Function: Produces and delivers sperm to the female reproductive system
Testes: A pair of organs that make sperm and testosterone. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone. It helps regulate production of sperm and development of male characteristics. Epididymus: Stores sperm
Vas Deferens: Tube that goes from the epididymus into the body through the prostate gland. Sperm moving through the vas deferens mixes with fluids from several glands. This mixture is called semen. Urethra: From vas deferens semen passes into the urethra, a tube that runs through the penis. The penis is the external organ that transfers semen into the female body.
Ovaries: 2 organs that make eggs. They also release estrogen and progesterone, main female sex hormones. These hormones regulate release of eggs and development of female characteristics. Fallopian Tubes: During ovulation, an egg is released form an ovary and passes into the fallopian tube (leads from an ovary to the uterus). This is where fertilization occurs.
Uterus: If the egg is fertilized, a zygote enters the uterus. The zygote may embed in the thick lining of the uterus (organ in which the zygote develops into a baby). Vagina: When baby is born, s/he passes from the uterus through the vagina and out of the body.
What it is: From puberty to ~early 50s, a woman’s reproductive system goes through monthly changes. These changes (menstrual cycle) prepare the body for pregnancy.
1 st day of menstruation: This is counted as the 1 st day of the cycle. Discharge of blood and tissue from the uterus starts and continues for about 5 days. When menstruation ends: The lining of the uterus thickens. Ovulation: The release of an egg from the ovary. This happens around the 14 th day of the cycle.
If the egg is not fertilized: Menstruation will begin and the egg will be flushed away out of the body. How long the cycle takes: The whole cycle takes about 28 days. If the egg is fertilized: The fertilized egg (zygote) moves down into the uterus where it will grow for the next 9 months before being born. The menstrual cycle usually stops at this time.
STDs: Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Ex: Chlamydia, herpes, hepatitis B, etc… STDs pass from person to person during sexual contact.
Cancer: Disease in which cells grow at an uncontrolled rate. Cancer cells start out as normal cells and then some trigger makes them multiply uncontrollably. Men: most common is cancer of the testes and cancer of the prostate gland. Women: most common are breast cancer and cancer of the cervix.
Infertility: Cannot have children. Men: if they don’t produce enough sperm. Women: if they don’t ovulate normally. STDs: (ex: gonorrhea and chlamydia) can lead to infertility in women. This can occur in men, but not as common as women.