Presentation on theme: "Trading with other Nations"— Presentation transcript:
1Trading with other Nations Chapter 18Trading with other Nations
2Benefits of World Trade Imports – goods bought from other countries for domestic use.Exports – goods sold to other countriesBecause countries posses different Factors of Production a world trade allows countries to get items they could not produce.It allows countries to focus on what they can produce efficiently and trade for things they are less efficient at
3Absolute AdvantageDef- ability of one country to produce more output per unit of input than another country.Example – The tropical climate and cheap labor in Brazil allows it to produce bananas efficiently. In France which has a moderate climate and more expensive labor can produce fewer bananas and at a much higher cost.Specialization – concept that a nation should produce and export a limited assortment of goods for which it is particularly suited in order to use its resources most efficiently
4Comparative Advantage Def- ability of a country to produce a product at a lower opportunity cost than another countrySometimes a country can produce 2 goods rather efficiently but it is still advantageous for them to specialize one one good over anotherExample: YEAR 1 YEAR 2Country A produces soybeans and corn: 10 Million Soy | 50 million cornCountry B produces soybeans and corn: 8 Million Soy | 25 million cornCountry A has Absolute Advantage over Country B in both Products. Because Country A would benefit more from producing corn and trading for Soy they should trade Country B corn for soy thus they have a lower opportunity cost if they produce corn.
5Hatfield's and McCoy'sFind the worksheet for this activity in your notes packet.Work through the activity and answer the questions.
6Financing World TradeExchange rate – the price of one nation’s currency in terms of another nation’s currencyForeign Exchange Markets – market dealing in buying and selling foreign currency for businesses that want to import goods from other countriesAccording to the chart, how many Venezuelan bolivar would you receive if you exchanged $5 US?
7Exchange rates continued Fixed Exchange Rate – system under which a national government sets the value of its currency in relation to other currencies.International Monetary Fund (IMF) – agency whose member governments once were obligated to keep their foreign exchange more or less fixed; today it offers monetary advice and provides loans to developing nationsDevaluation – lowering a currency’s value in relation to other currencies by government order
8Exchanges Rates con’tThis chart shows how the devaluation of the Chinese Yuan affects consumers in the United States.How much would an American consumer pay for a Chinese MP3 player if the yuan was devalued to $14 per U.S. dollar?
9Flexible Exchange Rates Flexible Exchange Rate – Arrangement in which the forces of supply and demand are allowed to set the price of various currenciesDepreciation – fall in the price of a currency through the action of supply and demandFor example – Suppose that the Mexican exporters demand exceeds the quantity of dollars supplied by Americans who want to buy Mexican goods. Because the quantity demanded exceeds that supplied, the American dollar will become more expensive in relation to the pesoMD<AS so price of US$ goes up
10Balance of TradeDef- difference between the value of a nation’s exports and its imports.When is the last time the US trade deficit decreased?Since 1980, what is the longest span of time that the U.S. trade deficit decreased?
11Restrictions on World Trade Three ways to restrict importsTariffsDefinition: tax placed on an imported productRevenue Tariffs – tax on imports used primarily to raise government revenue without restricting importsRevenue tariffs are currently less than 2 % of federal income but in the early 1900’s they were a significant source of revenueProtective tariffs – is one designed to raise the cost of imported goods and thereby protect domestic producersSome protective tariffs have been as high as 62% in the pastThey are much lower today but still are used
12Trade Restrictions con’t QuotasDefinition – restriction imposed on the number of units of a particular good that can be brought into the countryAt one time or another the U.S. has placed quotas on sugar, dairy, apparel and clothEmbargoesComplete restriction on the import or export of a particular good or goods going to or coming from a specific countryOften done for political reasons, for example, Syria was embargoed for supporting terrorism in 2003.
13Arguments against Free Trade Protectionists – people who argue for trade restrictions to protect domestic industriesJob SecurityFear that domestic workers will lose their jobs if imports are sol at lower pricesIn 1980, many steel mills laid off many workers because of foreign competitionNational Economic SecurityArgument that certain industries are crucial to the US economyFor example, industries like oil should be protected against competitionInfant IndustriesBelief that temporary tariffs and quotas are necessary to protect new and infant companies
14Arguments for Free Trade Improved ProductsForeign Competition encourages US firms to improve their technology and production methodsExport IndustriesWhen imports are reduced there is less money available outside the US to buy American exportsWhen the US restricts their may be retaliation and they may restrict our goodsBoth of these could cause US export workers to lose jobsSpecialization and Comparative AdvantageAlthough those in favor of free trade agree that too much specialization can put a country at the mercy of others, they believe that some specialization benefits consumers because comparative advantage results in more goods at lower prices
15International Trade Agreements World Trade Organization (WTO)Definition – World’s largest trade agreement, currently with more than 140 member nationsRegional Trade AgreementsNorth American Free Trade Act (NAFTA) – trade designed to reduce and gradually eliminate tariff barriers between Mexico, Canada and the United StatesCentral American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) – trade agreement designed to reduce barriers between Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, and the United StatesEuropean Union (EU) – Organization of European nations whose goal is to encourage economic integration as a single marketCurrently there are 25 countries in the EUMost of them also use a common currency called the EuroEventually there will be 400 million consumers that use the Euro this will rival the US in market size