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Derivatives of Carboxylic Acid

and would undergo an E2 rather than SN2 reaction. c: isopropyl isobutyrate Draw the complete mechanism for Fischer esterification of benzoic acid with methanol. Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Amides Amides are difficult to/ Acid hydrolysis of an ester can be reversed by adding excess alcohol. The reverse reaction is called Fischer Esterification. Explain why base hydrolysis of an ester is not reversible. Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids Alcoholysis of Esters Nucleophilic/


Biodiesel Feed Stock, Production Technology. BIODIESEL CONCEPT Diesel (Petroleum derived) Oil When Substituted Partly or Wholly by a Liquid Fuel Derived.

Coconut, Mustard). (C) Used Oils Like Frying Oils. CPO MILLING TRADITIONAL COCONUT OIL PRODUCTION separations Triglyceride LABORATORY SCALE PRODUCTION ESTERIFICATION Alcohol + Acid  Ester + Water The reaction of fatty acid with an alcohol produces ester and water. The /-12 hrs 20-60% Excess Over theoretical Neutral Oil Transesterification Process Methyl Ester Glycerol Purification (Recycled in the Esterification) Biodiesel Oil + Methanol (1:42 ) 300-500 0 C300 Atmospheres Times 3-4 minutes Methyl Esters /


19.13 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids: A Review and a Preview.

group forms tetrahedral intermediate Elimination of water from tetrahedral intermediate restores carbonyl group Key Features of Mechanism 19.15 Intramolecular Ester Formation: Lactones Lactones are cyclic esters Formed by intramolecular esterification in a compound that contains a hydroxyl group and a carboxylic acid function Lactones Examples HOCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COH O OO + H2OH2OH2OH2O 4-hydroxybutanoic acid 4-butanolide/


1 Reactions of aldehydes and ketone carbonyls. 2 Chapter 22: Carboxylic Acid Derivatives.

acid, forming the carboxylate anion, which does not react with an electron-rich nucleophile. No Base Catalysis of Fischer Esterification 62 Can use carboxylates as Nucleophiles with primary (and some secondary) alkyl halides (S N 2) 63 Esters by/its use. Synthetic Fibers: Polyesters 88 One method of synthesizing a polyester is by acid-catalyzed esterification of a diacid with a diol (Fischer esterification). Synthesis of Polyesters 89 In cells, acylations occur with the sulfur analogue of an ester (a/


“Bio-Inspired heterogeneous catalyst for sustainable biofuel production Prof. (Dr.) Dhanapati Deka Department of Energy Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam,

, FT-IR, Raman analysis, NH 3 -TPD and acid-base titrations. Their catalytic behavior were studied in esterification of fatty acids and saccharification of cellulosic materials, two highly contrasting and important acid catalyzed reactions associated with the /wastes for biomass conversion. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 176 (2015) 20–35. 74 Reaction scheme for Esterification of long chain fatty acids with methanol Reaction scheme for Hydrolysis of cellulose/biomass into fermentable sugars Desired/


Chapter 20 Lecture Carboxylic Acids: Part I Organic Chemistry, 8 th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr.

carbon. ◦ Deprotonation of the intermediate produces the ester hydrate. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 2017 Mechanism of the Fischer Esterification (Continued) Step 2: ◦ Protonation of one of the hydroxide groups creates a good leaving group. ◦ Water leaves. ◦/usually produces quantitative yields of ester. Diazomethane is a very toxic, explosive yellow gas. Mechanism of Diazomethane Esterification © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 2020 Synthesis of Amides The initial reaction of a carboxylic acid /


CONTENTS Structure of carboxylic acids Nomenclature Physical properties of carboxylic acids Preparation of carboxylic acids Chemical properties of carboxylic.

COOH + CH 3 OH ETHANOIC METHANOL ACID ETHYL METHANOATE METHYL ETHANOATE HYDROLYSIS OF ESTERS Hydrolysis is the opposite of esterification ESTER + WATER CARBOXYLIC ACID + ALCOHOL The products of hydrolysis depend on the conditions used... acidic CH 3 /under alkaline conditions, the organic product is a water soluble ionic salt HYDROLYSIS OF ESTERS Hydrolysis is the opposite of esterification ESTER + WATER CARBOXYLIC ACID + ALCOHOL The products of hydrolysis depend on the conditions used... acidic CH 3 COOCH /


Dr. Wolfs CHM 201 & 202 18-1 Chapter 18 Carboxylic Acids.

