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AHSGE Biology Content Standard 1 – Select appropriate laboratory glassware, balances, time measuring equipment, and optical instruments to conduct an.

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Presentation on theme: "AHSGE Biology Content Standard 1 – Select appropriate laboratory glassware, balances, time measuring equipment, and optical instruments to conduct an."— Presentation transcript:

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2 AHSGE Biology

3 Content Standard 1 – Select appropriate laboratory glassware, balances, time measuring equipment, and optical instruments to conduct an experiment. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 1-1. Select appropriate glassware for conducting experiments including a graduated cylinder, a beaker, a flask, a test tube, a microscope slide, a pipette, and a Petri dish. 1-2. Select appropriate measuring equipment for conducting experiments including a balance and a stopwatch. 1-3. Select appropriate optical instruments for conducting experiments including a compound microscope, an electron microscope, and a magnifying glass.

4 1-1. Select appropriate laboratory glassware, balances, time measuring equipment, and optical instruments to conduct an experiment. Select appropriate glassware for conducting experiments including a graduated cylinder, a beaker, a flask, a test tube, a microscope slide, a pipette, and a Petri dish. graduated cylinder --used to measure liquid volumes --can be used to find the volume of irregularly shaped objects (using water displacement) Watch glass --placed over a beaker or other glassware so that a chemical reaction can be safely observed

5 Beaker- Used for mixing and storage Can be used when the amount of liquid does not have to be exact (approximately) Petri dish- --Used for growing bacteria or other cultures on nutrient agar Flask- --Used for mixing solutions --used when a mixture is boiled

6 Slide – Used with a microscope – Wet mount slide are the most common made in the lab Pipette – Used for transferring liquids – Also know as droppers Test tube

7 1-2. Select appropriate measuring equipment for conducting experiments including a balance and a stopwatch. Balance – Triple beam balance is the most common in lab – used for measuring mass (weight) – unit for mass is grams g (kilograms kg) Stopwatch – Used to measure time – Unit for time is the second s (hour h) Ruler – Used to measure length, height, weight – Unit for length is meter (centimeter cm, kilometer km) Thermometer – Used to measure temperature – Unit for temperature is Kelvin (Celsius is used in lab then converted to Kelvin) Graduated cylinder – Used to measure liquid volume – Unit for liquid volume is liter (milliliter mL)

8 Density- – Is a special property of materials which can be used to identify the material – The formula for density is mass/volume – The unit for density is grams/milliters (g/mL) – The instruments needed for determining density is a balance and graduated cylinder

9 1-3. appropriate optical instruments for conducting experiments including a compound microscope, an electron microscope, and a magnifying glass. Compound microscope- – Uses light to view microscopic objects – Objects are often placed on slides for viewing (wet mount slides) – May view alive objects Electron microscope- – Uses electrons to make images of objects – Can magnify many times more than the light microscope Magnifying glass – Used for viewing the surface of objects – Small magnification ability – Needs no special needs such as electricity

10 Content Standard 2. Describe cell processes necessary for achieving homeostasis, including active and passive transport, osmosis, diffusion, exocytosis, and endocytosis. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 2-1. Recognize and apply the definition of homeostasis. (The ability of an organism or cell to maintain internal balance and stability by adjusting its physiological processes.) 2-2. Recognize and apply the definition of active transport. (The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.) 2-3. Recognize and apply the definition of passive transport. (The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane.) 2-4. Recognize and apply the definition of osmosis. (The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane.) 2-5. Recognize and apply the definition of diffusion. (The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area.) 2-6. Recognize and apply the definition of exocytosis. (The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the cell membrane.) 2-7. Recognize and apply the definition of endocytosis. (The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the cell membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle.)

11 2-1. Recognize and apply the definition of homeostasis. (The ability of an organism or cell to maintain internal balance and stability by adjusting its physiological processes.) – Examples of trying to maintaining homeostasis – Sweating and increased heart rate after running 2-2. Recognize and apply the definition of active transport. (The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.) – Always requires energy from the cell – Goes from areas of low concentration to high concentration

12 2-3. Recognize and apply the definition of passive transport. (The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane.) Occurs naturally without the use of cellular energy Goes from areas of high concentration to low concentration 2-4. Recognize and apply the definition of osmosis. (The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane.) Type of passive transport Also know as the diffusion of water Goes from areas of high water concentration (low solute concentration) to areas of low water concentration (higher solute concentration) Comparing concentrations of a solution to the concentration of another object Hypotonic solution have high water concentration /low solute concentration Hypertonic solutions have low water concentration/ high solute concentration Isotonic solution have equal concentrations of water and solute as the cell Be careful the percentages refer the amount of solute not water Water percentages would be that number subtracted from 100%

13 2-5. Recognize and apply the definition of diffusion. (The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area.) – Type of passive transport – Does not require cellular energy 2-6. Recognize and apply the definition of exocytosis. (The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the cell membrane.) – Type of active transport – Materials go out of the cell – Way of removing waste – Means of releasing cellular secretions such as oil, wax, hormones etc. 2-7. Recognize and apply the definition of endocytosis. (The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the cell membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle.) – Type of active transport – Materials enter the cell – Phagocytosis- cell eating (cell membrane stretches out and surrounds the substance) – Pinocytosis- cell drinking (cell membranes pushes inward to take in the substance)

14 Content Standard 3. Identify reactants and products associated with photosynthesis and cellular respiration, and the purposes of these two processes. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 3-1. Identify the chemical formula for photosynthesis. 3-2. Identify the function of photosynthesis. 3-3. Identify the chemical formula for respiration. 3-4. Identify the function of respiration. 3-5. Identify the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration.

