Presentation on theme: "2014 AP Human Geography Free Response Questions Released."— Presentation transcript:
2014 AP Human Geography Free Response Questions Released
Human Geography Free Response Time 75 minutes Percent of total score 50
Directions You have 75 minutes to answer all three of the following questions. It is recommended that you spend approximately one-third of your time (25 minutes) on each question. It is suggested that you take up to 5 minutes of this time to plan and outline each answer. You may use the unlined space below each question for notes. Be sure to write your answers on the lined pages immediately following each question.
Question 1 1. Rostow’s Five-stage model of economic growth and the core-periphery concept of Wallerstein’s three-part world theory are two of the more common economic development models. A. Identify and compare three differences between the stages of economic growth and the core –periphery model. B. Use one of the two models to explain the level of economic development in either Mexico or Brazil. C. Give two examples of how the core-periphery concept can be applied below the national scale.
Question 1 Part A Answer Identify & Compare 3 differences Stages of economic growth Rostow Accurately names / describes all five stages (Traditional society, preconditions for take-off, take off, drive to maturity, mass consumption) National economies developing forward over time National-level analysis Core-Periphery model Wallerstein Accurately names all three parts of the system (core, periphery, semi- periphery) Countries are static or can move backward in development International –level analysis
Question 1 Part A Answer cont. Stages of economic growth Rostow Economic change that focuses on a single country Uneven global development can be lessened Countries fund investment for economic growth internally. Core-Periphery model Wallerstein Economic change that focuses on spatial relationships between countries ( trade, interdependence, interaction) Uneven global development is a basic characteristic Peripheral countries are dependent on core countries to finance investment for economic growth.
Question 1 Part A Answer cont. Stages of economic growth Rostow International trade may help countries to grow economically Does not emphasize the role of colonialism/ Imperialism or neo colonialism Core-Periphery model Wallerstein International trade strengthens development in core countries (exporting manufactured goods) and constrains development in peripheral countries (exporting resources) Emphasizes the role of colonialism/imperialism or neo colonialism.
Question 1 Part A Answer cont. Stages of economic growth Rostow Western/ Capitalist or liberal viewpoint Core-Periphery model Wallerstein Marxist/structuralist viewpoint One point is earned for each difference compared. To earn one point for a difference, the response must make a corresponding comparison of both models
Question 1 Part B Use 1 of the 2 models to explain the level of economic development in Mexico/Brazil ROSTOW Take-off Stage 3 – Agriculture is mechanized and commercialized Or Manufacturing investment is export-based economy Transition from preconditions for take off to take-off (stage2-stage3) At least one characteristic listed under take-off Wallerstein Semi-periphery Newly industrialized country (NIC) OR Countries able to exploit peripheral countries (LDCs), but are themselves expointed by the core countries (MDCs)
Question 1 Part B Cont. Use 1 of the 2 models to explain the level of economic development in Mexico/Brazil ROSTOW Drive to Maturity (or stage4) Economic output exceeds population growth rate Or Increased manufacturing specialization and integration into the global economy Or Increased incorporation of advanced technology Wallerstein
Question 1 Part B cont. Use 1 of the 2 models to explain the level of economic development in Mexico/Brazil Rostow Wallerstein One point is earned for identifying a ”stage” or “part” One point is earned for an explanation of the “stage” or “part” Both identification and explanation must be from the same model. One point may be earned for an explanation without identifying or correctly identifying a “stage” or “part”
Question 1 Part C Give 2 examples of how the core-periphery concept can be applied below the national scale. Core Central Business District City Small town Political center Large /Primate city or metropolitan area Populated area/region Periphery Zone of transition/residential Suburb/edge city Remote areas or rural hinterland Less powerful center/area Small/ Medium city or non metropolitan area/region Less populated region
Question 1 Part C cont. Give 2 examples of how the core-periphery concept can be applied below the national scale. Core Core state or province Periphery Peripheral state or province One point is earned for each type of core-pheriphery example identified from the list in the table Spatial or geographically-bounded terminology must be evident for both core and periphery examples Global-scale and country-scale examples earn no credit
Question 2 2. The international borders of Africa countries are a legacy of colonialism. A. Describe the concept of a superimposed boundary. B. Describe three political or cultural consequences of superimposed boundaries in Africa. C. Identify and explain one challenge landlocked African countries face in developing viable economies.