of tetrahedral intermediate (3 steps) 2)dissociation of tetrahedral intermediate (3 steps) Mechanism of Fischer Esterification COHOH OCH 3 tetrahedral intermediate in esterification of benzoic acid with methanol Dr. Wolfs CHM 201 & 202 18-63 First stage: formation of/Intramolecular Ester Formation: Lactones Dr. Wolfs CHM 201 & 202 18-83 Lactones are cyclic esters Formed by intramolecular esterification in a compound that contains a hydroxyl group and a carboxylic acid function Lactones Dr. Wolfs CHM 201 & /


 Organic Chemistry for Cosmetic Chemists Tony O’Lenick Thomas O’Lenick, PhD October 2015.

by allowing it to settle from the ester and decantation. This reaction is generally conducted using acid or metal catalyst. Trans-Esterification  Question  How would an ester made from an acid, in the direct process differ from the same ester made by/90%+) product. Sorbitan Esters  Sorbitol, a hexose sugar, is cyclized by dehydration to form the 1:4 sorbitan structure.  Esterification occurs mainly at the side-chain OH group, but some occurs at the ring OHs.  Sorbitan esters are products made the /


Carboxylic acids and their derivatives. Required background: Aldehydes, ketones Acidity of alcohols Reaction mechanisms Essential for: Aminoacids, peptides.

polymers 7. Overview of lipids 8. Claisen condensation Outline 1. Acidity and basicity of carboxylic acids 2. Fischer esterification 3. Decarboxylation 4. Acyl substitution 5. Reduction of carboxylic acid derivatives 6. Condensation polymers 7. Overview of/polymers 7. Overview of lipids 8. Claisen condensation Outline 1. Acidity and basicity of carboxylic acids 2. Fischer esterification 3. Decarboxylation 4. Acyl substitution 5. Reduction of carboxylic acid derivatives 6. Condensation polymers 7. Overview of/


Unit 1.1 Molecules Biology Department Watford Girls Grammar School.

source of energy (38kJ/g) They are poor conductors of heat Most fats & oils are triglycerides Triglycerides Formed by esterification… …a condensation reaction between 3 fatty acids and glycerol: Glycerol H C H C C H H H H/ 1,6 glycosidic bonds Quiz 5. Formation of a triglyceride does NOT involve: a) A condensation reaction A condensation reaction b) Esterification Esterification c) Polymerisation Polymerisation d) A reaction between 3 fatty acids & glycerol A reaction between 3 fatty acids & glycerol Quiz 6./


Revision of Formation of Esters Formed from:- Formed from:- Carboxylic Acid Carboxylic Acid.

down by reaction with water Broken down by reaction with water Forms:- Forms:- Carboxylic Acid Carboxylic Acid Alcohol Alcohol Ethyl Ethanoate Ethanoic Acid Water Ethanol Hydrolysis REVERSE of esterification REVERSE of esterification Broken down by reaction with water Broken down by reaction with water Forms:- Forms:- Alcohol Alcohol Carboxylic Acid Carboxylic Acid Dilute sulphuric acid catalyst Dilute sulphuric acid catalyst Ethyl Ethanoate/


1 Biodiesel production based on crude oils using zinc-based catalysts Shuli Yan.

 Literature review  Objective  Experiment  Reference Zinc-based catalysts in transesterification Zinc-based catalysts in esterification Zinc-based catalysts in hydrolysis 3 Background  Biodiesel 4  Advantages of using biodiesel Biodegradable Low emission / of catalyst is related with its acidity 13 Literature review  Zinc-based catalysts in esterification CatalystsEsterificaiton ReactionReference Zinc acetatepalmitic acid with isopropanol12-14 Supported zinc acetatepalmitic acid with isopropanol15-17/


Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell and Farrell Chapter 19.

to form an ester Hydrolysis of Esters Break ester into carboxylic acid and alcohol Add HOH to break bond Reverse of esterification Acid Hydrolysis: Carboxylic acid + alcohol Basic Hydrolysis: Carboxylate ion + alcohol Saponification Hydrolysis of Esters –Occurs very slowly/more rapid when ester is heated in aqueous acid or base –Acidic hydrolysis of esters is the reverse of Fischer esterification –Large excess of water drives the equilibrium to the right to form the carboxylic acid and alcohol (Le Chateliers/