15 3-1. Identify the chemical formula for photosynthesis. – CO 2 + H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 – Carbon dioxide and water produces glucose and oxygen – Carbon dioxide and water are reactants – Glucose and oxygen are products – Glucose may also be called sugar or carbohydrate – Sunlight and chlorophyll are needed to start the reaction 3-2. Identify the function of photosynthesis. – Photo- means light synthesis- means to make – Photosynthesis means to make using light – Photosynthesis purpose is to capture the energy from the sun – This energy is stored in a molecule called glucose – Carried out by plants and algae

16 3-3. Identify the chemical formula for respiration. – C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + energy (ATP) – glucose and oxygen produces carbon dioxide and water – Glucose and oxygen are reactants – Carbon dioxide and water are products 3-4. Identify the function of respiration. – Releases the energy stored in glucose – This energy can now be used by the cell – The energy is stored in a molecule called ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) – Carried out by both plants and animals 3-5. Identify the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration. – Photo synthesis captures the sun’s energy and respiration releases this energy

17 Content Standards 4. Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams and tables. 9. Differentiate between the previous five-kingdom and current six-kingdom classification systems. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 4-1. Identify cell structures including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, ribosome, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, vacuole, chloroplast, and mitochondrion. 4-2. Classify organisms as prokaryotic or eukaryotic. 4-3. Identify and define similarities and differences between the five-kingdom and six-kingdom classification systems.

18 4-1. Identify cell structures including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, ribosome, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, vacuole, chloroplast, and mitochondrion. Anatomy of the plant cell

19 cell membrane regulates the raw materials (glucose, amino acids, and lipids) that enter the cell and waste products that leave the cell. Maintains the cell’s internal environment (homeostasis.) protects the cell from its external environment.

20 Cell wall is found outside the cell membrane. made of cellulose. found in plants, bacteria and fungi that give cells their shape.

21 nucleus is the control center of the cell that manages cellular functions. Nucleolus – structure inside the nucleus that produces ribosomes. Chromatin – thin strands of DNA Nuclear pore – holes in the nuclear envelope through which ribosomes leave the nucleus.

22 Ribosomes are the site for protein synthesis in the cell. – Produced in the nucleolus – Found floating free in the cytoplasm – Also exist on the rough endoplasmic reticulum

23 The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resembles a folded membrane that forms a network of interconnected compartments in the cytoplasm Smooth ER does not contain ribosomes Rough ER is covered with ribosomes Function: transportation of materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

24 The Golgi apparatus resembles closely stacked flattened membranous sacs Function: processing, packaging, and secreting proteins, lipids, etc. Vesicles are membranous pouches that may bud from the ER or golgi apparatus filled with protein.

25 Chloroplasts are the sites for photosynthesis – where light is converted into chemical energy. Chloroplasts are a type of plastid (organelle that contains pigments) They contain chlorophyll - a green plant pigment that traps energy from sunlight and gives plants their green color.

26 The mitochondria is the site of energy production through respiration. It consists of two membranes; The inner membrane is folded into structures called cristae. Nicknamed “the powerhouse”

27 Plant vs. Animal Cells Only animal cells contain centrioles. Only plant cells contain a cell wall, chloroplasts, and large central vacuole.

28 4-2. Classify organisms as prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Prokaryotic– cell without membrane-bound structures. Characteristics- Simple internal structures Basically consists of cytoplasm and cell membrane no nucleus no membrane bound organelles all are unicellular Example: bacteria Phyla with prokaryotic cells Archaebacteria Eubacteria

29 Eukaryotic– cell with membrane- bound structures. Characteristics- complex internal structures, nucleus, membrane bound organelles are found in the cytoplasm some are unicellular most are multicellular Phyla which have eukaryotic cells Animalia Plantae Protistia Fungi

30 4-3. Identify and define similarities and differences between the five-kingdom and six-kingdom classification systems. Six Kingdoms Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Five Kingdoms Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Monera in the five-kingdom system is divided into Eubacteria and Archaebacteria in the six-kingdom system.

31 Archeabacteria -Have cell membranes that contain lipids not found in any other organisms -Lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls. -prokaryotic -unicellular -unique ribosomal RNA -commonly found in harsh environments -commonly found in anaerobic environments

32 Eubacteria are composed of bacteria and are the most numerous and widespread organisms on earth. prokaryotic organisms have a cell wall partially composed of peptidoglycan, a complex structural molecule not found in eukaryotic cells.. **characteristic which can be used to classify the bacteria as either Eubacteria or Archaebacteria the structure of ribosomal RNA

33 Kingdom Protistia Commonly called protists or protozoans unicellular, colonial and multicellular Eukaryotes Members of this kingdom are often microscopic (unicellular) Some protists can make their own food (autotrophic) others cannot (heterotrophic) Some protists display much movement others little. Common members Structures for movement Ameoba paramecium euglena Pseudopods ciliaflagella

34 Fungi -Most are eukaryotic multicellular, some are unicellular -absorb nutrient from organic materials in the environment (heterotrophic) -Organisms break down dead organic material (decomposers), they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. Most plants could not grow without the symbiotic fungi, or mycorrhizae, that inhabit their roots and supply essential nutrients. Other fungi provide numerous drugs (such as penicillin and other antibiotics), foods like mushrooms, truffles and morels, and the bubbles in bread, champagne, and beer.

