2 Question 1 Which group consists only of nonrenewable resources? sunlight, water, aluminumnatural gas, coal, oilsoil, water, oxygencoal, trees, waterNon-renewable resources: resources that cannot be re-grown, or re-made to keep up with the needs of consumers (humans)Examples include Fossil fuels such as peat, coal, natural gas, and petroleum as well as mineral resources like aluminum.Renewable resources: resources from the Earth that are naturally replenished(Ex: sunlight, wind, heat, water, soil, air, trees or other living organisms)
3 Question 2A federal law requires mining companies to carry out _______, which is the process of restoring the land and vegetation to its original state after mininglitigationClassificationExcavationreclamationExtracting these Ores or Gems from the ground can cause many environmental hazards.One way to reduce the hazards after mining is to use reclamation.Reclamation is the process of creating useful landscapes that meet a variety of goals, typically creating productive ecosystems from mined land.Waste dumps are contoured to flatten them out, to further stabilize them against erosion.They are covered with topsoil, and vegetation is planted to help consolidate the material.
4 Question 3 and 4What is the relationship between fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect?burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphereburning fossil fuels decreases incoming solar radiationburning fossil fuels decreases the absorption capacity of greenhouse gasesburning fossil fuels lowers the greenhouse effectGlobal warming is partly the result of an increased concentration of greenhouse gases, especially _______.Hydrogencarbon dioxideozoneoxygenThe greenhouse effect is naturalHeating of Earth’s surface caused by the retention of heat by certain atmospheric gases.Without the greenhouse effect our planet would be cold.A marked increase in the greenhouse effect might cause our planet to be hot.Solar radiation reaches Earth’s surface and is reradiated as long-wavelength radiation. This radiation cannot escape through the atmosphere and is absorbed and re-released by atmospheric gases. This process is called the greenhouse effect because it is similar to the way that heat is trapped and released in a greenhouse.Global warming, a phenomenon related to the greenhouse effect, is an increase in Earth’s average surface temperature.Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels, are largely responsible for increased levels of carbon dioxide, which is the main greenhouse gas that causes global warming.
5 Question 5 What type of pollution comes from a single place? irrigation pollutionpoint source pollutionnonpoint source pollutionreclamation pollutionThere are two general pollution types.Point pollution is a single identifiable source of air, water, thermal, noise or light pollution.Nonpoint source pollution generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, or seepage.If you can literally point to a single location then it’s a point source if you have to point to multiple sources it’s a non-point source.
6 Question 6_________ is unlimited; however, technological advances are needed to find a practical solution to collect and store it.Nuclear EnergyHydrothermal EnergyFossil Fuel EnergySolar EnergySolar Power is a renewable resource, but it is not without its limits, at least presently.Our best solar panels convert only about 20 percent of the solar energy they receive into usable electricity. Thus, a high number of panels are needed to satisfy even a single home's energy needs. For that reason, solar power systems are still prohibitively expensive and require large amounts of surface area to create a relatively small amount of energy.Again, those limitations are related to technology, not source.Another limitation for solar power is intermittency. Solar power is extremely predictable, making it an easy resource to work with, but it is available only during the day under sunny skies. Although a definite limitation, this problem too is solvable with technology. The key is energy storage. Plenty of sunlight strikes the earth's surface on any given day, enough to power the entire world for years. Solar power's limitations lie in our ability to capture, convert and store solar energy.
7 Question 7The type of coal that releases the greatest amount of energy when burned isanthracitebituminouslignitepeatThere are many types of coal, including anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite.Anthracite has the highest carbon content. Anthracite produces nearly 15,000 Btu's per pound (a Btu, or British Thermal Unit, is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit).Bituminous coal is the most plentiful type of coal in the United States. Bituminous coal is primarily used to generate electricity and to make coke for the steel industry. Bituminous coal has a heat value of 10,500 to 15,500 Btu's per pound. Lignite has the lowest carbon content of coal, and a heat value between 4,000 and 8,300 Btu's per pound.
8 Question 8All of the following methods of generating electricity involve a turbine EXCEPTburning coalnuclear fissionsolar cellswater powerA turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow (usually steam) and converts it into useful work (in this case electrical energy).Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor.Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels.Any energy source that ends up creating heat to turn water into steam will end up using a turbine to then convert that stream movement into electrical energy.The solar cells work differently:Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials, such as silicon.Current starts flowing through the material and this electricity is captured.An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity.