IB Biology Joni Rogan Escuela de Lancaster A.C.. Course outline - Theory  1: The chemistry of life  Statistical analysis  2: Cells  3: Genetics 

energy (38kJ/g)  They are poor conductors of heat  Most fats & oils are triglycerides Triglycerides  Formed by esterification…  …a condensation reaction between 3 fatty acids and glycerol: Glycerol H C H C C H H H H O/6 glycosidic bonds Quiz  5. Formation of a triglyceride does NOT involve: a) A condensation reaction A condensation reaction b) Esterification Esterification c) Polymerisation Polymerisation d) A reaction between 3 fatty acids & glycerol A reaction between 3 fatty acids & glycerol Quiz  /


Chapter 11. Carboxylic acids 羧 酸 Ref: p. 900~939.

to esters, anhydrides, acid chlorides, amides )  decarboxylation  reduction (to primary alcohols, aldehydes)  esterification using diazomethane (CH 2 N 2 )  4. Synthesis 11.1 Nomenclature of carboxylic acids Common name / 3 >-Ph>H>R strong weak 2. Condensation of acids with alcohols: The Fischer esterification ( 酯化反应 ) Mechanism of esterification Isotopic labeling 同位素标记法 Acid-Catalyzed esterification mechanism 1°, 2 °alcohols Nucleophilic acyl substitution( 亲核酰基取代 ) addition-elimination mechanism( 加成 -/


18 18-1 © 2003 Thomson Learning, Inc. All rights reserved General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 7e Bettelheim, Brown, and March.

conditions (Le Chatelier’s principle) 18 18-24 © 2003 Thomson Learning, Inc. All rights reserved Fischer Esterification in Fischer esterification, the alcohol adds to the carbonyl group of the carboxylic acid to form a tetrahedral carbonyl addition intermediate the/when the ester is heated in aqueous acid or base hydrolysis of esters in aqueous acid is the reverse of Fischer esterification a large excess of water drives the equilibrium to the right to form the carboxylic acid and alcohol (Le Chateliers/


Chapter 18 Carboxylic Acids Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

and a Preview 1. Acidity (Sections 18.4-18.6) 2. Reduction with LiAlH 4 (Section 15.3) 3. Esterification (Section 15.8) 4. Formation of acyl chlorides (Section 12.7) Reactions already discussed: Reactions of Carboxylic Acids New reactions/ Key Features of Mechanism 18.15 Intramolecular Ester Formation: Lactones Lactones are cyclic esters. They are formed by intramolecular esterification in a compound that contains a both a hydroxyl group and a carboxylic acid function. Lactones Examples IUPAC nomenclature: /


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHM 207 CHAPTER 6: HYDROXYL COMPOUNDS (ALCOHOLS AND PHENOL) NOR AKMALAZURA JANI.

acidic. For example, 2,2,-dichloroethanol is more acidic than 2-chloroethanol. - Example of electron-withdrawing atom/groups: Halogen atoms and NO 2. EFFECTS OF Acidity Reaction with sodium Oxidation Esterification Halogenation and haloform reactions Dehydration Formation of ether (Williamson ether synthesis) REACTIONS OF ALCOHOLS Reaction with sodium Alcohols reacts with Na at room temperature to form salts (sodium alkoxides) and/


2013 Chemistry NCEA L3 3.5 Organic Chemistry Part 2.

formulae, and naming products. methanoic acid + ammonia propanoic acid + aminoethane ethanoic acid + ammonia methanoic acid + aminobutane Carboxylic Acid Reactions GZ Science Resources 2013 Substitution Reactions of Carboxylic Acids Esterification Formation of acid chlorides Esterification of Carboxylic Acids A condensation reaction that combines a carboxylic acid and an alcohol using a sulphuric acid catalyst. The carboxylic acid and alcohol are refluxed with concentrated/


Hydrocarbon Derivatives All Organic Compounds Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon Derivatives Standard Hydrocarbons with CxHx Hydrocarbons..(C’s.

yl” Methyl ethane ethanoate The Ester Functional Group ***Esters are often added to foods for artificial flavours.*** Making an Ester (Esterification) ***An Ester is formed when a carboxylic acid (COOH) reacts with an alcohol (COH) and undergoes a condensation / = OH-CH2-CH2-OH OH-C-CH2-CH2-C-OH Butane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid Ethane-1,2-diol ***Just like in esterification, an HOH is removed when they join together*** ***BUT, in condensation polymers the “sub” unit are alternating “double ended” carboxylic/


PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY

Linear Structure—More the linearity-- More the viscosity– lower the gel stability Branched structure—More the branched structure—lower the viscosity– Increased gel stability Esterification: Increased Esterification– Harder the texture (unripened fruits) Decreased Esterification– Softer the texture (ripened fruits) Concepts Gelation: Linear structure– increases gelation; & Branching—decreases gelation Hydration: Increased hydration– increases viscosity—increases stabilizing effect Decreased hydration/


16-1 Chemistry 121, Winter 2011, LA Tech Introduction to Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry Instructor Dr. Upali Siriwardane (Ph.D. Ohio State) E-mail:

(Lactones) Hydroxy acids contain both a hydroxyl and a carboxyl group and such compounds have the capacity to undergo intermolecular esterification to form cyclic esters Takes place in situations where a five- or six- membered ring can be formed Cyclic esters /” and the “acid part” in an ester Results in the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid (reverse of esterification process) Ester hydrolysis needs a strong catalyst such as an acid, a base or an enzyme) Saponification: hydrolysis of an organic/


Chapter 21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions Why this Chapter? Carboxylic acids are among the most widespread of.

oxygen formation of the tetrahedral carbonyl addition intermediate Learning Check: Which of the following is the tetrahedral intermediate that appears in the Fischer esterification of ethanol and benzoic acid? 2. 1. 3. 4. 5. 1 2 3 4 5 Solution: Which of the following is /the tetrahedral intermediate that appears in the Fischer esterification of ethanol and benzoic acid? 2. 1. 3. 4. 5. 1 2 3 4 5 What is the expected product for the following/


Petrochemical Systems Corp. “PSC” Biodiesel Technology Plant.

process evaluation Process simulation Process simulation Operator training Operator training Start-up assistance Start-up assistance Field service support Field service support Project management Project management  Pretreatment with Acid Esterification  Continuous flow  Trans-esterification using a Bio-Conversion Processor (BCP)  Continuous flow / Waterless  Biodiesel Refining (ASV)  Methanol separation from Glycerin and Water (SRXC)  Recovered Methanol is reused in the process  Glycerin produces/


Organic Mechanisms Chapter 23 Free Radical Substitution CH 4 + Cl 2  CH 3 Cl + HCl An example of a substitution reaction is the chlorination of methane.

a nucleophile and attacks the carbocation. Overall there has been addition of HCl across the double bond. B B CONVERSIONS Esterification-Formation of an Ester An Ester is formed when an alcohol and a carboxylic acid react together. This is called/ under alkaline conditions, the organic product is a water soluble ionic salt HYDROLYSIS OF ESTERS Hydrolysis is the opposite of esterification ESTER + WATER CARBOXYLIC ACID + ALCOHOL The products of hydrolysis depend on the conditions used... acidic CH 3 COOCH 3/


CONTENTS Structure of carboxylic acids Nomenclature Physical properties of carboxylic acids Preparation of carboxylic acids Chemical properties of carboxylic.

COOH + CH 3 OH ETHANOIC METHANOL ACID ETHYL METHANOATE METHYL ETHANOATE HYDROLYSIS OF ESTERS Hydrolysis is the opposite of esterification ESTER + WATER CARBOXYLIC ACID + ALCOHOL The products of hydrolysis depend on the conditions used... acidic CH 3 /under alkaline conditions, the organic product is a water soluble ionic salt HYDROLYSIS OF ESTERS Hydrolysis is the opposite of esterification ESTER + WATER CARBOXYLIC ACID + ALCOHOL The products of hydrolysis depend on the conditions used... acidic CH 3 COOCH/


Lecture 16 Get Lecture Problem 6 The Synthetics This Week in Lab: Ch 9 PreLab Due Quiz 5 Ch 6 Final Report Due Next Week: Spring Break!!!

transesterifcation & aldol condensation in class The Condensation Reactions Experiment 16: Synthesis of Creatine Go over mechanism in class. Esterification Synthesis of esters A Typical Esterification (generic example): reaction of a carboxylic acid (elec) with an alcohol (nuc) acid catalyzed reversible known as a Fisher Esterification Esterification Experiment 80: Synthesis of Aspirin Reaction of an alcohol (nuc) with an anhydride (elec) Similar mechanism to Fisher/


17 17-1 Organic Chemistry William H. Brown & Christopher S. Foote.

