Philosophical Thinking of China 14.India Song 15.Civilization of the Indus Valley 16.The Caste System & India’s Society 17.Religious & Philosophical Thinking of India The Stone Age Song Let’/life c) no education and couldn’t read or write d) narrow straight streets Civilization in the Indus Valley A.Settling the Indus Valley 1. On the Asia subcontinent the Indus River spreads muddy water each spring over it’s floodplain. 2. The earliest people/


Indus River Valley Civilization Directions: Using pages 170-174 in your text, the attached reading, and your own knowledge, classify the information about.

NOW environmental changes Gradual decline: at first thought invaders NOW environmental changes Final Collapse Aryans maybe – video Final Collapse Aryans maybe – videovideo Roots of Indus Valley Civilization Earliest civilizations in Indus Valley was discovered in 1856 by a railroad crew. Earliest civilizations in Indus Valley was discovered in 1856 by a railroad crew. –Harappa –Mohenjo-Daro or “Hill of the Dead” –Both cities shared urban design and architectural features/


2 Early River Valley Civilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C.

of laws for Babylonian Empire. 1027 B.C. Zhou dynasty forms in China. 3500 B.C. 450 B.C. 2660 B.C. Egypt’s Old Kingdom develops. 1550 B.C. Indus Valley civilization declines. City-States in Mesopotamia Key Idea 1 HOME 1 City-States in Mesopotamia MAP Key Idea Working together to overcome environmental challenges leads to the development of centralized government/


Indus Valley Civilization

individual walled cities, sharing common patterns of urban design. In terms of geographical extent this civilization was the largest in the world in its time. Roots of Indus Valley Civilization Roots of Indus Valley began as early as 7000 B.C.E. Possibly began as herders who moved into the river valley during colder months. Over time, they may have decided to farm – river-watered lands of/


Cities and Civilizations

winds—monsoons—dominate India’s climate • Winter winds are dry; summer winds bring rain can cause flooding Environmental Challenges • Floods along the Indus unpredictable; river can change course • Rainfall unpredictable; could have droughts or floods NEXT Civilization Emerges on the Indus Indus Valley Civilization • Influenced an area larger than Mesopotamia or Egypt Earliest Arrivals • About 7000 B.C., evidence of agriculture and domesticated animals • By about/


All about the Indus River Valley

1921 ruins were discovered for Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Record on timeline When did cities begin to develop in the Indus Valley? Question 9 When did cities begin to develop in the Indus Valley? When did the Indus Valley civilization flourish? Question 10 When did the Indus Valley civilization flourish? Technology 3 tab Cities were well planned Houses Math Wide straight streets built in a grid a pattern Built thick/


The Indus Valley civilization is sometimes referred to as the Harappan civilization because of the first city (Harappa) discovered here in the 1920s. TODAY’s.

(Harappa) discovered here in the 1920s. TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Locate the Indus Valley culture and examine the impact of its geography. List theories about the decline of the Indus Valley civilization. Describe the social and religious structure of the Shang Dynasty. Summarize the rise and fall of the Zhou Dynasty in China. 4 early River Valley Civilizations Ancient China - Huang He River PP Design of T. Loessin/


The Indus River Valley By: Mallie, Alexa, Alex, Ashley and Libbie.

plundered their prized cities, the land suffered from a drought, and trade with Egypt suffered. What natural disaster was one of the causes of the downfall of Harappan civilization? Drought Works Cited "Class System- Indus Valley." Period40910. Matthew, Towey & Krissy, n.d. Web. 12 Jan 2012.. Colaco, Jose. "The caste System of India." Colaco. The goan Forum, 11 January 2004. Web. 12 Jan/


Ancient Egypt and the Early River Valley Civilizations Borrowed from Mr. Loessin from Akins High School.

H.S. WARM-UP: Can you label the 4 early River Valley Civilizations on your map handout. Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) Egyptian Civilization - Nile River Harappan Civilization - Indus River PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. ENTER Harappan Civilization - Indus River http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/map06ind.htm The ruins of Mohenjo-Daro; Indus Valley The Indus Valley civilization flourished around 2,500 B.C. in the western part of/


Indus Valley Harappa Mohenjo-Daro.  Sophisticated urban centers  Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro  Dynamic trade state - trade with Mesopotamia and China.

in what is present day Pakistan.  It was named after the city of Harappa. Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were important centers of the Indus valley civilization.  This Indus Valleycivilization” flourished around 4000-1000 B.C. Aryan Migration  pastoral  depended on their cattle.  warriors  horse-drawn chariots. Varna (Social Hierarchy) Shudras Vaishyas Kshatriyas Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables Brahmins Sanskrit writing The /