35 Plantae Plants capture the sun’s energy and stores it in carbohydrate (photosynthesis) Plants and algae provide the oxygen we breathe and the food that sustains us -- either directly or indirectly, by feeding other animals. Plants are complex multicellular, autotrophic, eukaryotic, non-mobile organisms

36 Animalia All members of the Animalia are multicellular, and all are heterotrophs (that is, they rely directly or indirectly on other organisms for their nourishment). Most ingest food and digest it in an internal cavity. Animal cells lack the rigid cell walls that characterize plant cells. The bodies of most animals (all except sponges) are made up of cells organized into tissues, each tissue specialized to some degree to perform specific functions. In most, tissues are organized into even more specialized organs.

37 Most animals are capable of complex and relatively rapid movement compared to plants and other organisms. Most reproduce sexually, by means of differentiated eggs and sperm. Most animals are diploid, meaning that the cells of adults contain two copies of the genetic material. There are somewhere around 9 or 10 million species of animals inhabit the earth; the exact number is not known and even our estimates are very rough. Animals range in size from no more than a few cells to organisms weighing many tons, such as blue whales and giant squid. Most animals inhabit the seas, with fewer in fresh water and even fewer on land.

38 CONTENT STANDARD 5. Identify cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems as levels of organization in the biosphere. ELIGIBLE CONTENT Identify the levels of organization in the biosphere including cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, as well as organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems.

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40 Identify cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems as levels of organization in the biosphere -cells are the basic unit of all organisms working together -tissues are made of groups of cells working together -organs are made of groups of tissues working together -organ systems are made of groups of organs working together -complex organism are made of groups of organism systems working together Cells  tissues  organs  organ systems  organisms * *Different types of organisms can exist at all levels

41 Levels of organization in a biosphere Organism- a living thing Population- a group of only one type of organism Community- a groups of different populations Ecosystem- all the populations and the non-living things in area (another way of stating this is all the biotic and abiotic factors in an area) biotic factors - all the living things abiotic factors- all the non-living things (soil, water, air, rocks, etc. Biomes- a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community

42 Organism Populations Communities Ecosystems Biomes Least complex Most complex

43 Biomes Ecosystems Communities Populations Organism Most complex Least complex

44 CONTENT STANDAR D 6. Describe the roles of mitotic and meiotic divisions during reproduction, growth, and repair of cells. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 6.1 Demonstrate an understanding of how meiosis leads to variation. 6.2 Describe the role of meiosis in producing variation. 6.3 Describe the role of meiosis in reproduction. 6.4 Describe the role of mitosis in cell repair. 6.5 Describe the role of mitosis in growth. 6.6 Describe the role of both mitosis and meiosis.

45 6.1 Demonstrate an understanding of how meiosis leads to variation 6.2 Describe the role of meiosis in producing variation. Meisosis- -Is the cell division which results is gametes (eggs and sperm) -Is necessary for sexual reproduction -produces haploid cells (have half the original number of chromosomes ) haploid is also referred to as n -Allows for diversity and variation in organisms -when the egg and sperm combine this provides a new combination of genes in the genetic code - this combination leads to new varieties in the population

46 6.3 Describe the role of meiosis in reproduction. -There are two stages of meiosis called meiosis I and meiosis II -In meiosis I the chromosome pairs wrap around each other and crossing over may occur -(crossing over is where pieces of one chromosome attaches to a sister chromosome) -Both stages are necessary so that the gametes have a haploid number of chromosomes -the gametes combine to form a diploid cell -Oogenesis- the formation of the female gamete (the egg) -Spermatogenesis- the formation of the male gamete (sperm cells) -Fertilization- the union of an egg and a sperm cell -Zygote- the cell that results from fertilization

47 6.4 Describe the role of mitosis in cell repair. 6.5 Describe the role of mitosis in growth. Mitosis- -only one cell is needed -A type of non-sexual reproduction found in individual cells for growth and repair of damaged cells. -Is the process by which two daughter cells are formed from a single parent cell (diploid cell produces two new diploid cells) diploid is also referred to as 2n -The daughter cells are identical to the parent cell Occurs in eukaryotic somatic (non-reproductive) cells such as skin cells, muscle cells, etc. All unicellular organisms reproduce by cell fission which is a specialized mitosis

48 MitosisMeiosis Only one organism neededNeeds two organisms Only one cell divisionTwo cell divisions Results in identical cellsResults in genetic variations Occurs in all body cellsOccurs in only special cells- egg and sperm Begins with diploid cells and results in diploid cells Begins with diploid cell and results in haploid cells Needed for grow and repair of cells Needed for variation and diversity of organisms 6.6 Describe the role of both mitosis and meiosis.

49 CONTENT STANDARD 7. Apply Mendel’s laws to determine phenotypic and genotypic probabilities of offspring. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 7.1 Use Punnett squares to determine phenotypic and genotypic percentages. 7.2 Recognize dominant and recessive alleles and their roles in determining the phenotypes of offspring. 7.3 Compare the terms heterozygous and homozygous, and demonstrate an understanding of how these terms relate to phenotypes and genotypes of offspring.