in the presence of an acid catalyst, commonly H 2 SO 4 or gaseous HCl 17 17-26 Fischer Esterification  Fischer esterification is an equilibrium reaction by careful control of experimental conditions, it is possible to prepare esters in high yield /a hybrid of two contributing structures treatment of a carboxylic acid with diazomethane gives a methyl ester 17 17-29 Diazomethane  Esterification occurs in two steps Step 1: proton transfer to diazomethane Step 2: nucleophilic displacement of N 2 17 17-30 Acid/


18 18-1 © 2003 Thomson Learning, Inc. All rights reserved General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 8e Bettelheim, Brown Campbell, & Farrell.

is possible to drive it in either direction by the choice of experimental conditions (Le Chatelier’s principle). 18 18-30 © 2003 Thomson Learning, Inc. All rights reserved Fischer Esterification In Fischer esterification, the alcohol adds to the carbonyl group of the carboxylic acid to form a tetrahedral carbonyl addition intermediate. The intermediate then loses H 2 O to give an ester/


Carboxylic Acids carboxyl group The functional group of a carboxylic acid is a carboxyl group, which can be represented in any one of three ways.

are cis Fatty Acid salts are called soaps Reactions Summary Acid Base Reactions Reduction with LAH Fischer Esterification Decarboxylation Esters of Sulphonic Acids and Phosphoric Acid Anhydrides of Carboxylic Acids and Phosphoric Acid Reactions /give carboxylates (salts) Reaction with ammonium give ammonium salts Reactions Summary Reduction with LAH Reactions Summary Esterification Reactions Summary Decarboxylation Related Chemistry of Acids Sulfonic Acid and Phosphoric Acid also form Esters Related /


ATAR Notes Announcements If anyone missed out on the notes, the pre-order sale is on now: Our lecturers are also starting.

, 25mL of standard solution requires 27.8mL of titre. What is the concentration of the HCl solution? THE ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT Esterification- Components Alkanols: Contain Hydroxyl groups (-OH) and can be described by the formula C n H 2n+1 OH Alkanoic/ and toxicUse a hot plate instead of a Bunsen burner, coupled with a water bath. THE ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT Ethyl Propanoate Esterification- Use Artificial scent and flavourings in food. Natural scent and flavouring (fruit etc.) Perfumes etc. Solvent and thinner in/


WP-3 Optimisation of secondary processing (i

Crude glycerol Decolorization Filtration Water, phosphoric acid Free fatty acid, salt Activated carbon Activated carbon Methanol Phase separation Esterification Water, toluene Glycerol containing water, salt, methanol Toluene Water Acetic acid NaOH solution Acetic acid Triacetin, acetic acid/such as isobutylene in the presence of an acid catalyst at temperatures from 50°C-150°C. Esterification Glycerol can be esterified with carboxylic acids or via carboxylation and nitration and reaction of glycerol with /


Advanced Controls Technology An Industrial and Academic Perspective on Plantwide Control James J. Downs Eastman Chemical Company Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian.

T2T2 T1T1 Advanced Controls Technology Esterification Process Process production rate set at the process feeds Advanced Controls Technology Esterification Process Disturbances propagate downstream Extractor is the process bottleneck Advanced Controls Technology Esterification Process Process production rate set at/feed set to its maximum using local extractor measurements Advanced Controls Technology Esterification Process Near economic optimum operation achieved.. by relocating the throughput manipulator,/


Dikoleksi oleh: smno.psdl.ppsub.2013

USDE: The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) Biodiesel can be produced using a variety of esterification technologies. The oils and fats are filtered and preprocessed to remove water and contaminants. If free fatty acids/wikipedia.org/wiki/Ester) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel_production …… diunduh 7/3/2012 KATALISATOR PROSES ESTERIFIKASI During the esterification process, the triglyceride is reacted with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, usually a strong alkali (NaOH, /


General Structure O R – C – O – R’ The general formula of an ester is written as RCOOR’ Where RCO = carboxylic acid And where OR’= alcohol ||

groups and 2 oxygen atoms. The alkyl groups and oxygen come from the carboxylic acid and alcohol used in esterification (the formation of esters). Ethanol + Butanoic Acid  Ethyl Butanoate + Water Alcohol Carboxylic Acid Ester The name/ RC–O–R + HOH RC heat catalyst heat catalyst O || organic base organic salt Reactions: Hydrolysis Ester treated with acid or base: reversal of esterification occurs (split into acid & alcohol) Products: sodium salt of acid + alcohol RC–O–R + NaOH - ------> RC–O - + Na +/