9 Question 9 A fossil fuel that is sometimes obtained from shale is uraniumpeatanthraciteoilThe term oil shale generally refers to any sedimentary rock that contains solid bituminous materials (called kerogen) that are released as petroleum-like liquids when the rock is heated.Oil shale was formed millions of years ago by deposition of silt and organic debris on lake beds and sea bottoms.Over long periods of time, heat and pressure transformed the materials into oil shale in a process similar to the process that forms oil.Oil shale generally contains enough oil that it will burn without any additional processing, and it is known as "the rock that burns".Extracting oil from oil shale is more complex than conventional oil recovery and currently is more expensive. The oil substances in oil shale are solid and cannot be pumped directly out of the ground. The oil shale must first be mined and then heated to a high temperature; the resultant liquid must then be separated and collected.
10 Question 10 Hydroelectric power generates electricity with moving electronsmoving airwaterhot bedrockSo just how do we get electricity from water?Actually, hydroelectric and coal-fired power plants produce electricity in a similar way. In both cases a power source is used to turn a propeller-like piece called a turbine, which then turns a metal shaft in an electric generator, which is the motor that produces electricity.A coal-fired power plant uses steam to turn the turbine blades; whereas a hydroelectric plant uses falling water to turn the turbine. The results are the same.
11 Question 11The amount of power produced by a windmill depends on all of the following exceptthe speed of the windthe length of the windmills' bladesthe energy needs of consumersthe efficiency of the windmillWind turbines, like aircraft propeller blades, turn in the moving air and power an electric generator that supplies an electric current. Simply stated, a wind turbine is the opposite of a fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind to make electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity.Wind turbines are available in a variety of sizes, and therefore power ratings. The largest machine has blades that span more than the length of a football field, stands 20 building stories high, and produces enough electricity to power 1,400 homes. A small home-sized wind machine has rotors between 8 and 25 feet in diameter and stands upwards of 30 feet and can supply the power needs of an all-electric home or small business.Wind speed is a critical feature of wind resources, because the energy in wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. In other words, a stronger wind means a lot more power.Captured air must also leave the turbine. A relation between the input and output wind velocity must be considered. Further insufficiencies, such as rotor blade friction and drag, gearbox losses, generator and converter losses, reduce the power delivered by a wind turbine. In other orders the efficiency of the windmill also effects power output.
12 Question 12Which of the following is not a method of conserving nonrenewable resources?recycling materialsdeveloping substitute materialsdiscovering new deposits of nonrenewable materialsreducing wasteNonrenewable resources, such as fossil fuels, are replaced over geologic time scales of tens of millions of years. Human societies will eventually use up all of the economically available stock of many nonrenewable resources, such as oil.Conservation entails actions to use these resources most efficiently and thereby extend their life as long as possible.By recycling aluminum, for example, the same piece of material is reused in a series of products, reducing the amount of aluminum ore that must be mined.Similarly, energy-efficient products help to conserve fossil fuels since the same energy services, such as lighting or transportation, can be attained with smaller amounts of fuel thus reducing waste.Humans have been quite adept at finding solutions to the problem of scarce natural resources by finding more abundant substitutes for various natural resources particularly if they can be renewable resources.
13 Question 13 The energy source that depends on Earth's internal heat is water powerfossil fuelsgeothermal energyuraniumHeat from the earth can be used as an energy source in many ways, from large and complex power stations to small and relatively simple pumping systems. This heat energy, known as geothermal energy, can be found almost anywhereBelow the Earth's crust, there is a layer of hot and molten rock called magma. Heat is continually produced there, mostly from the decay of naturally radioactive materials such as uranium and potassium.The most common current way of capturing the energy from geothermal sources is to tap into naturally occurring "hydrothermal convection" or geysers where cooler water seeps into Earth's crust, is heated up, and then rises to the surface. When heated water is forced to the surface, it is a relatively simple matter to capture that steam and use it to drive electric generators. Geothermal power plants drill their own holes into the rock to more effectively capture the steam.
14 Question 14 The main use of coal in the United States today is electricity generationhome heatingsteel productionpetroleum refiningCoal is primarily burned for the production of electricity (which is in turn used to heat homes although this is not done directly).Coal power in the United States accounted for 42% of the country's electricity production in 2011. Utilities buy more than 90 percent of the coal mined in the United States.This rate is falling though due to cheaper natural gas supplies.Coal production is also important in the production of coke a product steel production but not as large as its part in electricity production.