50 7.1 Use Punnett squares to determine phenotypic and genotypic percentages. -The Punnett Square is a grid used to determine the possible combinations of alleles that the parents may pass to an offspring. -Genes are represented by letters -Genes for the same trait (alleles) usually use the same letter -A capitalized letter represents a dominate trait (a trait that always expresses itself) -A lower case letter represents a recessive trait (a trait that is only express in the absence of the dominate trait) -Phenotype is the actual way the organism looks ( usually described with words such as tall, green, short, round, etc. -Genotype is the combination of genes (expressed as letters such as Tt, TT, Ww, I A I o, GgRR)

51 Mother’s 1 st gene Mother’s 2 nd gene Mother 2 /Father 1 or Father 1 /Mother 2 Mother 1 / Father 1 or Father 1 /Mother 1 Mother 1 /Father 2 or Father 2 /Mother 1 Mother 2 /Father 2 or Father 2 /Mother 2 Father’s 1 st gene Father’s 2 nd gene Predicting Genetic Combinations Note--The letters are always arranged with the capitalized letter written first regardless of the parent

52 7.3 Compare the terms heterozygous and homozygous, and demonstrate an understanding of how these terms relate to phenotypes and genotypes of offspring. -heterozygous- refers to alleles that are different -Hh, I A I B, Tt, W W’ -Also called hybrid such as hybrid tall -Homozygous- refers to alleles that are the same -HH, hh, TT, tt, I A I A - also call pure -If a recessive trait can only be expressed if it is homozygous

53 Application In certain wasps, a hairy body is dominant over a bald body.  What would be the resulting offspring of a cross between a wasp homozygous for hairy body and a wasp homozygous for bald body?  List the genotype(s) and phenotype(s) of the possible offspring.  Specify the probabilities of each resulting genotype and each phenotypes.

54 Bb bbbb B B Alleles: B – hairy body b – bald body Homozygous hairy body -BB Bald-bb Parents : 4:0 hairy body Bb RatioPhenotypeGenotype RESULTS

55 Probabilities are determined by interpreting the # of offspring with the desired trait out of total # of offspring yyYy YY Y y Y y The following is an example: Y – yellow seeds y – green seeds Mother Yy – yellow Father Yy - yellow

56 ¾ or 75% are yellow green 1 yy Yy yellow ¼ or 25% are green yyYy YY Y y Y y 1 YY ; 2 Yy heterozygous Homozygous YY and yy ½ or 50% are heterozyogous ½ or 50% are homozyogous

57 Special crosses -Pure dominate and a pure recessive always results all hybrids -Two hybrids crossing always results in -the phenotype 3 dominate traits: 1 recessive or 75% dominate trait: 25% recessive trait -genotypes of 1 pure:2 hybrids:1 recessive or 25% pure:50% hybrid: 25% recessive -Blood types are represented with the letter I

58 Dihybrid crosses represent to different traits at one time One trait is represented by the B and another is represented by the letter F There are always 16 squares So the ratios will be out of 16 Phenotypically 9/16 both b’s and f’s dominate traits are shown, 3/16 b’s dominate trait and f’s recessive trait are shown 3/16 b’s recessive trait and f’s dominate trait are shown 1/16 b’s recessive trait and f’s recessive trait are shown

59 Pedigrees A pedigree is a chart that illustrates how a trait is passed over several generations. I. II. III. 1 4 2 3 321 7654 321 The following is a pedigree for hemophilia. Determine genotypes for the following individuals: 1)I.3 & III.2 2) II.3 3) II.5 4)I.1, II.5, & III.3 5) I.4, II.4, II.6, & II.7 6) Can the remaining genotypes be determined?

60 I. II. III. Application 1 4 23 321 7654 321 The following is a pedigree for hemophilia. Determine genotypes for the following individuals: 1)I.3 & III.2 2) II.3 3) II.5 4)I.1, II.5, & III.3 5) I.4, II.4, II.6, & II.7 6) Can the remaining genotypes be determined?

61 CONTENT STANDARD 8. Identify the structure and function of DNA, RNA, and protein. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 8-1. Recognize that amino acids make up protein. 8-2. Recognize that proteins can function as enzymes. 8-3. Compare the functions of DNA and RNA in the production of protein. 8-4. Identify patterns of base pairing of DNA and RNA. 8-4. Recognize DNA as making up genes and chromosomes.

62 8-1. Recognize that amino acids make up protein. 8-2. Recognize that proteins can function as enzymes. -Proteins are made by process called protein synthesis -In protein synthesis amino acids are connected (chained) together to form proteins -Proteins make the structures of the cell -Some special proteins are enzymes -Enzymes are also called catalysts (catalysts control the speed of a chemical reaction -With out enzymes many of the chemical process such as digestion would no occur as a fast enough rate for the organism to survive.

63 DNA DNA is the key to what makes all organisms different…. yet its structure is identical in all living things! Deoxyribonucleic acid is the primary component of chromosomes. Genes are actually short segments of the DNA molecule. cell -> nucleus -> chromosome -> DNA James Watson & Francis Crick determined the unique structure of a DNA molecule. DNA’s unique shape is that of a double helix (like a twisted ladder). The sides of this two-sided spiral are composed of sugars and phosphates. The short rung-like sections that connect the two sides are made of nitrogen-containing structures called bases.

64 DNA is a nucleic acid; therefore, it is composed of many smaller units called. A nucleotide has 3 parts: 1)5-C sugar 2)Phosphate group 3)Nitrogen base S P B NUCLEOTIDES P S B The 5-C sugar of DNA is hence deoxyribonucleic acid. DEOXYRIBOSE group bond to each sugar forming an alternating “backbone” of sugar/phosphate. PHOSPHATE There are 4 nitrogen – Each is represented by its initial letter:  A - adenine  T - thymine  C - cytosine  G - guanine BASES

65 Due to its remarkable shape, DNA is able to unwind, separate, and duplicate itself. This process of forming an exact copy of itself is known as replication (making a replica).

