2 Management Perspectives Omnipotent View of ManagementManagers are directly responsible for an organization’s success or failure.Symbolic View of ManagementThe view that much of the organization’s success or failure is due to external forces outside the managers’ control.
3 Constraints on Managerial DiscretionManagerialDiscretionOrganizationalCultureOrganizationalEnvironment
4 Organizational Culture The shared values, principles, traditions, and ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members act.It is a perception.It is descriptive.Employee shareThe same view ofThe culture.
5 Dimensions of Organizational Culture Precision, analyses, attention to detailsResults vs how outcomes are achievedAttention toDetailInnovation &Risk TakingOutcomeOrientationOrganizationalCulturePeopleOrientationStabilityEmphasis on maintaining status quo.Mgmt considers how decisions affect people.AggressivenessTeamOrientationCompetitiveness vs cooperativeWork as a team vs individualsDimensions of Organizational Culture
6 Strong Cultures Weak Cultures Values widely shared Culture conveys consistent messages about what’s importantMost employees can tell stories about company history/heroesEmployees strongly identify with cultureStrong connection between shared values and behaviorValues limited to few people-usually top managementCulture sends contradictory messages about what’s importantEmployees have little knowledge of company’s history/heroesEmployees have little identification with cultureLittle connection between shared values and behaviors
7 How Employees Learn Culture StoriesRitualsMaterial symbolsLanguage
8 Managerial Decisions Affected by Culture PlanningThe degree of risk a plan should containWhether plans should be developed by individuals or teamsThe degree of environmental scanning in which management will engageOrganizingHow much autonomy should be designed into employees jobsWhether tasks should be done by individuals or teamsDegree to which departmental managers should interact with one another
9 Managerial Decisions Affected by Culture LeadingThe degree to which managers are concerned with increasing employees job satisfactionWhat leadership styles are appropriateWhether all disagreements – even constructive ones- should be eliminatedControllingWhether to impose external controls or to allow employees to control their own actionsWhat criteria should be emphasized in employee performance evaluationWhat repercussions will occur from exceeding one’s budget
11 Creating an Ethical Culture Be a visible role modelCommunicate ethical expectationsProvide ethics trainingVisibly reward ethical acts and punish unethical onesProvide protective mechanisms so employees can discuss ethical dilemmas and report unethical behavior without fear
12 Creating an Innovative Culture According to Goran EkvallChallenge and involvement – are employees involved in, motivated by, and committed to the long-term goals and success of the organization?Freedom – can employees independently define their work, exercise discretion, and take initiative in their day to day activities?Trust and openness – are employees supportive and respectful to each other?Idea time – Do individuals have time to elaborate on new ideas before taking actions?Playfulness/humor – is the workplace spontaneous and fun?Conflict resolution – do individuals make decisions and resolves issues based on the good of the organization versus personal interest?Debates – are employees allowed to express opinions and put forth ideas for consideration and review?Risk- taking – do managers tolerate uncertainty and ambiguity and are employees rewarded for taking risks?
13 Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture Characteristics of Customer-Responsive CultureSuggestions for ManagersType of employeeType of job environmentEmpowermentHire people with personalities and attitudes consistent with customer service: friendly, attentive, enthusiastic, patient, good listening skillsDesign jobs so employees have as much control as possible to satisfy customers, without rigid rules and proceduresGive employees the discretion to make day-to-day decisions on job related activities
14 Characteristics of Customer-Responsive Culture Suggestions for ManagersRole ClarityConsistent desire to satisfy and delight customersReduce uncertainty about what employees can and cannot do by continual training on product knowledge, listening, and other behavioral skills.Clarify organization’s commitment to doing whatever it takes even if it’s outside and employees normal job requirements
15 Creating a Culture that Supports Diversity What Managers Can Do…Managers must show that they value diversity through their decisions and actions. (focus on performance not defining problems in terms of gender, culture, race, or disability)Look for ways to reinforce employee behaviors that exemplifies inclusiveness.Encouraging individuals to value and defend diverse viewsCreating traditions and ceremonies that celebrate diversityRewarding “heroes” and “heroine” who accept and promote inclusiveness
16 Spirituality and Organizational Culture It's a feature of a culture where organizational values promote a sense of purpose through meaningful work taking place in a context of community.It recognizes that people havea mind and spiritSeek to find meaning and purpose in their workHave desire to connect with other human beings and be part of a community
17 Characteristics of and Organization with strong workplace spirituality Strong sense of purposeFocus on individual developmentTrust and opennesEmployee empowermentToleration of employee expression