Presentation on theme: "Grammar Chapter 10. What is Grammar? Basic Points description of patterns speakers use to construct sentences stronger patterns - most nouns form plurals."— Presentation transcript:
Basic Points description of patterns speakers use to construct sentences stronger patterns - most nouns form plurals adding an –s weaker pattern - when to use infinitive (to + verb) or gerund (verb + -ing) following another verb (student must memorize individual word situations) e.g., I am going to go to the movies. She ran singing in the rain.
Basic Points Students must understand that grammar is simply a description of language patterns, there is no single definitive pattern of English like languages, grammar rules change over time e.g., Tendency to use their over his/her, e.g., I hope everyone brought their book., when referring to groups that include both genders.
Basic Points Constructing sentences in English does not entirely depend on grammar rules. Speakers use prefabricated blocks of language (set phrases and sentences patterns) e.g., I have no idea what you’re talking about. or I don’t have any idea what you are talking about. (answer to students: both forms are correct)
Basic Points Patterns such as If I were you, I would... although this can be explained grammatically, students just learn the pattern and apply it. Students purpose for studying grammar should be to find out how speakers of English construct sentences, not a mastery of grammatical rules.
Learning Grammar Look at how children learn grammar. It is a process of trial, error and constant revision until they learn the pattern. Adults and students learn one small piece of grammar at a time, they do not need to assimilate the entire system.
Interlanguage It is normal for students to go through an interlanguage system, a period in which they have incomplete control of the system. Also, students need time to digest grammar input and try out modifications in their interlanguage system through practice.
2 ways to use grammar Receptively - to comprehend listening and reading Productively - to understand in speaking and writing Usually student gain receptive control before productive control
Teaching Grammar Inductive vs Deductive inductive approach : o present the structure o explain it o practice it Deductive approach - o explain first o examples o practice
Inductive vs Deductive inductive approach allows students to try out structure first before you explain it. Some students though, specially adults, are more comfortable with the deductive approach.
Presentation use communicatively in conversation with students let students see or hear multiple examples allow opportunity for them to figure out structure find out how much they already know games or drills to illustrate the structure are a good way to introduce it the goal should be receptive production should be done when students seem ready and willing
Explanation Lecture of grammatical points - Only a small percentage will actually learn from a lecture (different levels of understanding, lack of foundation, to comprehend explanation, some students will be bored Conscious knowledge of a rule does not guarantee accurate production
Teaching explicit grammatical points helps students if… they are embedded in meaningful context contribute positively to communicative goals promote accuracy within fluent, communicative language do not overwhelm students with linguistic terminology are as lively and linguistically motivating as possible
Pointers on explanations Explain at the right level, so not to waste students’ time with what they already know keep explanations short and simple some points are better memorized than explained (e.g., irregular plurals) examples are much easier to understand than explanations use visuals (pictures, graphs, diagrams, timeline drawings of verb tenses, etc.) as appropriate, use L1 in explaining grammar points
Practice Highly controlled - (fill in the blank, select the correct answer, find the error, etc.) allows the student to apply the structure in a controlled situation (good at first step and to check basic understanding) drawback - focuses students on one problem to the exclusion of others Moderately controlled - involves communicative activities where students construct their own sentences and express their own ideas but still focused on the target structure
Practice Free Practice - involves solving multiple language problems at the same time Examples: present continuous tense - talk about something at they watch it happen (action of a classmate / or videotape) relative clauses - have students discuss what kind of friends, movies, music, etc. they like.... Can be distinguished with adjectives (e.g., I like rich friends) or some ideas demand relative clauses (e.g., I like friends who do my homework for me.) practice the use of plural nouns as topics having students discuss the kinds of animals they like and why... (e.g., I like dogs because they are loyal.)
Use of Writing serves as an intermediate step between applying a grammatical rule in a discrete-point and quickly applying it in speaking (productive skills, speaking/writing) unlike speaking writing allows students time to think about how to apply the grammatical structure or use reference tools
Evaluating Grammar Two issues in evaluating student grammar competence: do they know the target structure can they apply their knowledge under the conditions of normal use
Evaluating Grammar classic grammar test involves discrete-point items focused on grammar structure / problem allows teacher to assess basic student knowledge of grammar structure multiple choice fill in the blank correct the error rewriting
Basic rules discrete-point tests have some check your items for ambiguity during test construction use a large number of items
Advantages of discrete- point tests easy to grade allows you to check if students studies specific grammar points prepares students for discrete-point tests
Disadvantages of discrete- point tests can’t tell you how well students can apply the use of the grammatical structure in communication backwash from heavily use of discrete- point items is generally negative (reinforces the concept that knowledge of grammar theory is more important than applying it in real-life situations)
Evaluating application of grammar Two major advantages assesses how well students know the grammar rules and whether they can apply them (usually in writing / speaking) Backwash from this type of testing encourages students to learn how to apply their knowledge rather than being satisfied to understand grammar theory
Problems during speaking tests how to note whether students used target structures how successful students were doing so (rubrics can help, e.g., page 194 ) for higher degrees of scoring precision (record or videotape students and check more carefully) written work is also good, it allows you to assess grammar accuracy at your leisure you can design and use writing task that are specifically designed to practice particular grammatical structures
Answering grammar questions teachers may not always no the answer to the question they may not understand the question itself Rules for answering questions: ask them to give an example of the question (makes question clearer and helps in checking if student answered the question correctly) when you don’t know the answer, it is best to confess you don’t know and find out the