66 P G S P C S P A S P A S P T S P T S The bases of DNA, due to their chemical structure, have a specific pattern for bonding. ADENINE and THYMINE can bond each other CYTOSINE and GUANINE can bond only to each other P C S P G S P A S P A S P T S P T S

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68 DNA replication Replication is a process where DNA is copied In late interphase the DNA must be replicated before mitosis or meiosis can happen

69 How DNA replication occurs The DNA molecule unzips by using an enzyme to break the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases Free floating nucleotides bond to the single strands forming two new strands of DNA http://www.ncc.gmu.edu/dna/repanim.htm http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/dna/#

70 RNA Is a nucleic acid like DNA Contains only one side Contains the sugar ribose The base thymine is replaced by uracil RNA is used in protein synthesis

71 Three types of RNA Messenger RNA- (mRNA) brings information from the DNA to the ribosome Ribosomal RNA- (rRNA) is mRNA that has attached to a ribosome Transfer RNA- (tRNA) transports amino acids to the ribosomes

72 Protein Synthesis The process that forms the proteins that make up the structures of the cell The process that forms the proteins that make up the structures of the cell Two parts of protein synthesis Two parts of protein synthesis Transcription Transcription Translation Translation

73 Transcription The genetic code from DNA is copied In the nucleus, a portion of DNA unzips and mRNA nucleotides aligns along the unzipped part forming a strand of mRNA

74 The strand of mRNA leaves and goes to the ribosomes The starting end of mRNA attaches to the ribosome becoming rRNA tRNA found in the cytoplasma tRNA is made of three nucleotides The base pairs of these nucleotides code for a specific amino acid tRNA attaches to the amino acid for which it is coded

75 Amino acids There are 20 different amino acids Proteins are made by attaching amino acids together

76 Translation tRNA begins to temporarily bind with the rRNA which causes the amino acids to align a particular sequence The amino acids bind to each other forming a protein http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/dna/index.html#

77 Mutations Mutations are changes in the DNA Mutations in reproductive cells can produce offspring with new traits Mutations in body cells cannot be passed on to the offspring but may cause the individual problems

78 Types of mutations Point mutations is a change in the base pair in DNA Example changing the T would give a new meaning just like changing a base would result in a different protein – THE DOG BIT THE CAT – THE DOG BIT THE CAR Frameshift mutations is when a base is deleted Example deleting the T would also produce different results just like deleting a base would cause – THE DOG BIT THE CAT – HED OGB ITT HEC AT

79 Mutation cont. Chromosomal mutation- are changes in the chromosomes They can occur by – Nondisjunction – Broken or lost parts during mitosis or meiosis

80 Causes of mutations Mother nature Mutagens – any agent that can cause mutations Examples include – Chemicals- dioxins, asbestos, benzene, cyanide, formaldehyde – Radiation- x-ray, ultraviolet light, gamma ray – Extremely high temperatures

81 8-3. Compare the functions of DNA and RNA in the production of protein. -DNA serves as the template or pattern for the bases in protein synthesis -DNA replication carried the genetic code from one generations to another -RNA ‘s function is to make proteins -RNA copies the DNA code and carries it to the cytoplasm where the protein is made

82 CONTENT STANDARD 10. Distinguish between monocots and dicots, angiosperms and gymnosperms, and vascular and nonvascular plants. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 10-1.Demonstrate knowledge of structures and reproduction, identify the differences in venation patterns, and demonstrate knowledge about the significance of the number of cotyledons. 10.2 Distinguish between monocots and dicots. 10.3 Distinguish between angiosperms and gymnosperms. 10.4 Distinguish between vascular and nonvascular plants.

83 Kingdom Plantae Common characteristics: Multicellular ( including some multicellular algae) Cell walls Cellulose Most are Autotrophic (photosynthetic)

84 Plants: Kingdom Plantae 1.Nonvascular plants (do not have vascular tissue)- are the Bryophytes 2. Vascular plants (have vascular to transport materials through out the plant. They include two groups a. non seed producers - Ferns (reproduce using spores) b. seed producers which include 1. Gymnosperms –cone barers (naked seeds) 2. Angiosperms – flowers (covered seeds)

85 Plant cells have 3 structures that are not usually found in animal cells. Cell Walls Vacuoles Plastids

86 NonVascular Plants vs Vascular Plants Nonvascular: Common characteristics: – have no true xylem or phloem for transport – Some of these plants have rudimentary transport cells for water, minerals, and food – need external water for reproduction – water absorbed directly through surface – Rhizoids anchor the plant in the place of true roots and most of the water needed by the plant is absorbed directly. – are called the Bryophytes which includes Liverworts, mosses, and hornworts

87 NonVascular Plants vs Vascular Plants Vascular plants have transport cells called xylem and phloem. -Xylem transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves. -Xylem Functions: 1. Water and minerals from the ground pass upwards through tubes of xylem to get from roots to the leaves. 2. Xylem also lends support to the stem or trunk of the plant. -Phloem transports food from leaves to other parts of the plants. -Phloem function 1. food transport, down from the leaves to the rest of the plant or even into the roots for storage. 2. In woody plants phloem is located just beneath the outer most layer of plant tissue. Nonvascular plants do not have these transport cells.

88 Vascular Plants With Seeds Gymnosperms (Gymnos means naked, sperma is a seed) Naked seed plants. The seeds are produced on the surface of sporophyll structures rather than in a fruit. The sporophylls are generally spirally arranged (such as a cone).

