Presentation on theme: "Free Response Questions Released"— Presentation transcript:
1 Free Response Questions Released 2014 AP Human GeographyFree Response Questions Released
2 Human Geography Free Response Time 75 minutesPercent of total score 50
3 DirectionsYou have 75 minutes to answer all three of the following questions. It is recommended that you spend approximately one-third of your time (25 minutes) on each question. It is suggested that you take up to 5 minutes of this time to plan and outline each answer. You may use the unlined space below each question for notes. Be sure to write your answers on the lined pages immediately following each question.
4 Question 11. Rostow’s Five-stage model of economic growth and the core-periphery concept of Wallerstein’s three-part world theory are two of the more common economic development models.A. Identify and compare three differences between the stages of economic growth and the core –periphery model.B. Use one of the two models to explain the level of economic development in either Mexico or Brazil.C. Give two examples of how the core-periphery concept can be applied below the national scale.
5 Question 1 Part A Answer Identify & Compare 3 differences Stages of economic growth RostowCore-Periphery model WallersteinAccurately names / describes all five stages (Traditional society, preconditions for take-off, take off, drive to maturity, mass consumption)National economies developing forward over timeNational-level analysisAccurately names all three parts of the system (core, periphery, semi- periphery)Countries are static or can move backward in developmentInternational –level analysis
6 Question 1 Part A Answer cont. Stages of economic growth RostowCore-Periphery model WallersteinEconomic change that focuses on a single countryUneven global development can be lessenedCountries fund investment for economic growth internally.Economic change that focuses on spatial relationships between countries ( trade, interdependence, interaction)Uneven global development is a basic characteristicPeripheral countries are dependent on core countries to finance investment for economic growth.
7 Question 1 Part A Answer cont. Stages of economic growth RostowCore-Periphery model WallersteinInternational trade may help countries to grow economicallyDoes not emphasize the role of colonialism/ Imperialism or neo colonialismInternational trade strengthens development in core countries (exporting manufactured goods) and constrains development in peripheral countries (exporting resources)Emphasizes the role of colonialism/imperialism or neo colonialism.
8 Question 1 Part A Answer cont. Stages of economic growth RostowCore-Periphery model WallersteinWestern/ Capitalist or liberal viewpointMarxist/structuralist viewpointOne point is earned for each difference compared.To earn one point for a difference, the response must make a corresponding comparison of both models
9 Question 1 Part B Use 1 of the 2 models to explain the level of economic development in Mexico/BrazilROSTOWTake-off Stage 3 – Agriculture is mechanized and commercializedOr Manufacturing investment is export-based economyTransition from preconditions for take off to take-off (stage2-stage3)At least one characteristic listed under take-offWallersteinSemi-peripheryNewly industrialized country (NIC)ORCountries able to exploit peripheral countries (LDCs), but are themselves expointed by the core countries (MDCs)
10 Question 1 Part B Cont. Use 1 of the 2 models to explain the level of economic development in Mexico/BrazilROSTOWDrive to Maturity (or stage4)Economic output exceeds population growth rateOr Increased manufacturing specialization and integration into the global economyOr Increased incorporation of advanced technologyWallerstein
11 Question 1 Part B cont. Use 1 of the 2 models to explain the level of economic development in Mexico/BrazilRostowWallersteinOne point is earned for identifying a ”stage” or “part”One point is earned for an explanation of the “stage” or “part”Both identification and explanation must be from the same model.One point may be earned for an explanation without identifying or correctly identifying a “stage” or “part”
12 Question 1 Part C Give 2 examples of how the core-periphery concept can be applied below the national scale.CoreCentral Business DistrictCitySmall townPolitical centerLarge /Primate city or metropolitan areaPopulated area/regionPeripheryZone of transition/residentialSuburb/edge cityRemote areas or rural hinterlandLess powerful center/areaSmall/ Medium city or non metropolitan area/regionLess populated region
13 Question 1 Part C cont. Give 2 examples of how the core-periphery concept can be applied below the national scale.CoreCore state or provincePeripheryPeripheral state or provinceOne point is earned for each type of core-pheriphery example identified from the list in the tableSpatial or geographically-bounded terminology must be evident for both core and periphery examplesGlobal-scale and country-scale examples earn no credit
14 Question 22. The international borders of Africa countries are a legacy of colonialism.A. Describe the concept of a superimposed boundary.B. Describe three political or cultural consequences of superimposed boundaries in Africa.C. Identify and explain one challenge landlocked African countries face in developing viable economies.
