Best ppt on ozone layer

Recommendations for Monitoring and Modeling Research for use in Ozone Planning Gail Tonnesen, EPA Region 8 WESTAR Ozone Background and Transport Workgroup.

O3 BAO Ozonesonde on July 30 th, 2008 shows layer of high ozone from about 8 to 9 km ASL. TOPAZ aircraft flight was below the intrusion layer. CAMx has elevated O3 layer at 5.8 to 7.4 km AGL (see/and regional modeling communities: – EPA expects to begin hemispheric CMAQ modeling in near-future. – Work with HTAP to incorporate best available global runs into regional boundary conditions. Potential opportunities for collaboration Formation of special issue workgroups – Stratospheric intrusion workgroup, WRAP-/


Lori Bocchino Wyoming DEQ October 22, 2008 Upper Green Winter Ozone.

layer) This flow pattern serves to recirculate ozone and ozone precursors within the study area, thereby enhancing ozone production Large changes in ozone concentrations aloft over small distances Rapid ozone formation/photochemical reactions Typical characteristics of high ozone /a stream of particles Transport by modeled winds; diffuse randomly Computationally expensive, but may be best type to represent pollutant concentrations close to source Puff Models Pollutant releases represented by a series/


Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) Review 09 – 11 March 2010 Image: MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC March 2000 Ozone Climate Data Records.

Calibration and Validation System (ICVS) 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2% YEAR Total Ozone (Best and Profile) Comparisons between reprocessed NOAA SBUV/2 and Dobson Stations Figure from V. Fioletov et al. at the / the CDR Transition Path –Updated CDR with new and reprocessed data approximately every two years to extend state of the ozone layer studies –Include additional monitoring in the ICVS –Build a reprocessing system for JPSS OMPS (SDS) Center for Satellite Applications/


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 13e CHAPTER 15: Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Ozone Depletion.

above earth’s surface –75–80% earth’s air mass –78% N 2, 21% O 2 –Weather and climate Stratosphere Ozone layer 15-2 What Are the Major Air Pollution Problems? (1) Concept 15-2A Three major outdoor air pollution problems are industrial smog / Should We Deal with Air Pollution? Concept 15-3 Legal, economic, and technological tools can help clean up air pollution, but the best solution is to prevent it. U.S. Outdoor Air Pollution Control Laws Clean Air Acts Air-quality standards for 6 major pollutants Levels/


Future prediction of tropospheric ozone over south and east Asia in 2030 Satoru Chatani* Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. Markus Amann and Zbigniew Klimont.

NOx, and VOC emission Current ozone simulation Validation of simulated ozone Future energy prediction for multiple scenarios Future emission Abatement costs for multiple scenarios Future ozone simulation for multiple scenarios Best future scenarios Energy scenarios Emission /Target domain  Mesh size 60×60 km  Vertical layers 41 (WRF) 28 (CMAQ)  Model top 5639 Pa (19.5 km)  Bottom layer height 34 m 5 Black : WRF Red : CMAQ Simulated surface ozone  High concentration over mid-latitude from India to /


A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the ozone regime as a venue to manage nitrous oxide David Kanter A.R. Ravishankara Ian Porter November 13, 2012 MOP 24.

NO x References – SEI (2010), IPCC (2006), EPA (2006), EPA (2012), Winiwarter (2005) Agriculture - Behavior Fertilizer best management practices (Robertson & Vitousek 2009): Crop residue recycling & use of cover crops Precision & split fertilizer application Watershed management / impact on environment Conclusions N 2 O largest remaining known anthropogenic threat to stratospheric ozone layer Ozone regime’s legal authority and possibility of cooperation with climate regime clear Mitigation opportunities /


Chapter 1 First Draft Review TOAR Workshop 1.03, January 25 - 27, 2016, Beijing, China Chapter 1 Critical review on the sources, sinks and budget of ozone.