15 Question 15 A fuel commonly found with oil is lignite natural gas gasolineuraniumNatural gas is found in deep underground natural rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds.Petroleum is also another resource found in proximity to and with natural gas.
16 Question 16Which of the following energy sources does not pollute the environment?Nucleargeothermaloilnone of the aboveNuclear puts out little air pollution in the day to day operation but their still is no answer for long term storage of spent fuel. There is also the uranium mining wastes as well.Oil like all other carbon based fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide when burnt a greenhouse gas. It also releases sulfur and nitrogen parts of acid rain. There is also many environmental effects from drilling for oil.Nearly 40% of all U.S. emissions of carbon dioxide arethe result of using energy to heat, cool, and provide hot water for buildings. Geothermal systems have the lowest carbon dioxide emissions of all technologies analyzed, and the lowest overall environmental cost.
17 Question 17What percent of the world's energy comes from nonrenewable energy resources?7 percent75 percent93 percent100 percentSo how much do we depend on fossil fuels world wide?Roughly 87% of the world’s energy comes from fossil fuels. A total of 93% of the world’s energy comes from non-renewable resources when you count nuclear energy as well.
18 Question 18Examples of conserving or protecting resources include all of the following exceptremoving topsoil before mining and replacing it afterwardsallowing runoff from mines to enter streams and lakesreducing the amount of gasoline usedinsulating homes to reduce the amount of energy usedAcid mine drainage (AMD), refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually abandoned) metal mines or coal mines.Sub-surface mining often progresses below the water table, so water must be constantly pumped out of the mine in order to prevent flooding. When a mine is abandoned, the pumping ceases, and water floods the mine. This introduction of water is the initial step in most acid rock drainage situations. Tailings piles or ponds may also be a source of acid rock drainage.The increased acidity caused by acid mine drainage has a range of negative effects depending on the severity of the pH change. Many river systems and former mine sites are totally inhospitable to aquatic life, with the exception of "extremophile" bacteria. A large number of acid mine drainage sites in the US are designated as EPA Superfund sites.In addition to the direct negative effects of increased acidity and the increased release of toxic metals, an additional problem can also be created when the acid reacts with rock that neutralizes it. As the water becomes less acidic, metals and other solids come out of solution. These precipitates, known as "yellow boy," can smother life on the streambed and turn the stream a distinctive orange/red color.
19 Question 19 The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 was designed to increase the cost of gasoline to curb its usecontrol pollution and encourage conservationlimit the amount of electricity households can use in a yeareliminate the use of nuclear powerPollution prevention is reducing or eliminating waste at the source by modifying production processes, promoting the use of non-toxic or less-toxic substances, implementing conservation techniques, and re-using materials rather than putting them into the waste stream.The Pollution Prevention Act focused industry, government, and public attention on reducing the amount of pollution through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use.Source reduction is fundamentally different and more desirable than waste management or pollution control. Source reduction refers to practices that reduce hazardous substances from being released into the environment .The term includes equipment or technology modifications or redesign of products, substitution of raw materials, maintenance, training, or inventory control.Pollution prevention includes practices that increase efficiency in the use of energy, water, or other natural resources, and protect our resource base through conservation.
20 Question 20 Fossil fuels include all of the following except coal petroleumnatural gasnuclear energyFossil fuels are energy sources that formed over geologic time as a result of the compression and partial decomposition of plants and other organic matter.Fossil fuels are considered to be nonrenewable because their formation occurred over thousands or even millions of years.Fossil fuels include peat, coal, natural gas, and petroleum.
21 Question 21 The core of a nuclear reactor includes a generator a pump a turbinenuclear fuelA nuclear reactor core is the portion of a nuclear reactor containing the nuclear fuel components where the nuclear reactions take place.The nuclear reactor core (also referred to as the "reactor core" or the "core") is the region within a nuclear reactor where the nuclear fuel assemblies are located and the nuclear reaction consequently takes place. The core of the reactor contains all the nuclear fuels and generates all of the heat. It also contains control rod systems that control the rate of nuclear fission reactions. The core contains hundreds of thousands of individual fuel pins.