89 An additional means of classification of plants is to determine if they are evergreen or deciduous. A large portion of the gymnosperms are evergreen, meaning they do not drop all of their leaves at one time. They will lose a few throughout the year, but not all of them. Deciduous plants lose their leaves seasonally.

90 angiosperms- flowering plants 1. Angiosperms are noted for being deciduous. (They lose all their leaves seasonally.) 2. Angiosperm means vessel seed, and are so named because the plants enclose the ovules and seeds in the carpel. Carpels are like rolled up leaves with the seeds along the margins. A green pea pod is a carpel. The ovaries become the fruit. The result is that the embryo is protected and has a better chance of dispersal in many cases. 3. Angiosperms are often referred to as the flowering plants.

91 Flower parts:

92 Petals: colorful leaflike structure contained in the circular corolla, serve to attract insects. Sepals: green leaflike structures under petals, forms the circular calyx. Stamens: male reproductive structures made of the anthers and the filaments, forms pollen. Pistil: female reproductive structures, bottom enlarges to form the ovary, contains slender style and the sticky stigma which captures the pollen, ovules contained in ovary and form the seeds when fertilized. Receptacle: base of the flower for support.

93 Fertilization occurs when the pollen tube reaches the ovule and the sperm fuses with the egg within. Ovule develops into a seed and ovary begins to enlarge and ripen, forming the fruit. Acorns, tomatoes, coconuts are all fruit by this definition. A strawberry is not, the individual hard bits are matured ovaries or fruits, while the red flesh is stem tissue. The part of a potato that people eat is not a fruit.

94 There are two categories of angiosperms: Dicots and Monocots This refers to the number of cotyledons a seedling has. Cotyledons are the seed leaves produced by an embryo to absorb nutrients packed in the seed until real leaves develop and photosynthesis can begin. There are several differences, structurally, between most dicots and monocots.

95 Monocots have only one cotyledon, the flower parts are in multiples of 3’s, leaves have parallel veins, and the vascular bundles are scattered. Monocots usually do not have any secondary growth present. Roots develop from nodes on the stem. Dicots have two cotyledons, the flowers are in multiples of 4’s or 5’s, leaves have reticulated or many branched veins, and vascular bundles are in distinct rings. Secondary growth is possible in dicots. Roots develop from lower end of embryo, called a radicle.

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98 Reproduction: Male: filament(1), stamen(2), anther(3), pollen(4) The filament and stamen function to raise the anther from the base of the flower. The anther has the pollen grains waiting to be released and carried either by wind, water, or organisms. 4 3 2 1

99 Reproduction: Female: stigma,style(2), ovary(3), egg cell(4) The stigma is the point of reception for the pollen grains, it is usually sticky to hold the grains as they germinate. The style serves to elevate the stigma. The ovary is the containment chamber for the egg cells. 2 3 4 3

100 11. Classify animals according to type of skeletal structure, method of fertilization and reproduction, body symmetry, body coverings, and locomotion. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 11-1. invertebrates and vertebrates. 11-2. Compare endoskeletons and exoskeletons. 11-3. Compare internal and external fertilization. 11-4. Compare sexual and asexual reproduction. 11-5. Compare bilateral and radial symmetry. 11-6. Classify animals according to type of skeletal structure. 11-7. Classify animals according to method of fertilization and reproduction. 11-8. Classify animals according to type of body symmetry. 11-9. Classify animals according to type of body coverings. 11-10. Classify animals according to type of locomotion. 11-11. Classify animals according to multiple physical characteristics.

101 11-1. invertebrates and vertebrates. Animal organisms that are multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophic mobile Animals are divided into two major groups invertebrates ( have no backbone) The most common invertebrates include the include the protozoa, annelids, echinoderms, mollusks and arthropods. Arthropods include insects, crustaceans and arachnids.Arthropods 1. protozoa (not really an animal but are often included because most can move) *refer back to section 4 for amoeba, paramecium, and euglenas 2. annelids include worms and leeches. Annelids have bodies that are divided into segments. They have very well- developed internal organs. One common characteristic of annelids is that they don't have any limbs.

102 3. Echinoderms are marine animals that live in the ocean. -the term echinoderm means spiny skin. All echinoderms are covered with this spiny skin. -Common echinoderms include the sea star, sea urchin, sand dollar and sea cucumber. -Most echinoderms have arms or spines that radiate from the center of their body. The central body contains their organs, and their mouth for feeding. 4. Mollusks -Most mollusks have a soft, skin-like organ covered with a hard outside shell. - Mollusks are grouped according to their type of motion -Snails and slugs move using their stomachs are a called gastropods. -oysters, mussels, & clams usually attached themselves to objects and feed by filtering water through them - -squid and octopus propel themselves by ejecting water from their body

103 5. Arthropods are the animals with jointed legs - include insects, crustaceans, and arachinids -insects are the largest group of arthropods. There are over 800,000 different types of insects. -Insects are very adaptable, living almost everywhere in the world. Common insects include the fly, beetle, butterfly, moth, dragonfly, bee, wasp and praying mantis. -Insects have an exoskeleton that covers their entire body. -An insect's body consists of 3 parts: the head, thorax and abdomen. - crustaceans live mostly in the ocean or other waters. -Most commonly known crustaceans are the crab, lobster and barnacle. -Crustaceans have a hard, external shell which protects their body. - Crustaceans have a head and abdomen. The head has antennae which are part of their sensory system. The abdomen includes the heart, digestive system and reproductive system. -arachnids Like other the arachnids have a hard exoskeleton and jointed appendages for walking. -Most arachnids have 4 pairs of legs. (8 total) -In some, the first pair of legs may be used for holding their prey and feeding. Unlike other arthropods, arachnids do not have antennae.