, January 25 - 27, 2016, Beijing, China 3.The Dynamics of Ozone formation 1.Ozone chemistry in the urban boundary layer (update text?) 2.Ozone chemistry in the free troposphere (text?) 3.Wintertime Ozone Chemistry (update text?) 4.Ozone chemistry in polar boundary layer (text?) 5.Ozone chemistry over the marine boundary layer – the role of halogens (text?) 6.Ozone chemistry over tropical forests (text?) Chapter 1 First Draft Review TOAR/


1 IMPLEMENTATION OF MONTREAL PROTOCOL IN INDIA Ozone Cell Government of India Ministry of Environment and Forests.

Ozone Cell, MoEF.  Organisation of International Ozone Day. Publication of “India’s Success Story”. Organization of competitions for School children and publication of best Posters and Sticker.  Publication of bimonthly Newsletter “VATIS UPDATE” covering updates on technologies and developments relating to ozone layer/Consumption of HCFCs by 2030, an advance by 10 years for an early recovery of Ozone Layer.  HCFCs are widely used Chemicals. The Applications include Refrigeration and Air- conditioning, /


1 IMPLEMENTATION OF MONTREAL PROTOCOL IN INDIA Ozone Cell Government of India Ministry of Environment and Forests.

Ozone Cell, MoEF.  Organisation of International Ozone Day. Publication of “India’s Success Story”. Organization of competitions for School children and publication of best Posters and Sticker.  Publication of bimonthly Newsletter “VATIS UPDATE” covering updates on technologies and developments relating to ozone layer/Consumption of HCFCs by 2030, an advance by 10 years for an early recovery of Ozone Layer.  HCFCs are widely used Chemicals. The Applications include Refrigeration and Air- conditioning, /


1 Air Pollution Chapter 14. 2 Introduction The Atmosphere = layer of gases surrounding the Earth –78.1% N 2 –20.9% O 2 –0.9% Ar –0.03% CO 2 –Traces of.

, He, CH 4, Kr Troposphere = 0-15 km, ground-level pollution Ozone Layer and Stratosphere: next chapter For Dry Air; Water Vapor is Variable 3 Layers of the Atmosphere 4 Urban Ozone and Smog Primary Pollutants = emitted directly to the air –NO nitric oxide –/Mexico City: only half registered cars can drive each day Ozone Drift—Midwest pollutant lead to smog in Eastern U.S. and Canada 11 Mexico City Photochemical Smog 12 Reducing Photochemical Smog Best step is to reduce emission of primary pollutants –VOC /


Water Treatment Processes and Ozone Treatment of the Source WQT 131 Water Works Operation III Water Treatment Chapter 1 Water Treatment Processes Chapter.

stratification 2.Thermal justification 3.Limnoptic layering 4.Limnoptic stratification 1.Thermal stratification 2.Thermal justification 3.Limnoptic layering 4.Limnoptic stratification Groundwater in comparison to/polymer 2.Sulfuric acid 3.Hydrochloric acid 4.Sodium hydroxide Which is the best method to remove sand from water? 1.Add lime 2.Aerate 3/ high volt arc into free oxygen radical which combines with oxygen gas to form ozone Ozone (O 3 ) How does it work? Kills by oxidation reacts with components/


Lecture 8: Cyanobacteria and the Rise of Oxygen and Ozone Abiol 574.

enhancement in shales requires oxidative weathering of sulfides on land, followed by transport of soluble molybdate ion to sediments The best way to do this, in my view (and that of Reinhard and Planavsky, Nature, 2013) is for the entire/O 2 We can calculate how the ozone layer develops as atmospheric O 2 levels increase  Ozone and temperature at different O 2 Levels 1-D climate modelPhotochemical model A. Segura et al. Astrobiology (2003) The ozone layer The ozone layer does not really disappear until O 2/


Assimilating tropospheric ozone data from TES Mark Parrington, Dylan Jones University of Toronto Kevin Bowman Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute.

the flux of background ozone into the boundary layer. The resulting increase in modeled surface ozone is greatest in western North America (as much as 9 ppbv) and smallest over the southeastern USA (less than 2 ppbv). TES assimilation is providing best estimate of North American background ozone of 20-40 ppbv. Despite the good agreement between the assimilation and ozonesonde measurements in the free/


Oct 2015 Information Session REVIEW OF THE OZONE PROTECTION AND SYNTHETIC GREENHOUSE GAS MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME.

and joined the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (the Montreal Protocol). ◦The Montreal Protocol aims to restore the ozone layer to pre-1980 levels by phasing out ozone depleting substances The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate /other possible avenues of resolving the policy issue must be explored and prove why regulatory intervention is the best way to achieve the desired policy outcome. Two key concepts Regulatory Burden Measurement Framework Provides an estimate /


LO: to know what the ozone layer is.  What are these pictures showing?

