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MENTAL HEALTH: Personality Development Ms. Mai Lawndale High School.

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Presentation on theme: "MENTAL HEALTH: Personality Development Ms. Mai Lawndale High School."— Presentation transcript:

1 MENTAL HEALTH: Personality Development Ms. Mai Lawndale High School

2 Personality Development Just as psychologists disagree about what most influences someone ’ s personality, they also disagree about how personality develops However, most will agree that there are certain needs that children must have in order to grow up and become mentally healthy adults

3 Theories of Development There are four main theories of personality development 1. Sigmund Freud 2. Jean Piaget 3. Erik Erikson 4. Abraham Maslow

4 1. Sigmund Freud Importance of subconscious Freud believed that instinct and drive influence personality development He identified 5 stages of development 1. Oral Stage (birth - 2) 2. Self-Control Stage (2 - 3) 3. Self-Awareness Stage (3 – 6) 4. Socialization Stage (6 – 11) 5. Full Awareness Stage (11 – 18)

5 1. Sigmund Freud Freud believed that adolescence (age ) is the time when children develop adult physical characteristics, gain their sense of identity and grow emotionally

6 2. Jean Piaget Swiss psychologist influences by Freud Piaget focused on four stages of intellectual development 1. Sensorimotor Stage (birth – 2) 2. Preoperational Stage (2 – 7) 3. Concrete Operational Stage (7 – 11) 4. Formal Operational Stage (11 – 18) Piaget found that responses of children the same age were similar in intelligence

7 3. Erik Erikson Erikson believed that development depended upon social interaction in life He developed eight stages of social development 1. Basic Trust or Mistrust (Birth – 1) 2. Shame and Doubt (1 – 3) 3. Guilt (3 – 6) 4. Inferiority (6 – 12) 5. Identity Confusion (12 – 18) 6. Intimacy or Isolation (young adult) 7. Generativity (middle adult) 8. Integrity or Despair (late adult)

8 4. Abraham Maslow Maslow classified human need into 7 different levels 1. Physiological Needs (food, shelter) 2. Safety Needs (out of danger) 3. Need for Love and Belonging (accepted) 4. Esteem Needs (achieve, recognition) 5. Intellectual Needs (need to understand) 6. Aesthetic Needs (order in life) 7. Self-Actualization (realize one ’ s potential) He believed that the lower basic levels need to be satisfied before higher levels

9 Development During Pre-Adolescence Physical, social, and mental stages of development from birth to adulthood are somewhat similar for everyone Research shows that very early experiences influence later development

10 Infancy In addition to food, shelter, and consistent care, infants need love and affection Babies who are not held are likely to have difficulty trusting others Encouragement at infancy give a child a sense of well-being and an eagerness to learn (foundation for good self-esteem)

11 Childhood Children develop a need for independence as they learn self- confidence and a desire for achievement Children gain a sense of achievement by doing puzzles, helping at home, learning to read, and sharing toys with others Children also learn gender identification and accept the roles as male and female

12 Development During Adolescence During adolescence, mood swings occur frequently because your body is changing as you become more independent Teenagers often ask 3 key questions 1. Who am I? 2. What do I believe? 3. Where am I going?

13 Who am I? Search for your own identity (who you are and who you wish to become) Understand and express yourself by observing peers (friend, family, teacher) Belonging to a peer group is important because sharing experiences and feeling accepted helps you learn more about yourself

14 What do I believe? Search for values (rules and standards that are important to live by) Begin to question what you believe about politics and social problems, issues in relationships, manners and how you treat others

15 Where am I going? As a teenager, you want to experience the freedom of making your own choices You will try to choose a way of life that suits your abilities and personalities You often try different paths before finding one that seems right

16 Development during Adulthood Although adults are often referred to as “ grown ups, ” their development is far from being complete Adults will continue to experience challenges resulting in change and growth The healthier you deal with challenges as adolescence, the smoother your transition will be into adulthood

17 Young Adulthood (20s and 30s) Become responsible for yourself and your actions as you begin to get a job and support yourself Goals during young adulthood usually relate to achievement in career, marriage, and starting a family Young adults have reached a level of emotional maturity (make responsible decision and understand the result of their actions)

18 Middle Adulthood (40s to 60s) New satisfaction and new concerns Family and financial responsibilities increase Often a time for reviewing life goals because you will have a better understanding of yourself and the world you live in (some things you cannot accomplish that you thought you could)

19 Late Adulthood (70s and 80s) Realize that life will not go on forever Recognizing this makes late adulthood very difficult, but still exciting People understand that life involves both happiness and sadness and enjoy the present and remember the past

20 In Your Wellness Journal… ADOLESCENCE DEVELOPMENT Teenagers often ask 3 key questions 1. Who am I? 2. What do I believe? 3. Where am I going? Answer those three questions in detail.


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