Indus Valley  The Harappan culture existed along the Indus River in what is present day Pakistan.  It was named after the city of Harappa. Harappa and.

the city of Harappa. Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were important centers of the Indus valley civilization.  This Indus Valleycivilization” flourished around 4000-1000 B.C. Early Harappan-Ravi Phase 3300-2800 BC  This distinctive/This inscription (c. 3300 BC) appears to be three plant symbols. Ancient Indus Economy-Trade  The Harappan civilization was mainly urban and mercantile.  Inhabitants of the Indus valley traded with Mesopotamia, southern India, Afghanistan, and Persia for gold, silver, /


THE ANCIENT RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS. Let’s Review! Neolithic Revolution (~12,000 BC) Somehow Neolithic people learned how to plant and raise crops.

1550 – c. 1292 BC A Quick View of the 4 Ancient River Valley Civilizations Approximately 5000 years ago the first complex, politically centralized civilizations began independently 3200 B.C. various Sumerian cities dominated Mesopotamia 3100 B.C. The ruler-conqueror first united Egypt 3000 B.C. urbanized civilization existed along the Indus River 2200 B.C. Xia Dynasty the first of these dynasties Tigris-Euphrates/


Museum Entrance River Valley Civilizations Classical Civilizations Utopia Curator office Welcome to the Virtual Museum Of Ancient Civilizations.

city was left in complete ruin. The city was rediscovered in the 1920’s by R.D. Banerjee. Return to Exhibit Indus: Cities Linked citation goes here Like most of the other river valley civilizations, the Indus greatly depended on what their civilization name derives from- the river. The map on the right shows details about the geography and many of the once-great ancient/


Chapter 2: Early River Valley Civilizations 3500B.C. – 450 B.C. Section 3: Planned Cities on the Indus Aim: How did geography effect the Indus River Valley.

social scientist would have found this artifact? Archeologist Harappan Culture  Most of the people of the Indus valley were farmers. They were the first people to grow cotton and weave it into cloth.  There is early evidence of trade with other civilizations including Sumer. Aryans Take over Indus Valley  Just like not much is known about the development of this region, not much is known/


Chapter 3 River Valley Civilizations. Egypt Egypt: Gift of the Nile  The Nile River spans the length of Egypt from south to north.  Provides natural.

moved his capital 200 miles north of Thebes to the desert  City was destroyed by later kings and the capital was moved back to Thebes  Former religious traditions restored Indus Valley Roots of Indus Valley Civilization  Not discovered until 19 th century  The first city discovered was the 4500-year-old city of Harappa  Two years later, a second city 200 miles southwest was discovered/


One of the world’s first great urban civilisations 3000BCE to 1500BCE. The Indus Valley Civilisation.

stones Carnelian These are some necklaces and bracelets from the Indus valley. This is a broach found in the Indus valley. The people of the Indus valley didn’t get the precious materials themselves, they traded with other nearby cities who had originally mined these expensive jewels and stones. They then brought them back to their own civilization and then fashioned them into jewellery. They then took/


Ancient Indus Valley Harappa Mohenjo-Daro. Indus Valley  The Harappan culture existed along the Indus River in what is present day Pakistan.  It was.

after the city of Harappa.  Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were important centers of the Indus valley civilization.  This Indus Valley civilization flourished around 4000-1000 B.C. Old World Civilizations Comparative Timeline Physical Map Natural Resources  The Indus Valley contained numerous natural resources that were an important part of Harappan civilization.  Resources included: Fresh water Timber Gold, silver, semi-precious stones Fish Sea Shells / Stones Himalayan Mountains/


Indus River Valley Review  Rivers Names, Geographic Features  Writing Systems  Nomads  Architecture-Buildings What was their purpose?

most likely twin capital cities. Basic chronology  c. 3000 BCE: farming settlements appear along the valley of the river Indus in what is now Pakistan  c. 2500 BCE: high point of the Indus Valley civilization  c. 2000 BCE: some Indus sites showing signs of decline  c. 1500 BCE: the Aryan invasions Indus Valley civilization  Right: artist’s recreation of Mohenjo-Daro  Below: Great Bath ruins Traded with Iran and/


Early Civilizations of Pakistan/India Chapter 3.1.

of kings or queens, tax records, literature, or accounts of famous victories. The written remains of Indus civilization are found only rarely, usually on small clay seals that do not include any long passages. Still, we do know that the Indus Valley civilization covered the largest area of any civilization until the rise of Persia. Well-Planned Cities Reveal Organized Government Archaeologists believe that at least/