dioxide)  Oxygen in the atmosphere can change its physical state from O 2 to O 3 which is known as ozoneOzone plays some very important roles in protecting us… What is the ozone layer?  Protection  The ozone layer protects us from harmful rays emitted by the sun  Ultra-violet light (UV) can cause both skin cancer and /✓ X-Axis correctly scaled, labeled and unit included ✓ y-Axis correctly scaled, labeled and unit included ✓ Correctly plotted points ✓ Correct line of best fit (title) Marking your graph


Climate Control and Ozone Depletion Chapter 19. 19-1 How Might the Earth’s Temperature and Climate Change in the Future?  Concept 19-1 The overwhelming.

with climate change.  Which of these options (or combination of these options) does your group think is the best? Brainstorm  How can we reduce the threat of climate change? Solutions: Global Warming, Methods for Slowing Atmospheric /  Concept 19-4B To reverse ozone depletion, we must stop producing ozone-depleting chemicals and adhere to the international treaties that ban such chemicals. Our Use of Certain Chemicals Threatens the Ozone LayerOzone Thinning Seasonal depletion in the stratosphere /


THE ATMOSPHERE AND AIR POLLUTION. LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHERE Lower atmosphere – contains 99% of all atmospheric air Troposphere Stratosphere Ionosphere.

sea level Most weather occurs here Most dense layer of the atmosphere STRATOSPHERE Directly above the troposphere Extends from 9 to 31 miles above the Earth at sea level The Ozone Layer that traps and scatters UV radiation from the/ and photochemical smog. This will continue to pose a challenge as less- wealthy nations industrialize. REDUCING AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS Best way = Conservation, just use less! Reducing pollution from transportation Input Control (pollution prevention) a.Cleaner burning gasoline, /


Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation, Skin cancer and the Ozone layer A type of electromagnetic radiation.

hear of ultraviolet radiation (UV) in the media. The message given is that it is a dangerous and invisible component of sunlight that is best avoided – too much UV of any kind can age our skin and cause various skin cancers. At the same time, we are told that/ and octinoxate. Mineral sunblocks use zinc oxide and/or titanium dioxide and reflect UV rays back into the atmosphere. The Ozone Layer Ozone is made up of three atoms of oxygen (O 3 ). It is a highly reactive pale blue gas with a noticeable odour/


Ozone Depletion Group 4. How Do We Know? Satellite Data From 1979 to 1995, ozone concentration declined by 6% in the latitudes 60 degrees north to 60.

C-Cl bond is still present Hydrofluorocarbons are the best alternative because there is no chlorine atom present Diatomic oxygen and ozone are allotropes Oxygen gas has a double bond between the two oxygen atoms Ozone has resonance structures, with one double bond and / the sun comes out in the spring, the uv light creates chlorine free radicals which create the hole in the ozone layer After the early spring, the ice crystals melt and can no longer provide the surface for the production of chlorine molecules/


© 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Planetary Atmospheres The layer of gas surrounding the Earth and other Worlds Lecture 13.

glow of dawn (Sun). Do Jupiter, Venus, Sun, and Earth lie nearly in a flat plane? (And moon, if up) Best: Before Thursday October 11 (to include Moon). Due Thursday, Oct 25, in class. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as / to rise at the top Stratosphere UV from Sun absorbed by Ozone Rise (and fall) of temperature Troposphere Layer closest to surface Heating: Convection, IR trapping Temp drops with altitude Ozone Layer (absorbs UV) (mesosphere ) Troposphere Stratosphere © 2005 Pearson Education/


L 18 Thermodynamics [3] Heat transfer processes –convection –conduction –  radiation Physics of the atmosphere –the ozone layer –Greenhouse effect –climate.

best? A. silvered and evacuated B. silvered and un-evacuated C. evacuated D. un-silvered and un-evacuated A B C D 13 Evacuated hollow glass bottle: reduces heat loss by conduction Silver coating: reduces heat loss by radiation Plug to evacuate Physics of the atmosphere How the sun warms the earth The ozone layer/ cooler! Seasons are due to change in tilt of the earth SUN 15 The ozone layer: blocks UV-B rays ozone, O 3 is a naturally occurring trace element in the atmosphere It absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation, especially /


L 18 Thermodynamics [3] Heat transfer processes –convection –conduction –radiation Physics of the atmosphere –the ozone layer –Greenhouse effect –climate.

best? A. silvered and evacuated B. silvered and un-evacuated C. evacuated D. un-silvered and un-evacuated A B C D 12 Evacuated hollow glass bottle: reduces heat loss by conduction Silver coating: reduces heat loss by radiation Plug to evacuate Physics of the atmosphere Greenhouse effect The ozone layer/C cooler! Seasons are due to change in tilt of the earth SUN 14 The ozone layer: blocks UV-B rays ozone, O 3 is a naturally occurring trace element in the atmosphere It absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation, especially the/


Impact of lightning-NO and radiatively- interactive ozone on air quality over CONUS, and their relative importance in WRF-Chem M a t u s M a r t i n i.