Question 2 Part A Answer Define the concept of a superimposed boundary. A boundary line or border line placed over and ignoring an existing cultural pattern OR arbitrarily imposed by external powers
Question 2 Part B Answer Describe 3 political or cultural consequences superimposed boundaries in Africa Multinational or multiethnic state Multistate nation Internal Struggle External Struggle Separate nations within the same territory Culture group split into pieces, made into minority groups Increased likelihood of religious, ethnic, or tribal conflict IncreasedIncreased likelihood of international, regional or cross- border conflict
Question 2 Part B Answer Cont. Describe 3 political or cultural consequences superimposed boundaries in Africa New language Cultural syncretism (Synthesis) Migration Government Change European or regional languages (Swahili) become official language or lingua franca Between culture groups of a single country May increase number of refugees or internally displaced persons; traditional or seasonal migration patterns disrupted Nation- building difficulties, non- viable states formation of new independent states, relocated capitals
Question 2 Part B Answer Cont. Describe 3 political or cultural consequences superimposed boundaries in Africa Lost or limited access to natural resources Ineffective governance Political and economic hubs Economic dependency Governments, antecedent treaties and laws less effective Diffusion patterns extend from ports along coasts to points inland
Question 2 Part C Identify and explain 1 challenge landlocked African countries face in developing viable economies Identify Access to the Sea Increased cost of imports Limited road or rail transportation for imported goods in bulk Economic Cooperation Vulnerability Explain Lack of easy access to maritime trade or ocean resources. Due to customs, tariffs, tolls, distance or transportation costs More break-of-bulk points Communications needed between landlocked and bordering states (including provisions and resources under the law of the Seas) Can be cut off from global trade or political support by hostile neighbors Landlocked Economies
Question 3 3. Agricultural systems, such as the production of coffee, are part of a global network. A. Describe a common characteristic shared by the coffee producing countries shown on the map. B. Explain two impacts of coffee farming on producing countries. C. Identify and explain one way increased coffee consumption outside of coffee growing areas affects its production. D. Explain one change in the urban landscape in the developed world associated with coffee consumption.
Question 3 Part A Answer Describe a common characteristic shared by the coffee producing countries shown on the map below 1. Less developed, developing, pheripheral, smi-peripheral 2. Tropical regions or between tropic lines, low latituteds, equatorial 3. Former colonies 4. Utilize plantation or small scale agriculture
Question 3 Part B Answer Explain 2 impacts of coffee farming on producing countries Economic Development Increased employment growth of GNP Development of infrastructure cash/export crop Improved foreign exchange Increased global/trade/better international relations
Question 3 Part B Answer Cont.. Explain 2 impacts of coffee farming on producing countries Single Commodity dependency Economic dependence on a single crop Coffee prices set by global traders Negatively impacts farmers income and quality of life Proliferation of low wage jobs Underdevelopment as a result of profits leaving the country
Question 3 Part B Answer Cont.. Explain 2 impacts of coffee farming on producing countries Environmental Harmful effects of agricultural chemicals Water use issues Deforestation Biodiversity loss Soil erosion
Question 3 Part B Answer Cont.. Explain 2 impacts of coffee farming on producing countries Agricultural land use Coffee, or other cash crop, vs. Food Coffee production limits what other crops/livestock can be grown to meet local needs Shift from traditional to commercial agriculture
Question 3 Part C Answer Identify and explain 1 way increased coffee consumption outside of coffee growing areas affects its production ID Increased Production Increased fair trade production Explanation Increased resources dedicated to coffee production (land etc.) Adoption of new techniques dedicated to coffee production Increased profit New players in the coffee industry Increased farm earnings/workers wages Fewer links in the commodity chain More environmentally friendly farming techniques
Question 3 Part C Answer Cont. Identify and explain 1 way increased coffee consumption outside of coffee growing areas affects its production ID Increased Organic Production Increased demand for certain blends Explanation More environmentally friendly farming techniques Price Premium More acreage devoted to specialty varieties at the expense of traditional varieties
Question 3 Part D Explain one change in the urban landscape in the developed world associated with coffee consumption Basic More Coffee Shops Multi-function/specialty coffee shops Coffee shops as catalyst Environmental impact Complex Special concept proximity to consumers, Central place theory,diffusion Gathering spots, coffee related merchandise Revitalization of CBD / neighborhood Change in urban viewscape(litter and signage), emissions and congestion at drive=throughs