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La governance e la pratica del sistema duale di formazione Governance and implementation of the Italian dual system Sandra DAgostino ISFOL – Istituto per.

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Presentation on theme: "La governance e la pratica del sistema duale di formazione Governance and implementation of the Italian dual system Sandra DAgostino ISFOL – Istituto per."— Presentation transcript:

1 La governance e la pratica del sistema duale di formazione Governance and implementation of the Italian dual system Sandra DAgostino ISFOL – Istituto per lo Sviluppo della Formazione dei Lavoratori

2 Lavorare insieme per loccupazione dei giovani Gemeinsam für die Beschäftigung junger Menschen arbeiten Napoli, novembre 2012 The Italian Apprenticeship is a labour and training contract with a specific supporting legislation; it is located mainly in the labour market, with limited connections with the education system Italian apprentices are paid workers, who participate to training courses/ experiences in order to acquire different kinds of qualifications Different forms of apprenticeship: three are clearly identified in the legislation Target group: young people from 15 to 29 when entering; it can last up to 3 years according to collective bargaining Key features of the Italian Apprenticeship in comparison with the German dual System

3 Lavorare insieme per loccupazione dei giovani Gemeinsam für die Beschäftigung junger Menschen arbeiten Napoli, novembre 2012 RESEARCH DOCTORATE (4 Years) 1° LEVEL MASTER COURSES 1° UNIVERSITY (bachelors) DEGREE (3 Years) 2° LEVEL MASTER COURSES 2° UNIVERSITY (Masters) DEGREE (2 Years) Upper secondary education diplomas: Licei, technical Institutes and Vocational Institutes (5 years) IFTS (1-2 years) Higher technical education ITS (2 years) Higher technical education Primary and lower secondary education (8 years) Professional technician (4 years) professional operator (3 years) Labour Market Different Italian Apprenticeships

4 Lavorare insieme per loccupazione dei giovani Gemeinsam für die Beschäftigung junger Menschen arbeiten Napoli, novembre 2012 Three main forms of apprenticeship : 1.for acquiring a qualification of professional technician and/or professional operator: length 3/4 years; access age: from 15 to 25 years; training: at least 400 hours a year; 2.occupationally-based apprenticeship: purpose: to acquire a vocational qualification or a skills certificate; length 3 years (5 for crafts apprentices); access age: from 18 to 29 years; training: 120 hours provided by the Regions in addition to the vocational training fixed by the collective bargaining; 3.higher education and research apprenticeship: a multi-purpose tool targeted to young people aged from 18 to 29 (at the beginning) to acquire qualification released by the upper secondary or tertiary education system, to enter the registered professions, to become a researcher in the private industry. Forms and purposes of the Italian Apprenticeships

5 Lavorare insieme per loccupazione dei giovani Gemeinsam für die Beschäftigung junger Menschen arbeiten Napoli, novembre 2012 Key data on Italian Apprenticeships Stock and Flows into and ouf of the apprenticeships Stock indicators nr Mean number of employed apprentices in Mean number of employed apprentices in Flows in&out of apprenticeship in 2010 nr Young people entering apprenticeships Apprentices transformed in permanent employees Interrupted apprenticeships contracts Apprentices and the labour market in 2010 % % of apprentices on employed population 15,1% % of apprentices on total amount of new labour contract 3%

6 Lavorare insieme per loccupazione dei giovani Gemeinsam für die Beschäftigung junger Menschen arbeiten Napoli, novembre 2012 Key data on the Italian apprentices (2010) IndicatorsValue Age ,4% ,5% ,7% 25 and more 7,3% Education attainment No title 49,5% Vocational qualification 8,3% Diploma Isced 3 35,4% University degree 6,9% Main Sectors Construction industry 15,7% Hotel & Restaurants 10,4% Retail 24,3% Manufactory industry 23,3%

7 Lavorare insieme per loccupazione dei giovani Gemeinsam für die Beschäftigung junger Menschen arbeiten Napoli, novembre 2012 The governance of the apprenticeships Key feature of the Italian context: the State has an exclusive competence on education and on the labour contracts the Regions (19 Regions + 2 Autonomous Provinces) have an exclusive competence on vocational training, including training provided within the apprenticeships contracts Being a labour and training contract, apprenticeship is located at the interconnection of the respective areas of competences The State has set up the broad legislative framework; then it has devolved its role to the Social Partners As a result, apprenticeship is managed through a consensus among institutional subjects (State and Regions) and the Social Partners.