Colorado air quality is large (sunny conditions, good mixing). Mean contribution of LNOx to surface layer ozone during July 2007 was 9 ppbv as diagnosed by WRF-Chem. Recently EPA has proposed tightening the air quality standard even /and without lightning-NO emissions). The most recent segment altitude distributions of VHF sources from the Northern Alabama Lightning Mapping Array to best represent the vertical distribution of lightning-NO (with “N-region” peak at height of -15°C isotherm which averages 7.3/


Martin O’Malley, Governor | Anthony G. Brown, Lt. Governor | Robert M. Summers, Ph.D., Secretary Solving the Ozone Transport Problem Tad Aburn, Air Director,

monitors Modeling More Page 6 Understanding Ozone Transport It’s complicated … but not that complicated … some key concepts An “elevated reservoir” of ozone A transport cloud An elevated ocean of ozone The residual layer Three different types of transport Westerly/%  35 Review of Optimization Needed States with a meaningful portion of their units with rates exceeding best historical rates and higher than expected 2015 rates Indiana Kentucky North Carolina Ohio Pennsylvania West Virginia Review of Optimization /


The Destruction of the Ozone Layer. High up in the stratosphere, Oliver Ozone (O 3 ) hangs out soaking up the rays.

he approaches, he realizes that he has the advantage. The bond between the kidnapping chlorine and the snatched oxygen is weak at best. Being an atom of the same type, Omar can create a much stronger bond with the captured oxygen. Making up his /, and again, and again…………. ….one chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 ozone molecules!!! Over several years, the combined effect of billions of CFC’s destroy enough ozone molecules, that the ozone layer becomes weak and a hole starts to form. The use of CFC’s have/


Environmental Effects Assessment Panel

Sensitivity of waterborne human pathogens to UV radiation Environmental Effects Assessment Panel Environmental Effects Assessment Panel Aquatic ecosystems Ozone layer Clouds,aerosols UV attenuation Main factors affecting the quantity & quality of UV radiation received by aquatic organisms /in UV radiation and the effects of other components of environmental change are diverse and complex Interactions are best defined in the oceans and involve: - Decreased uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the oceans - Increased /


Ozone in the Troposphere: Air Quality, Chemical Weather and Climate Oliver Wild Centre for Atmospheric Science, Cambridge Dept. of Environmental Science,

smog) have a reduced effect on global O 3 –Regional meteorology strongly influences climate impacts Regional Boundary Layer Distant Boundary Layer Free Troposphere Global Ozone Increase Regional Ozone Increase P(O 3 ) vs. NO x loss for each day –O 3 production efficiency (OPE/year) (τ O3 = Burden/Loss ) ACCENT studies CTM with NMHC CTM without NMHC 330 Tg/yr 22.4 days Best estimates from recent model studies 3. Exploring the Uncertainty in Current CTMs Sensitivity to key variables explains much of the /


The Destruction of the Ozone Layer. High up in the stratosphere, Oliver Ozone hangs out soaking up the rays.

he approaches, he realizes that he has the advantage. The bond between the kidnapping chlorine and the snatched oxygen is weak at best. Being an atom of the same type, Omar can create a much stronger bond with the captured oxygen. Making up his /, and again, and again…………. ….one chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 ozone molecules!!! Over several years, the combined effect of billions of CFC’s destroy enough ozone molecules, that the ozone layer becomes weak and a hole starts to form. The use of CFC’s have/


Do-Now What is the atmosphere? Name the 5 layers of the atmosphere.

the tropopause. Atmospheric Layers: Above the troposphere is the stratosphere. The stratosphere contains the ozone layer. Temperature increases with altitude through the stratosphere starting at the ozone layer. Atmospheric Layers: The heating in this layer is caused by ozone molecules (O3) / in which layer of the atmosphere? Thermosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere REVIEW 9. What color would be best for a home designed to absorb energy? Red White Gray Black REVIEW 9. What color would be best for a/