Lipids. Lipids  Made up of C, H and O  Can exist as fats, oils and waxes  They are insoluble in water  They are a good source of energy  (9 k cal.

water.  Named for the Greek word lipos, which means “fat.”  Extracted from cells using organic solvents. Triglycerides  Formed by esterification (condensation reaction between 3 fatty acids and glycerol) Glycerol H C H C C H H H H O O O H H / O H H H O H Ester bond water  This happens three times to form a triglyceride glycerol fatty acids Esterification Phospholipids One fatty acid can be replaced by a polar phosphate group glycerol Hydrophobic fatty acids hydrophilic phosphate Classification of Lipids /


Chapter 11 Carboxylic Anhydrides, Esters, and Amides.

, when the ester is heated in aqueous acid or base. Hydrolysis of esters in aqueous acid is the reverse of Fischer esterification. A large excess of water drives the equilibrium to the right to form the carboxylic acid and alcohol (Le Châteliers / Thus, an amide can be prepared from a carboxylic acid by first converting the carboxylic acid to an ester by Fischer esterification and then reaction of the ester with an amine. Amides do not react with ammonia or with amines Phosphoric Anhydrides phosphoric /


This PowerPoint is available on the Plone Site. It is your responsibility to print off the notes that you would like. You will not be able to write everything.

Today’s Objectives: 1)Define, illustrate and provide examples of simple addition, substituion, elimination and esterification (condensation) 2)Predict products and write and interpret balanced equations for the above reations All Organic/ halides 3. Elimination alcohols  alkenes + water (dehydration) organic halides + OH -  alkenes + halide ion + water 4. Esterification (already covered) carboxylic acid + alcohol  ester + water 1. Addition Reactions: reaction of alkenes and alkynes with hydrogen gas, a/


Chapter 10 Carboxylic Acids. Carboxylic Acids In this chapter, we study carboxylic acids, another class of organic compounds containing the carbonyl group.

carboxylic does not readily reduce by metal catalytic or NaBH 4 Fischer Esterification Fischer esterification Fischer esterification is one of the most commonly used methods for the preparation of esters. ◦ In Fischer esterification, a carboxylic acid is reacted with an alcohol in the presence/ of an acid catalyst, most commonly concentrated sulfuric acid. Fischer Esterification In Fischer esterification, the alcohol adds to the carbonyl group of the carboxylic acid to form a /


19 19-1 © 2006 Thomson Learning, Inc. All rights reserved General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 8e Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell, & Farrell.

however, when the ester is heated in aqueous acid or base. Hydrolysis of esters in aqueous acid is the reverse of Fischer esterification. A large excess of water drives the equilibrium to the right to form the carboxylic acid and alcohol (Le Chateliers principle). /. Thus, an amide can be prepared from a carboxylic acid by first converting the carboxylic acid to an ester by Fischer esterification and then reaction of the ester with an amine. 19 19-19 © 2006 Thomson Learning, Inc. All rights reserved Reaction/


Glucose G6P GLUTsGLYCOGENESIS GLYCOLYSIS glucose insulin Translocation Vesicles in Golgi PFK – phosphofructokinase GS – glycogen synthase Muscle & WAT.

Overview glucose G6P pyruvate acetyl-CoA pyruvate LIPOGENESIS Fat PDH GLYCOLYSIS GLUT-4 No GS KREBS CYCLE CO 2 fatty acids ESTERIFICATION X Produces reductant PPP Consumes reductant and ATP NADH release ultimately produces ATP Key steps (eg, GLUT-4, PDH, /pathways Or generate NADPH as an anti-oxidant –Red blood cells - deficiency in G6PDH can cause anemia Esterification Formation of Fat Glycerol needs to be glycerol 3-phosphate –From reduction of glycolytic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate –Glycolysis important both /


CATALITIC REACTION ( 053.KK.06 ) INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY CLASS : XI SEMESTER : 3.

Ni catalyst 4.MnO2 or stone can accelerate the dissociation kawi H2O2 into H2O and O2 The other catalyst  Esterification hydrolysis reaction and requires a strong catalyst acid sulphate  Primary alcohol oxidation reactions using K2Cr2O7 require acid sulphate catalyst/oils such lipid or animal fat.  Vegetable oil or animal fat can be made with the biodiesel reaction trans esterification with alcohol use. Composition and chemical nature of biodiesel depends on the purity, long short, degree of saturation, /


Carbohydrate Disposal This version is quite “information dense” to save paper.