8 Lavorare insieme per loccupazione dei giovani Gemeinsam für die Beschäftigung junger Menschen arbeiten Napoli, novembre 2012 Training within apprenticeship Different training obligations according to different forms of apprenticeship. Some forms of apprenticeship are aimed to acquire qualifications through full-time education courses: apprenticeship for acquiring a professional operator and/or technician qualification (1 st form): at least 400 hours a year according to the Regions regulations; external training provided by private training centres (not schools!) which have passed an accreditation process to operate with public funds; same final examination as for those who attended the full-time education path higher education and research apprenticeship (3 rd form): the amount of education is agreed through the collaboration among the universities/schools (that release the qualifications) and the companies that employ the apprentices (or their representative organizations) with the Regions as institutional authorities; external training provided by universities or schools; same final examination as for those who attended the full-time education path

9 Lavorare insieme per loccupazione dei giovani Gemeinsam für die Beschäftigung junger Menschen arbeiten Napoli, novembre 2012 Training within apprenticeship The occupationally based apprenticeship is the most widespread through the country: 120 hours to develop key skills and competences through training courses provided by accredited training centres and funded by the Regions technical skills and competences provided under the responsibility of the company, according to the collective bargaining in order to acquire a qualification or a skill certificate. This training can be provided by training centres or by the enterprises themselves if they fulfil the requirements agreed by the Social Partners, that generally consider: human resources involved in the training; equipment, location, machineries; availability of an instructor with specific requirements.

10 Lavorare insieme per loccupazione dei giovani Gemeinsam für die Beschäftigung junger Menschen arbeiten Napoli, novembre 2012 Quality of training for all apprentices The training is provided according to an individual training plan, that is elaborated by the enterprise, referring to the professional standards stated by the collective bargaining; Training for apprentices is provided: according to curricula, for those apprenticeships aimed to acquiring qualifications released by the education system; according to standards defined by the Social Partners referred to job profiles; in the next future all the standards will be linked to the National Repertoire of Qualifications with a national recognition. Each apprentice must have a tutor in the company, who is the person in charge for taking him/her to a successful learning experience through the apprenticeship. Requirements for being an enterprise tutor: years of professional experience; employment grade; compulsory training

11 Lavorare insieme per loccupazione dei giovani Gemeinsam für die Beschäftigung junger Menschen arbeiten Napoli, novembre 2012 Weaknesses to cope with A new legislative framework for apprenticeships has just been implemented (from April 25 th ): it takes time to be fully implemented, and a strict monitoring action to identify and possibly solve critic points. Some weaknesses of the context: –The global crisis has lowered the supply of apprenticeship places and investments on training, especially because of the small size of Italian firms; overlapping with other labour contracts or other actions for young people make it less profitable; –Poor dialogue among schools, Universities and enterprises make it difficult to implement those apprenticeships more linked to the education system; –The social partners are hardly elaborating global strategies, that include the development of apprenticeships as first step of a continuous training system aimed to the growth of the sectors and of the productive system, as required by the new law on apprenticeships.

12 Lavorare insieme per loccupazione dei giovani Gemeinsam für die Beschäftigung junger Menschen arbeiten Napoli, novembre 2012 Strenghts to work on Apprenticeship is highly considered by the institutional parts (Government and Regions) as a tool to invest, in order to cope with the young people unemployment and to increase the level of qualification; The Social Partners have agreed to contribute to the establishment of new framework and to work towards the new perspective in order to boost growth and competitiveness of the Italian economy.


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