THE ATMOSPHERE AND AIR POLLUTION. LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHERE Lower atmosphere – contains 99% of all atmospheric air Troposphere Stratosphere Ionosphere.

level Most weather occurs here Most dense layer of the atmosphere STRATOSPHERE Directly above the troposphere Extends from 9 to 31 miles above the Earth at sea level The Ozone Layer that traps and scatters UV radiation from/ SBS: pollutant source removal, increasing ventilation rates, air cleaning/filtering, communication and education REDUCING AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS Best way = Conservation, just use less! Reducing pollution from transportation Input Control (pollution prevention) a.Cleaner burning gasoline/


Chapter 20.  We live at the bottom of a thin layer of gases surrounding the earth Atmosphere  The Atmosphere is made up of several layers  We live.

as altitude decreases, the atmospheric pressure increases. Another graph: As altitude decreases, atmospheric pressure increases.  Ozone (O3) Found in 2 nd layer of atmosphere (stratosphere) Filters our most of the sun’s harmful UV rays  Ultraviolet rays – dangerous/Act Has helped reduce some of the harmful impacts of acid deposition  Solutions to acid deposition:  Prevention (BEST solutions) Improve energy efficiency Reduce coal use or burn low-sulfur coal Increase natural gas use and renewable energy /


Clean Air Updates Janet McCabe U.S. EPA Office of Air and Radiation Program Update Ozone Transport Commission November 10, 2011.

-1990s to protect the ozone layer but has high global warming effects The new compound is good for both the ozone layer and global warming Proposed rule published Oct 17, 2011. Final rule expected summer 2012. 11 Next Ozone NAAQS Review 12 Stage of/MJO structure can inform future design Use a combination of permanent staff, in-kind contributions, and targeted contracting that best meets regional needs Focus on technical analyses and support rather than policy or research Inclusion of tribes RPO scope should /


Chapter 11—Part 2 Cyanobacteria and the Rise of Oxygen and Ozone.

~2.3 Ga Atmospheric O 2 was therefore fairly low (< about 10 -2 PAL (times the Present Atmospheric Level) The best evidence for the rise of O 2 now comes from sulfur isotopes… S isotopes and the rise of O 2 Sulfur has 4/atmospheric O 2 We can calculate how the ozone layer develops as atmospheric O 2 levels increase  Ozone and temperature at different O 2 Levels 1-D climate modelPhotochemical model A. Segura et al. Astrobiology (2003) The ozone layer The ozone layer does not really disappear until O 2 levels/


Effect of BrO Mixing Height to Ozone Depletion Events Sunny Choi.

Tropospheric BrO column derived from GOME-2 satellite total BrO column observation Tropospheric BrO is uniformly distributed in a mixing layer of a fixed mixing height Set 4 different BrO mixing heights 200m, 400m, 600m and 800m Compare the results to/O3 depletion depends on the BrO mixing height significantly Mixing height of 400m shows the best correlation in the simulation using GOME-2 tropospheric BrO column Surface ozone measurements by S. Oltmans (Barrow) and K. Anlauf (Alert) Comparison to Ozonesonde/


OZONE TECHNOLOGY The Step to a cleaner tomorrow

than chlorine Where ozone can be found? Ozone is naturally produced in the atmosphere by lighting discharges Ozone is also produced from sun’s ultra-violet rays in our upper atmosphere producing the ozone layer How is ozone Created industrially? / ON •Rogers Roost Restaurant, MI •Hampton Inn and Suites Airport ,TX •Pheasant and Quail Pub, BC •Best Western, MN •Marriott Hotels & resorts •……. Ozone as a general Sanitizer in North America Government Agencies •AATC(Atlanta Airport), GA •City Of Lewiston, NY •/


INTERCONTINENTAL TRANSPORT OF OZONE AND AEROSOLS Daniel J. Jacob and support from NOAA, EPRI, NASA, EPA (ICAP) with T. Duncan Fairlie, Colette L. Heald,

. [2004] Observations by D. Parrish, J. Roberts, T. Ryesrson (NOAA/AL) CONCEPTUAL PICTURE OF OZONE PRODUCTION IN TRANSPACIFIC ASIAN POLLUTION PLUMES NO x HNO 3 PAN Asian boundary layer (OPE ~ 5) PAN, weak  O 3 Warm conveyor belt; 5-10% export of NO y/by factor of 2; insufficient emissions or excessive scavenging? Park et al. [2004b] Simulation with  = 1±1 days provides the best fit to the TRACE-P observations;  implies factor of 2 underestimate in Bond et al. [2004] inventory for East Asia  corresponding/


Influence of Lightning-produced NOx on upper tropospheric ozone ------Using TES/O3&CO, OMI/NO2&HCHO in CMAQ modeling study M. J. Newchurch 1, A. P. Biazar.