15 Question 2 Part A AnswerDefine the concept of a superimposed boundary.A boundary line or border line placed over and ignoring an existing cultural pattern OR arbitrarily imposed by external powers
16 Question 2 Part B Answer Describe 3 political or cultural consequences superimposed boundaries in AfricaMultinational or multiethnic stateMultistate nationInternal StruggleExternal StruggleSeparate nations within the same territoryCulture group split into pieces, made into minority groupsIncreased likelihood of religious, ethnic, or tribal conflictIncreasedIncreased likelihood of international, regional or cross- border conflict
17 Question 2 Part B Answer Cont Question 2 Part B Answer Cont. Describe 3 political or cultural consequences superimposed boundaries in AfricaNew languageCultural syncretism (Synthesis)MigrationGovernment ChangeEuropean or regional languages (Swahili) become official language or lingua francaBetween culture groups of a single countryMay increase number of refugees or internally displaced persons; traditional or seasonal migration patterns disruptedNation- building difficulties, non- viable states formation of new independent states, relocated capitals
18 Question 2 Part B Answer Cont Question 2 Part B Answer Cont. Describe 3 political or cultural consequences superimposed boundaries in AfricaLost or limited access to natural resourcesIneffective governancePolitical and economic hubsEconomic dependencyGovernments, antecedent treaties and laws less effectiveDiffusion patterns extend from ports along coasts to points inland
19 Question 2 Part C Identify and explain 1 challenge landlocked African countries face in developing viable economiesLandlocked EconomiesIdentifyExplainAccess to the SeaIncreased cost of importsLimited road or rail transportation for imported goods in bulkEconomic CooperationVulnerabilityLack of easy access to maritime trade or ocean resources.Due to customs, tariffs, tolls, distance or transportation costsMore break-of-bulk pointsCommunications needed between landlocked and bordering states (including provisions and resources under the law of the Seas)Can be cut off from global trade or political support by hostile neighbors
20 Question 33. Agricultural systems, such as the production of coffee, are part of a global network.A. Describe a common characteristic shared by the coffee producing countries shown on the map.B. Explain two impacts of coffee farming on producing countries.C. Identify and explain one way increased coffee consumption outside of coffee growing areas affects its production.D. Explain one change in the urban landscape in the developed world associated with coffee consumption.
21 Question 3 Part A Answer Describe a common characteristic shared by the coffee producing countries shown on the map below1. Less developed, developing, pheripheral, smi-peripheral2. Tropical regions or between tropic lines, low latituteds, equatorial3. Former colonies4. Utilize plantation or small scale agriculture
22 Question 3 Part B Answer Explain 2 impacts of coffee farming on producing countries Economic DevelopmentIncreased employmentgrowth of GNPDevelopment of infrastructurecash/export cropImproved foreign exchangeIncreased global/trade/better international relations
23 Question 3 Part B Answer Cont Question 3 Part B Answer Cont.. Explain 2 impacts of coffee farming on producing countriesSingle Commodity dependencyEconomic dependence on a single cropCoffee prices set by global tradersNegatively impacts farmers income and quality of lifeProliferation of low wage jobsUnderdevelopment as a result of profits leaving the country
24 Harmful effects of agricultural chemicals Water use issues Question 3 Part B Answer Cont.. Explain 2 impacts of coffee farming on producing countriesEnvironmentalHarmful effects of agricultural chemicalsWater use issuesDeforestationBiodiversity lossSoil erosion
25 Question 3 Part B Answer Cont Question 3 Part B Answer Cont.. Explain 2 impacts of coffee farming on producing countriesAgricultural land useCoffee, or other cash crop, vs. FoodCoffee production limits what other crops/livestock can be grown to meet local needsShift from traditional to commercial agriculture
26 Question 3 Part C Answer Identify and explain 1 way increased coffee consumption outside of coffee growing areas affects its productionIDExplanationIncreased ProductionIncreased fair trade productionIncreased resources dedicated to coffee production (land etc.)Adoption of new techniques dedicated to coffee productionIncreased profitNew players in the coffee industryIncreased farm earnings/workers wagesFewer links in the commodity chainMore environmentally friendly farming techniques
27 Question 3 Part C Answer Cont Question 3 Part C Answer Cont. Identify and explain 1 way increased coffee consumption outside of coffee growing areas affects its productionIDExplanationIncreased Organic ProductionIncreased demand for certain blendsMore environmentally friendly farming techniquesPrice PremiumMore acreage devoted to specialty varieties at the expense of traditional varieties
28 Question 3 Part D Explain one change in the urban landscape in the developed world associated with coffee consumptionBasicComplexMore Coffee ShopsMulti-function/specialty coffee shopsCoffee shops as catalystEnvironmental impactSpecial concept proximity to consumers, Central place theory,diffusionGathering spots, coffee related merchandiseRevitalization of CBD / neighborhoodChange in urban viewscape(litter and signage), emissions and congestion at drive=throughs