104 Vertebrates (have a backbone) Vertebrates include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, primates, rodents and marsupials. 1. Fish Most fish breathe through gills. - bony fishes have a swim bladder, a gas-filled sac, that they can inflate or deflate allowing them to float in the water even when not swimming. - Fishes with a cartilage skeleton tend to be heavier than water and sink. They must swim to keep afloat. Cartilaginous (cartilage) fish include the ray and the shark. - fish are cold-blooded or ectothermic (depends upon the environment for their body temperature) -There are two chambers in a fish heart. 2. amphibians - Amphibians lay their eggs in water, and young amphibians tend to resemble small fish. - Most amphibians can both walk and swim in water. -Depending on the species of amphibian, breathing can take place in gills, lungs, the lining of the mouth, the skin, or some combination of these. - amphibians are ectothermic - there are three chambers in an amphibian heart

105 3. Reptiles - The most common reptiles include alligators, crocodiles, lizards, snakes, tortoises and turtles. - Reptiles are air-breathing animals, although many live not only on land but in water. -The most noticeable feature of reptiles are the scales that cover their body. The majority of reptiles lay eggs to give birth to their young. -Although reptiles breathe through lungs, some reptiles can also absorb oxygen in water through membranes in their mouth. -reptiles are ectothermic -reptiles have three chambered hearts except the crocodile has a 4 chambered heart 4.Birds - Birds have 3 major differentiating characteristics: wings for flight, feathers, and a beak rather than teeth. -The claws and muscles of a bird's foot are designed to lock and hold onto a perch even while the bird is sleeping. -Their bones and skull are very thin, making their bodies extremely light. -Birds are warm blooded (endothermic) their body temperature does not depend upon the environment : it is maintain by respiration -Birds hearts have 4 chambers

106 5. Mammals -Most mammals have hair, or fur, covering their body. -One other difference is that mammals give birth to fully formed babies, and the female mammals produce milk to feed their young. - mammals have a 4 chambered heart - mammals are endothermic (capable of regulating their body temperature.) The mammals metabolism controls heat production, and the sweat glands help cool the body. These allow the mammal to maintain a constant body temperature, regardless of the environmental temperature. -Common mammals include: primates, such humans and monkeys; marsupials; rodents; whales; dolphins; and, seals. -Marsupials are members of the mammal family. However, they are different from other mammals because they have an abdominal pouch to carry their young. The marsupial female gives birth very early and the baby animal climbs from the mother's birth canal to her pouch. Here the baby marsupial continues to develop for weeks, or even months, depending on the species.

107 11-2. Compare endoskeletons and exoskeletons. -Exo- means outer, and Endo- means inner. -So an exoskeleton means that the "framework" of the creature is on the outside, like the lobster. -An endoskeleton is inside the creature, so the soft parts are outside, like the bear or man.

108 11-3. Compare internal and external fertilization. - Two types of fertilization occur in animals: external and internal. -In external fertilization the egg and sperm come together outside of the parents' bodies. Animals such as sea urchins, starfish, clams, mussels, frogs, corals, and many fish reproduce in this way. The gametes are released, or spawned, by the adults into the ocean or a pond. Fertilization takes place in this watery environment, where embryos start to develop. -A disadvantage to external fertilization is that the meeting of egg and sperm is somewhat left to chance. The most important adaptation is the production of literally millions of sperm and eggs—if even a tiny fraction of these gametes survive to become zygotes, many offspring will still result. -Internal fertilization takes place inside the female's body. The male typically has a penis or other structure that delivers sperm into the female's reproductive tract. All mammals, reptiles, and birds as well as some invertebrates, including snails, worms, and insects, use internal fertilization. Internal fertilization does not necessarily require that the developing embryo remains inside the female's body.

109 11-4. Compare sexual and asexual reproduction - There The two main methods of reproduction are sexual and asexual. -Sexual reproduction requires two parents who donate genes to the young, resulting in offspring with a mix of inherited genes. - asexual reproduction, only one parent is needed, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent -- clones. The three main ways that asexual reproduction can take place are by fission, fragmentation, and regeneration. -In fission or budding, one or more individuals are formed from an original. -Fragmentation is another way to reproduce asexually. The parent breaks into different fragments, which eventually form new individuals. This process is exemplified by certain flatworms known as planarians. -regeneration, when an animal that is capable of regeneration loses a body part, it can grow a replacement part. If the lost body part contains enough genetic information from the parent, it can regenerate into an entirely new organism. Echinoderms are examples of animals that use regeneration.

110 Asexual reproduction can be very advantageous to certain animals. For instance, animals that remain in one particular place and are unable to look for mates would need to reproduce asexually. Another advantage of asexual reproduction is that numerous offspring can be produced without "costing" the parent a great amount of energy or time. Environments that are stable and experience very little change are the best places for organisms that reproduce asexually. The cloned offspring are more likely to succeed in the same stable areas as their parents. Sexual reproduction can be advantageous in that it allows for diversity and variation in the population of the organism.