.nasa.gov/RAQMS/ Satellite data (monthly mean ozone, CO, NO2, HCHO for Aug. 2006) Figure 6. IONS 06 operational sites. Result Compared to CTL run, a maximum ozone excess (6 ppbv) is produced at the 19th model layer (~10 to 13 km altitude). Figure 3/ 424 ozonesondes were launched from 23 North American sites during August 2006, providing the best set of free tropospheric ozone measurements ever gathered across the continent in a single season. This ozonesonde network was specifically designed to quantify: 1/


Planet Earth The Composition and Layers of the Physical Earth. Earth Science Review Book - Chapter 1 Earth Science Review Book - Chapter 1 Holt Text –

is not flat as was once believed. Columbus 2.Another evidence is Star paths through the sky. One of the best known stars is the North Star (POLARIS) We can observe many stars traveling in a circular or curved pattern over /followed by Oxygen (21%); CO 2 makes up less than 1% 16 Atmosphere Layers 17 Properties of the Atmosphere ESRT - Page 14 Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere OZONE 18 OZONE DEPLETION The ozone absorbs harmful UV rays from the Sun. Depletion caused by CFC’s (ChloroFluoroCarbons)/


EXAM REVIEW POWER POINT 6. he breakdown of ozone into oxygen results from the electromagnetic absorption spectrum of ozone. This production of oxygen.

ozone. This production of oxygen in the ozone layer is caused by exposing ozone to a strong source of which type of electromagnetic radiation? Aradio waves Bmicrowaves Cinfrared light Dultraviolet light Hawaii is composed mainly of volcanoes with gentle slopes and large surface areas. Which characteristics best/surrounding continental materials Beruptions of continental shield volcanoes Cconvergence of continental plates Which layer of Earth is the source of lava that erupts from volcanoes? Aasthenosphere /


SOLVAY Phasing out ozone-depleting substances: Industry responses to more sustainable consumption and production Jacques de Gerlache, Ph.D. senior toxicologist.

, energy-efficiency, drop-in replacements. SOLVAY Meanwhile, although without impact on the ozone layer, HFCs are greenhouse gases Their Global Warming Potential (GWP) however is in general/best practice. www.figaroo.org SOLVAY One condition : alternatives to HFCs in MAC appliances to be technically reliable and economically affordable at large scale From containment to bans : About the MAC directive SOLVAY Conclusion F-gases represented a unique opportunity to contribute to save the ozone layer/


Winter Ozone Analyses in Wyomings Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) June 21, 2011 Kelly Bott Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality Air Quality Division.

that VOC reductions may be the best approach for reducing ozone  Recommendations - Collecting additional VOC canister samples - Looking at diurnal profiles of VOCs to better understand the role of VOCs in winter ozone formation 7 Conceptual Model of Winter Episodes/ large NOx sources  Evaluate whether NOx emissions are (and remain) stratified in vertical layers nearby and downwind of buoyant NOx sources under different atmospheric stability regimes  Evaluate spatial variability of VOC//


Abstract Using OMI ozone profiles as the boundary conditions for CMAQ calculations significantly improves the agreement of the model with ozonesonde observations.

gridded OMI O 3 profiles (24 layers) onto 39 sigma layers of CMAQ. Application of OMI Ozone Profiles in CMAQ Conclusions Using OMI ozone profiles as lateral BCs for CMAQ, improves the middle and upper-tropospheric ozone calculations. By modifying modeled O 3 /.html).http://croc.gsfc.nasa.g ov/intexb/ions06.html Evaluation with IONS06 ozonesondes IONS06 provides the best set of free tropospheric ozone measurements ever gathered across the continent in a single season data. Of the IONS06 ozonesondes, 252 /


Chapters 24, 25 and 26.  The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds Earth.  Forms a protective layer between Earth and space  Provides conditions.

because of the ozone layer, which absorbs ultraviolet radiation from sunlight  Ozone layer is important for life because UV radiation can be harmful to life  Chemical pollutants can deplete the ozone layer, but ozone levels have mostly stabilized recently 8  The layer above the / of galaxies indicating they are moving away from us  Einstein’s theory of general relativity  Currently the best explanation of available evidence 35  Astronomers calculate the age of the universe based on how fast it is/


Pending: Major Grade Project Due Friday Due Friday: 11/02/2012 – 3:45 1.Create your own layered anatomical presentation (2D or 3D [3D + 10 overall]) 2.All.