22 Question 22 Which energy source can be renewed by falling rain? hydroelectric powerwind powergeothermal powersolar energyThe Water Cycle (also known as the hydrologic cycle) is the journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again. The Sun's heat provides energy to evaporate water from the Earth's surface (oceans, lakes, etc.). The water vapor eventually condenses, forming tiny droplets in clouds. When the clouds meet cool air over land, precipitation (rain, sleet, or snow) is triggered, and water returns to the land. Some of the precipitation soaks into the ground. Some of the underground water is trapped between rock or clay layers; this is called groundwater. But most of the water flows downhill as runoff (above ground or underground), eventually returning to streams and rivers that feed hydroelectric reservoirs and hydroelectric power plants.
23 Question 23Which of the following is NOT a problem created by fossil fuel use?Smogdisplacement of wildlifenuclear reactionsacid precipitationSmog usually is produced through a complex set of photochemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight that result in the production of ozone. Smog-forming pollutants come from many sources, such as automobile exhausts, power plants, and factories. In typical urban areas, at least half of the smog precursors come from cars, buses, trucks, and boats.Acid rain is formed when water droplets react with Sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide to form H2SO4 and HNO3.Much of our Sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide is released from the burning of fossil fuels especially coal.Mining for fossil fuels consumes areas of natural wildlife and creates habitat destruction for wildlife.Uranium is not a fossil fuel but a element.
24 Question 24 Petroleum and natural gas form mainly from decayed swamp plantsmineral depositsthe remains of land animalsdecayed sea organismsAll of the oil and gas we use today began as microscopic plants and animals living in the ocean millions of years ago. As these microscopic plants and animals lived, they absorbed energy from the sun, which was stored as carbon molecules in their bodies. When they died, they sank to the bottom of the sea. Over millions of years, layer after layer of sediment and other plants and bacteria were formed.As they became buried ever deeper, heat and pressure began to rise. The pressure and heat transform the material into oil or natural gas. After oil and natural gas were formed, they tended to travel through tiny pores in the surrounding rock until they were caught under impermeable layers of rock or clay where they were trapped. These trapped deposits are where we find oil and natural gas today.
25 Question 25Which of the following is a disadvantage associated with most alternative fuel sources? They create a great deal of pollutionThey are expensive to implementThey are easily constructed anywhere on EarthTheir wastes can be easily containedMost alternative energy sources such as wind power, hydroelectric, solar cells or solar power, and geothermal create little pollution especially in the operation.Along with creating little pollution they typically have no or little waste so they can easily be contained.Although it varies most of the renewable technologies can be used anywhere on Earth, or at least on of the many options would.They are however more experiment and not as mass produced as nonrenewable fuels such as fossil fuels and therefore may be more expensive to start. Keep in mind long term costs of pollution and health issues as well. Fossil fuels do have hidden costs not included in the electric bill.
26 Question 26What is the term for two or more nuclei joining together to form a new nucleus? CombiningSplittingFusionFissionNuclear Fusion; a nuclear change in which two light elements are forced together at extremely high temperatures, to form a heavier nucleus and releasing energy.Fusion releases more energy than fission but requires extremely high temps such as 1 million C.An example a of giant fusion reactor is the sun.
27 Question 27Natural vents that discharge steam or water from the Earth are calledMagmaHot springsGeothermsGeysersGeothermal energy is continuously created beneath the Earth's surface from the extreme heat contained in liquid rock (called magma) within the Earth's core. When this heat naturally creates hot water or steam, it can be piped to the surface and then used to turn a steam turbine to generate electricity. Geothermal energy can also be obtained by piping water underground to extract heat from hot, dry rocks. Heat is then returned to the surface to turn a steam turbine and generate electricity.A geyser is a vent in Earth's surface that periodically ejects a column of hot water and steam. Even a small geyser is an amazing phenomenon; however some geysers have eruptions that blast thousands of gallons of boiling hot water up to a few hundred feet in the air.
28 Question 28 The use of solar energy systems is limited by The high cost of equipmentNeed for pollution controlsLow availability of energyProduction of toxic wastesSolar panels give off no pollution, the only pollution produced as a result of solar panels is the manufacturing of these devices in factories, transportation of the goods, and installation.Solar energy can be very efficient in a large area of the globe, and new technologies allow for a more efficient energy production on overcast/dull days.The major con of solar energy is the initial cost of solar cells. Currently, prices of highly efficient solar cells can be above $1000, and some households may need more than one. This makes the initial installation of solar panels very costly.
