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Ch 10 Job Design & Work Measurement Heizer and Render

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1 Ch 10 Job Design & Work Measurement Heizer and Render
Principles of Operations Management, 8e PowerPoint slides by Jeff Heyl

2 Rusty Wallace’s NASCAR Racing Team
NASCAR racing became very popular in the 1990s with huge sponsorship and prize money High performance pit crews are a key element of a successful race team Pit crew members can earn $100,000 per year – for changing tires! © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

3 Rusty Wallace’s NASCAR Racing Team
Each position has very specific work standards Pit crews are highly organized and go though rigorous physical training Pit stops are videotaped to look for improvements © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

4 Human Resource Strategy
The objective of a human resource strategy is to manage labor and design jobs so people are effectively and efficiently utilized People should be effectively utilized within the constraints of other operations management decisions People should have a reasonable quality of work life in an atmosphere of mutual commitment and trust

5 Constraints on Human Resource Strategy
Product strategy Skills needed Talents needed Materials used Safety What Process strategy Technology Machinery and equipment used Safety Procedure Schedules Time of day Time of year (seasonal) Stability of schedules When Individual differences Strength and fatigue Information processing and response Who HUMAN RESOURCE STRATEGY Location strategy Climate Temperature Noise Light Air quality Where Layout strategy Fixed position Process Assembly line Work cell Product How Figure 10.1

6 Labor Planning Employment Stability Policies Follow demand exactly
Matches direct labor costs to production Incurs costs in hiring and termination, unemployment insurance, and premium wages Labor is treated as a variable cost Hold employment constant Maintains trained workforce Minimizes hiring, termination, and unemployment costs Employees may be underutilized during slack periods Labor is treated as a fixed cost

7 Work Schedules Standard work schedule Flex-time Flexible work week
Five eight-hour days Flex-time Allows employees, within limits, to determine their own schedules Flexible work week Fewer but longer days Part-time Fewer, possibly irregular, hours

8 Job Classification and Work Rules
Specify who can do what Specify when they can do it Specify under what conditions they can do it Often result of union contracts Restricts flexibility in assignments and consequently efficiency of production

9 Job Design Specifying the tasks that constitute a job for an individual or a group Job specialization Job expansion Psychological components Self-directed teams Motivation and incentive systems

10 Labor Specialization The division of labor into unique tasks
First suggested by Adam Smith in 1776 Development of dexterity Less loss of time Development of specialized tools Later Charles Babbage (1832) added another consideration Wages exactly fit the required skill required

11 Job Expansion Adding more variety to jobs
Intended to reduce boredom associated with labor specialization Job enlargement Job rotation Job enrichment Employee empowerment

12 Job Enlargement Enriched job Enlarged job Task #3
(Lock printed circuit board into fixture for next operation) Present job (Manually insert and solder six resistors) Task #2 (Adhere labels to printed circuit board) Enlarged job Enriched job Planning (Participate in a cross-function quality improvement team) Control (Test circuits after assembly) Figure 10.2

13 Psychological Components of Job Design
Human resource strategy requires consideration of the psychological components of job design Hawthorne Studies They studied light levels, but discovered productivity improvement was independent from lighting levels Introduced psychology into the workplace The workplace social system and distinct roles played by individuals may be more important than physical factors Individual differences may be dominant in job expectation and contribution

14 Core Job Characteristics
Jobs should include the following characteristics Skill variety Job identity Job significance Autonomy Feedback

15 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Job Design Continuum Job expansion Self-direction Specialization Enlargement Self-directed teams Empowerment Enrichment Figure 10.3 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

16 Self-Directed Teams Group of empowered individuals working together to reach a common goal May be organized for long-term or short-term objectives Effective because Provide employee empowerment Ensure core job characteristics Meet individual psychological needs

17 Self-Directed Teams To maximize effectiveness, managers should
Ensure those who have legitimate contributions are on the team Provide management support Ensure the necessary training Endorse clear objectives and goals Financial and non-financial rewards Supervisors must release control

18 Benefits of Teams and Expanded Job Designs
Improved quality of work life Improved job satisfaction Increased motivation Allows employees to accept more responsibility Improved productivity and quality Reduced turnover and absenteeism

19 Limitations of Job Expansion
Higher capital cost Individuals may prefer simple jobs Higher wages rates for greater skills Smaller labor pool Higher training costs