Chapter 1 From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations 8000 – 1500 B.C.E. Mr. Quintana World History 9 th Grade.

and anatomy was gained in the process of mummification. Other areas of scientific and technological advance included mathematics, astronomy, calendar making, irrigation, engineering and architecture, and transportation technology Egyptian Mummy Indus Valley Map The Indus Valley Civilization  The Indus carries a lot of silt and floods regularly twice a year. Access to river water for irrigation allowed farmers in the/


EARLY RIVER CIVILIZATIONS Unit 1. Admit Slip- 9/29 What do you think of when you hear the word Egypt?

, and moderate monsoons Trade between Afghanistan and Persia Aryan Invasion By 1750, the Indus River Valley civilizations began to decline. A group of nomadic warrior called Aryans conquered the area that was once the Indus River Valley. Admit Slip What were some of the advanced developments we discussed in class about Indus River Valley Civilization? Which invention do you believe was the most important? Why do you think/


The Bronze Age Indus Valley.

drainage system. A chute system took household trash to public garbage bins. Young man walking through ruins of Indus City. Indus Valley Economy The Harappa economy depended on agriculture The Indus valley civilization traded extensively with Mesopotamia. Invaders change the face of Indus Valley Aryan invaders ended the civilization of the Indus River valley by conquering the Harappa. The Aryans were a nomadic Indo-European people living in central Asia. Song/


Indus River Valley Mr. Stover Review  Rivers Names, Geographic Features  Writing Systems  Nomads  Architecture-Buildings What was their purpose?

Nomads  Architecture-Buildings What was their purpose? What We Will Learn Today: How did geography effect the Indus River Valley civilization? India’s Geographic Features  The Indian subcontinent is a large, wedge-shaped peninsula that extends southward into / homes seem to have been built with bricks and in a pattern repeated throughout the city. Indus valley civilization  2500 - 2000 B.C.E. Harappan civilization of planned cities. Grid system of brick structures in 2 main sites: Harappa and Mohenjo -/


NEXT Early River Valley Civilizations, 3500 B.C.– 450 B.C. Civilizations emerge and develop on fertile river plains in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley,

dry; summer winds bring rain can cause flooding continued The Geography of the Indian Subcontinent SECTION 3 Environmental Challenges Floods along the Indus unpredictable; river can change course Rainfall unpredictable; could have droughts or floods NEXT Civilization Emerges on the Indus Indus Valley Civilization Influenced an area larger than Mesopotamia or Egypt SECTION 3 Continued... Earliest Arrivals About 7000 B.C., evidence of agriculture and domesticated/


Civilizations emerge and develop on fertile river plains in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and China.

north of the Hindu Kush mountains, enter the area and become dominant. Yearly floods or droughts, rivers changing course, and monsoon winds were all challenges the Indus Valley civilization had to overcome. The cities in the Indus Valley were much more organized and planned compared to those other earlier cities. Although we cannot decipher their language, we know that Harappan culture included religion trading. No/


Chapter 3, Section Chapter 3 Early Civilizations in India and China (2500 B.C.–256 B.C.) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice.

Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here. Chapter 3, Section 1 Section 1 Assessment Which of the following is true about the Indus Valley civilization? a) Its people were monotheistic. b) Its people were polytheistic. c) Most people were merchants. d) Its people were the first to grow corn. Which geographical feature helped India to/


China, The Indus Valley, and the Indo-Europeans Chapter 2, 3, and 4.

Indus Valley Notes—12/4/13 Next--Get out a new sheet of notebook paper. At the top write: Indus Valley Notes, 12/4/13. EQ: How did the geography of the Indus Valley impact the growth of civilization? III. The Indus Valley The Indus ValleyThe Indus Valley/ made of precise sun-dried bricks  had sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems~ III. The Indus Valley  Culture and Trade  Very stable civilization  Class distinction not strong because of uniform housing  Prosperous culture because toys and non /


Indus Valley. Essential Questions How did India’s geography affect the development of civilization there? What were the defining features of the Indus.

laid out Streets ran in grid pattern; major avenues twice as wide as minor streets Indus Society Indus Valley Civilization Economy Economy likely based on agriculture, trade Most probably farmed, herded livestock In cities, many specialized in crafts like pottery, metalwork, jewelry Indus traded goods with people nearby, distant civilizations Traders from Indus Valley brought goods to locations as distant as Central Asia, Arabian Peninsula, Mesopotamia Life in/


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