29 Question 29 Strip mining is used when coal is found deep in Earth. to limit the use of explosivesin order to protect the environment.to mine shallow coal depositsUsed when ore bodies lie near the surfaceThe cheapest and safest method, but can have a significant impact environmentally on the surface.The ore is close to the surface of the land (30m) but has one or more layers of rock and dirt on top of it (Overburden). To mine the ore, these layers have to be taken off.This mining is done in long, narrow strips. When the ore is done in one strip, the miners begin to create another strip next to it. The waste, dirt, and rock that they take off of the top of the next strip is put on top of the last one (It is now called Spoil).
30 Question 30Why are large amounts of water used in nuclear power plants?To cool the plantto control radioactive wasteTo start nuclear reactionsto increase energy productionNuclear power plants are usually built next to lakes, rivers, and oceans. Not for the scenic views that such locales provide, but because water can absorb the waste heat produced by the plants.Nuclear power plants consume vast amounts of water during normal operation to absorb the waste heat left over after making electricity and also to cool the equipment and buildings used in generating that electricity.Lake: This image shows the thermal discharge from a nuclear plant into a lake. The warm water (red) discharged from the circulating water system enters the lake via a long canal and then cools as it flows counterclockwise around the lake, guided by a long wall. The cooled water (dark blue) is drawn back into the plant’s intake structure for another cycle.
31 Question 31Which of the following did NOT come from once-living organisms?Gasoholuraniumcrude oilcharcoalgasohol a gasoline extender made from a mixture of gasoline(90%) and ethanol (10%; often obtained by fermenting agricultural crops or crop wastes).Crude oil is created by dead sea organisms that have been compressed by heat and pressure into a hydrocarbon liquid.Charcoal is dark grey residue consisting of carbon, and any remaining ash, obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.Uranium is a very heavy metal element which can be used as an abundant source of concentrated energy. Uranium occurs in most rocks
32 Question 32 What is reusing waste or scrap materials called? Reducing recyclingrefreshingresourcingRecycling is the process of collecting and processing materials that would otherwise be thrown away as trash and turning them into new products. Recycling can benefit your community and the environment.Benefits of RecyclingReduces the amount of waste sent to landfills and incinerators;Conserves natural resources such as timber, water, and minerals;Prevents pollution caused by reducing the need to collect new raw materials;Saves energy;Reduces greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global climate change;Helps sustain the environment for future generations;Helps create new well-paying jobs in the recycling and manufacturing industries in the United States.
33 Question 33 Which of the following is NOT a stage of coal formation? hematiteLigniteanthracitepeatCoal is a result of the fossilization of organic matter, mainly trees. This process, measured in terms of geological time, takes place over several million years .Everything begins with a marsh on the border of a sedimentary basin (i.e. a lagoon or a lake).Tectonic activity raises sea levels, submerging and killing off vegetation.Plant debris accumulates and becomes covered with layers of mud and sand in a process known as sedimentation. This shelters the debris from the air and slows down the rotting process.Vegetation grows back... until the next flooding. The sedimentary basin gradually sinks under the weight of the sediments and the layers of dead plants are subjected to rising temperatures, leading progressively to their transformation.The first stage of sedimentation turns it into peat, then lignite, then bituminous, and finally anthracite. Anthracite has the highest carbon content.Burial compacts the peat and, consequently, much water is squeezed out during the first stages of burial. Continued burial and the addition of heat and time cause the complex hydrocarbon compounds in the peat to break down and alter in a variety of ways becoming higher in carbon content and lower in water content. The higher the carbon content the hotter it will burn.
34 Question 34What is the splitting the nuclei of a radioactive atom called?atom splittingfissionfusionatom splicingFission: is a when uranium 235 is split apart into lighter nuclei (elements) when struck by a neutron, each fission releases two or three more neutrons and energy and the cycle can continue.Multiple fissions within a critical mass form a chain reaction, which releases an enormous amount of energy.
35 Question 35 Which of the following is NOT a source of biomass energy? LeavesAnimal dungWaterWoodBiomass, as a renewable energy source, is biological material from living, or recently living organisms. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as biofuel.Examples include forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial products or chemicals.