20 Motivation and Incentive Systems
Bonuses - cash or stock options Profit-sharing - profits for distribution to employees Gain sharing - rewards for improvements Incentive plans - typically based on production rates Knowledge-based systems - reward for knowledge or skills

21 3rd Area of HR Strategy: Labor Standards
Effective manpower planning is dependent on a knowledge of the labor required Labor standards are the amount of time required to perform a job or part of a job Accurate labor standards help determine labor requirements, costs, and fair work Started early in the 20th century Important to both manufacturing and service organizations Necessary for determining staffing requirements Important to labor incentive systems

22 Meaningful Standards Help Determine
Labor content of items produced Staffing needs Cost and time estimates Crew size and work balance Expected production Basis of wage incentive plans Efficiency of employees This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity. Points to be made might include: - capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule - while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis. Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

23 Labor Standards May be set in four ways: Historical experience
Time studies Predetermined time standards Work sampling

24 Historical Experience
How the task was performed last time Easy and inexpensive Data available from production records or time cards Data is not objective and may be inaccurate Not recommended

25 Time Studies Involves timing a sample of a worker’s performance and using it to set a standard Requires trained and experienced observers Cannot be set before the work is performed Define the task to be studied Divide the task into precise elements Decide how many times to measure the task Time and record element times and rating of performance

26 Time Studies Compute average observed time
Sum of the times recorded to perform each element Number of observations = Determine performance rating and normal time Normal time = x Average observed time Performance rating factor Add the normal times for each element to develop the total normal time for the task Compute the standard time Standard time = Total normal time 1 - Allowance factor

27 Rest Allowances Personal time allowance Delay allowance
4% - 7% of total time for use of restroom, water fountain, etc. Delay allowance Based upon actual delays that occur Fatigue allowance Based on our knowledge of human energy expenditure

28 Rest Allowances 1. Constant allowance
(A) Personal allowance ……………... 5 (B) Basic fatigue allowance ………… 4 2. Variable allowances: (A) Standing allowance ……………… 2 (B) Abnormal position (i) Awkward (bending) ………… 2 Very awkward (lying, stretching) …………………… 7 Table 10.1

29 Rest Allowances Use of force or muscular energy in lifting, pulling, pushing Weight lifted (pounds) 20 …………………………………… 3 40……………………………………. 9 60……………………………………. 17 Bad light: Well below recommended…. 2 Quite inadequate……………. 5 Figure 10.1

30 Rest Allowances (E) Atmospheric conditions (heat and humidity) …………… 0-10 Close attention: (i) Fine or exacting……………….. 2 (ii) Very fine or very exacting…… 5 Noise level: (i) Intermittent—loud…………….. 2 (ii) Intermittent—very loud or high-pitched………………... 5 Figure 10.1

31 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Rest Allowances Mental strain: (i) Complex or wide span of attention.…………………….. 4 (ii) Very complex………………….. 8 Tediousness: (i) Tedious…………..……………… 2 (ii) Very tedious.…………………… 5 Figure 10.1 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

32 Time Study Example 1 Average observed time = 4.0 minutes
Worker rating = 85% Allowance factor = 13% Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating factor) = (4.0)(.85) = 3.4 minutes It might be useful at this point to discuss typical equipment utilization rates for different process strategies if you have not done so before. Standard time = = = Normal time 1 - Allowance factor 3.4 .87 = 3.9 minutes

33 Time Study Example 2 Allowance factor = 15% Performance Job Element Rating Compose and type letter * % Type envelope address % Stuff, stamp, seal, and 2 1 5* % sort envelopes Cycle Observed (in minutes) Delete unusual or nonrecurring observations (marked with *) Compute average times for each element It might be useful at this point to discuss typical equipment utilization rates for different process strategies if you have not done so before. Average time for A = ( )/4 = 9.5 minutes Average time for B = ( )/5 = 2.2 minutes Average time for C = ( )/4 = 1.5 minutes

34 Time Study Example 2 Compute the normal time for each element
Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating) Normal time for A = (9.5)(1.2) = 11.4 minutes Normal time for B = (2.2)(1.05) = 2.31 minutes Normal time for C = (1.5)(1.10) = 1.65 minutes Add the normal times to find the total normal time Total normal time = = minutes It might be useful at this point to discuss typical equipment utilization rates for different process strategies if you have not done so before. Compute the standard time for the job Standard time = Total normal time 1 - Allowance factor = = minutes 15.36

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