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Chapter 13 The Purposes of Education
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.13 | 2 Forces That Influence Educational Goals Changes in society Shifts in economy, family trends, media, changing social mores Changes in knowledge Discoveries, new developments in science, technology, new organizations of fields of study Changes in beliefs about learners New theories about the learning process or the nature of learners
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.13 | 3 Goals Set broad, general direction or aims Cannot be directly observed Set at national, state, and district levels, becoming more specific as they become more local Objectives Describe specific endpoint or outcome Often measurable in students’ behavior Set at subject or grade level, unit plan level, and lesson plan level, becoming more specific for smaller units of instruction
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.13 | 4 Tyler’s Fundamental Questions for Creating School Goals 1.What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2.What educational experiences can we provide to help attain these purposes? 3.How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4.How can we determine whether (and to what extent) the purposes have been attained?
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.13 | 5 History of Educational Goals Before 1900s Mental discipline approach 1910s to early 1950s Whole-child concept Late 1950s to 1960s Sputnik era emphasis on math, science, languages, gifted and talented 1970s to 1980s Focus on disadvantaged children 1990s to 2000s Emphasis on outcomes and accountability
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.13 | 6 Influential National Reports Action for Excellence (1983) Educating Americans for the 21st Century (1983) High School (1983) A Nation at Risk (1983) First Lessons: A Report on Elementary Education in America (1986) The National Education Goals (1990, 1994, 1997)
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.13 | 7 National Report Recommendations Strengthen core curriculum Improve students’ technology skills (“the Fourth R”) and update schools’ technology Emphasize high-level cognitive and thinking skills Improve programs for disadvantaged and disabled students
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.13 | 8 Swings of the Pendulum Rigorous intellectual training resurfaced –Following WW II –In response to concern about international markets Progressivists’ ideas resurfaced with concerns for the rights and dreams of –Low-income groups –Minority groups
Practical Education Chapter 4 Regulations and Academic Standards Testimony before Pennsylvania State Board of Education February 24, 1998 by Parents and.
International Baccalaureate Diploma Program
Standardized Tests: What Are They? Why Use Them?
A Brief Overview of the Common Core State Standards.
CHAPTER 15 Collin College EDUC 1301 What Does It Mean to Be a Professional Educator?
Talent Development at Whittier International IB World School Whittier PTA October 8, 2012.
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND MODELS
A Curriculum Model based on the work of Ralph Tyler
History and Theory behind Curriculum Design
Training the Teacher Trainers Generic Session G14 Models of Teacher Education.
“The right of every American to first-class citizenship is the most important issue of our time.” Jackie Robinson Copyright 2012 New Dimension Media.
CHAPTER 6 Collin College EDUC 1301 What Makes a Teacher Effective?
Education For Social Work
Principles of Teaching And Learning Exploring Pedagogy, Curriculum, Instruction Collin College EDUC 1301 Chapter 4.
Theory and Practice of Curriculum Development EDU705
Chapter Fifteen Understanding and Using Standardized Tests.
Those Who Can, Teach 10th Edition Kevin Ryan and James M. Cooper Chapter 2 Who are Today’s Students in a Diverse Society?
CHAPTER 3 Collin College EDUC 1301 An Overview of Schooling in America History and Philosophy.
Chapter 1 Introduction.
© 2006 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 17 Preventing Substance Abuse.
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