Overview glucose G6P pyruvate acetyl-CoA pyruvate LIPOGENESIS Fat PDH GLYCOLYSIS GLUT-4 No GS KREBS CYCLE CO 2 fatty acids ESTERIFICATION X Produces reductant PPP Consumes reductant and ATP NADH release ultimately produces ATP Key steps (eg, GLUT-4, PDH, /pathways Or generate NADPH as an anti-oxidant –Red blood cells - deficiency in G6PDH can cause anemia Esterification Formation of Fat Glycerol needs to be glycerol 3-phosphate –From reduction of glycolytic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate –Glycolysis important both /


Transesterification Reaction by using Lewis acid based solid catalyst T.M.SankaraNarayanan National Centre for Catalysis Research 04.04.2009.

DMC) complexes as highly active, heterogeneous catalysts for production of biofuels and lubricants from vegetable oil esterification/transesterification reactions is reported. These catalysts are Lewis acidic, hydrophobic (at reaction temperatures of about 443/pyridine adsorptions.Coordinatively unsaturated Zn 2+ are the probable active (Lewis acid) sites for both the esterification and transesterification reactions. References: An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles Presentation at the NH/


19 19-1 © 2006 Thomson Learning, Inc. All rights reserved General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 8e Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell, & Farrell.

however, when the ester is heated in aqueous acid or base. Hydrolysis of esters in aqueous acid is the reverse of Fischer esterification. A large excess of water drives the equilibrium to the right to form the carboxylic acid and alcohol (Le Chateliers principle). /. Thus, an amide can be prepared from a carboxylic acid by first converting the carboxylic acid to an ester by Fischer esterification and then reaction of the ester with an amine. 19 19-20 © 2006 Thomson Learning, Inc. All rights reserved Reaction/


Carboxyl Derivatives In this chapter, we study three classes of compounds derived from carboxylic acids; anhydrides, esters, and amides. Each is related.

boiling water. Hydrolysis is fast with acid or base conditions. Hydrolysis of esters in aqueous acid is the reverse of Fischer esterification. A large excess of water drives the equilibrium to the right to form the carboxylic acid and alcohol (Le Châ/Thus, an amide can be prepared from a carboxylic acid by first converting the carboxylic acid to an ester by Fischer esterification and then reaction of the ester with an amine. Amides do not react with ammonia or with amines Phosphoric Anhydrides phosphoric/


Chapter 15 Alcohols, Diols, and Thiols. 15.1 Sources of Alcohols.

-catalyzed dehydration (alkenes). Conversion to p-toluenesulfonate esters (tosylates). New Reactions of Alcohols Conversion to ethers Esterification Esters of inorganic acids Oxidation Cleavage of vicinal diols 15.7 Conversion of Alcohols to Ethers Conversion of Alcohols/CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 O OCH 2 CH 3 H H + Intramolecular Etherification 15.8 Esterification Esterification: A Reversible Process 1) Fischer esterification (a classical transformation). 2) Condensation process (H 2 O produced). 3) Acid-catalyzed (H 2/


INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Biodiesel was synthesized under catalyst-free supercritical methanol reactions using a variety of oils at 250 to 325 o C in a.

dropped to 73% Amberlite BD10dry was more effective in reducing free glycerine compared to centrifugation Esterifation results at high temperature and pressure Oleic acid esterification conversion rates decreased (91 to 83%) from 300 to 350 o C, due to accumulation of reaction/ at 27 Molar ratio, analyzed using a Varian CP 3800 GC-FID Fig.6 Oleic Acid esterification at 8 Molar ratio Fig.7 Reaction water during oleic acid esterification reaction Fig.5 Effect of adding a modifier: A: Methanol added at 25 o C, /


SAT II CHEM PREP PPT Mrs. Gupta

: silk! For more information on polymers, go here. Organic Reactions Combustion Fermentation Substitution Addition Dehydration Synthesis Etherification Esterification Saponification Polymerization Combustion Happens when an organic molecule reacts with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and water vapor/: dimethyl ether and diethyl ether are also produced from this reaction, but can be separated out. Esterification Organic Acid + Alcohol  Ester + Water A dehydrating agent (H2SO4) removes H from the organic/


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