Rate B.Birth Rate – Death Rate C.Birth Rate x Death Rate D.Birth Rate / Death Rate What statement best describes the population shown in the graph below? A.Birth rate = Death rate B.Birth rate < Death rate C.Birth/ rain drops, slowly impacts pH of water, soil, etc. Pollution Ozone Layer Destruction –CFCs: chlorofluorocarbons – released into the air through old refrigerator and spray cans, destroy ozone layer (Stratosphere). –Low ozone leads to high UV radiation –UV radiation: can cause skin cancer /


ERE11: International Environmental Problems International externalities –Optimisation analysis –Game-theory analysis Acid rain Depletion of the ozone layer.

Problems International externalities –Optimisation analysis –Game-theory analysis Acid rain Depletion of the ozone layer Climate change Last week Instruments of Environmental Policy Criteria, incl. cost-effectiveness Instruments/cooperative Cooperative Insights A non-cooperative solution ignores externalities, and is therefore not optimal A cooperative solution is in the best interest of all together, although not necessarily in the interest of each individual Under some conditions, a cooperative solution /


MP SUCCESS Phased out 95% of ozone-depleting substances in 20 years Placed the ozone layer on a path to return to pre-1980 levels by 2065. Reduced climate.

Action before MP Initial Voluntary action due to -Awareness, promoted by scientists, NGOs and media, of the danger to the ozone layer -Signals from national regulations and policies that old technologies are out and those who are first with the new will win/ beginning, width more important to convince all one that the important players of the world want ozone-safe technologies Regulatory Action-2 ‘Start and Strengthen’- ‘Best is the Enemy of the Good’ 1987 MP had mild measures to attract all. Strengthened 6/


1. The layer that contains most of the mass of the atmosphere is the A.Stratosphere B.Troposphere C.Mesosphere D.Exosphere.

key sources of VOC’s. VOC’s are part of photochemical reactions that produces harmful ground –level ozone. 15. A thermal inversion means a layer of _________ air above the air in lower atmosphere, and a thermal inversion tends to __________ air pollution/minerals in the ground. D.Photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. 30. Persistent swelling of the tubes within the lungs best describes which condition? A.Asthma B.Emphysema C.Chronic bronchitis D.Lung cancer Emphysema destroys the walls of the alveoli /


THE CANADIAN BREWER SPECTROPHOTOMETER NETWORK (CBSN) by: Tom Grajnar Ozone and UV Network Manager.

spectrophotometer as prime standard for ground-based ozone monitoring Is a modified Ebert spectrophotometer that can be used to measure total column ozone, SO2, NO2, ozone profile, aerosol optical depth and temperature of the ozone layer 1979-Development began at MSC 1980-Working /Stations in the GAW Network CBSN is an example of how a Brewer Network might be operated with minimal resources Best to get input from other Brewer networks and scientists and recommend a set of “minimal requirements” for proper /


Earth Science Review Questions. 1. Which historical model of the solar system best matches what we know today? a. geocentric model b. heliocentric model.

boundaries is evidence of the theory of natural selection. 8. Look at the illustration below. Which of the following statements best describes this type of boundary? a. The illustration above shows a subduction zone. b. The illustration above shows an/Earth? a. Sea level is rising. b. Global average temperatures are increasing. c. World ocean is becoming more acidic. d. Ozone layer is decreasing. 27. What threat to the environment is the most direct cause of extinctions? a. greenhouse effect b. air pollution/


The atmosphere is a thin layer of gases surrounding Earth.atmosphere The atmosphere contains the oxygen and water necessary for life on Earth. The atmosphere.

about 21 percent is oxygen. The rest is water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone. Composition of the Atmosphere Gravity pulls the atmosphere toward Earth, creating air pressure/and Altitude Temperature changes in different ways as altitude increases in the different layers of the atmosphere. Temperature and Altitude Energy is transferred through conduction, /, creating a heat surplus. The Greenhouse Effect The gases that trap IR best are water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. The Greenhouse Effect (cont/


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