111 11-5. Compare bilateral and radial symmetry. -Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes. -The body plans of most multicellular organisms exhibit some form of symmetry, either radial symmetry or bilateral symmetry or "spherical symmetry". A small minority exhibit no symmetry (are asymmetric). -Radial symmetry -These organisms resemble a circle where several cutting would produce roughly identical pieces. An organism with radial symmetry exhibits no left or right sides. - animals with radial symmetry include sea anemone, floating animals such as jellyfish, and slow moving organisms such as sea stars. -bilateral symmetry - only one plane will divide an organism into roughly mirror images halves. Often the two halves can meaningfully be referred to as the right and left halves, e.g. in the case of an animal with a main direction of motion in the plane of symmetry.

112 CONTENT STANDARD 12. Describe protective adaptations of animals, including mimicry, camouflage, beak type, migration, and hibernation. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 12-1.Recognize and apply the definition of mimicry. (The resemblance of one organism to another or to an object in its surroundings for concealment and protection from predators.) 12-2. Recognize and apply the definition of camouflage. (The method or result of concealing by disguise or protective coloration such that the organism appears to be part of the natural surroundings.) 12-3. Distinguish between different beak types, and identify what each type is used for. 12-4. Recognize and apply the definition of migration. (The process of changing location periodically, especially by moving seasonally from one region to another.) 12-5. Recognize and apply the definition of hibernation. (The process of passing winter in an inactive or dormant state.)

113 12-1.Recognize and apply the definition of mimicry. -The resemblance of one organism to another or to an object in its surroundings for concealment and protection from predators. -examples of mimicry Take a look at these two butterflies. One is a Monarch and very yucky to eat. The other is a Viceroy and very yummy. If an animal eats a Monarch butterfly and HATES it, it will stay away from ALL butterflies that look like Monarchs. This helps the Viceroy because many animals mistake it for a Monarch. This caterpillar is not about to be killed or eaten. Its defense is to look like a SNAKE!

114 12-2. Recognize and apply the definition of camouflage. -the method or result of concealing by disguise or protective coloration such that the organism appears to be part of the natural surroundings. A well-camouflaged lion hides in African tall grasses A walking stick insect balances on a blade of grass over a coneflower. A boreal owl nests in a balsam fir tree

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116 Recognize and apply the definition of migration. -the process of changing location periodically, especially by moving seasonally from one region to another. Many species of salmon migrate long distances up rivers and streams to spawn. over 1 million animals crossing plains and rivers in mara migration. Twice a year North Americans can mark the change of seasons by the passage of birds, whether the hopeful song of spring's first Robin or the distant cackling of geese high overhead on a fall night. Driven by instincts, these Tundra Swans fly more than 2,000 miles across the continent to nest alongs remote Tundra ponds.

117 Recognize and apply the definition of hibernation. -The process of passing winter in an inactive or dormant state. - This sleep is not like human sleep where loud noises can wake you up. With true hibernation, the animal can be moved around or touched and not know it. [Don’t you do this, though. Some animals only go into a torpor or temporary sleep time and can wake up quickly. Like BEARS.] -hibernation is different from regular sleep. With normal sleep, the animal moves a little, has an active brain, and can wake up very quickly. With true hibernation, the animal appears dead. There is no movement and it takes a long time for it to wake up enough to even walk around. - Hibernation is the way that animals adapt to the climate and land around them. Animals must be able to live through extreme cold…. or die. Animals hibernate—or deep sleep—to escape that cold. They also do this because it is really hard to find food during the winter.

118 CONTENT STANDARD 13. Trace the flow of energy as it decreases through the trophic levels from producers to the quaternary level in food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids. ELIGIBLE CONTENT Trace the flow of energy through food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids. -Food chain- a simple model that scientists use to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem. – Only shows one route for the transfer of matter and energy. – Usually has three links but no more than five. – At each link a portion of energy is lost as heat, therefore, the amount of energy remaining in the 5 th link is low. – only 10 % of the energy from one trophic level goes to the next level. (Trophic level- a feeding step in the passage of energy and materials)

119 Food web- expresses all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community. – A more realistic model because most organisms depend on more than one other species for food.

120 Ecological pyramid- shows how energy flows through an ecosystem. -The base of the pyramid, or 1 st trophic level are the autotrophs. - The total transfer from one level to the next is only about 10% because energy is lost due to heat. A pyramid of biomass expresses the weight of living material at each trophic level. How to calculate biomass: - Find the average weight of each species at that trophic level and multiply by the estimated number of organisms in each population.

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122 CONTENT STANDARD 14. Trace biogeochemical cycles through the environment, including water, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 14-1. Demonstrate an understanding of the water cycle. 14-2. Describe all events of the water cycle. 14-3.Demonstrate an understanding of the carbon cycle. 14-4. Describe all events of the carbon cycle. 14-5. Demonstrate an understanding of the oxygen cycle. 14-6. Describe all events of the oxygen cycle. 14-7. Demonstrate an understanding of the nitrogen cycle. 14-8. Describe all events of the nitrogen cycle.

123 The Water Cycle In the water cycle, water is constantly moving between the atmosphere and Earth. This cycle is made up of a few main parts: evaporation (and transpiration) condensation precipitation collection

124 Carbon cycle contains both autotrophs and heterotrophs During photosynthesis Autotrophs convert carbon dioxide gas into a carbon compound called glucose In cellular respiration carbon dioxide gas is released into the atmosphere

125 Nitrogen is used by life forms to carry out many of the functions of life. This element is especially important to plant life. Yet nitrogen in its gaseous form is almost entirely unusable to life forms. It must first be converted or ‘fixed’ into a more usable form. The process of converting nitrogen is called fixation. There are specialized bacteria whose function it is to fix nitrogen, converting it, so that it can be used by plants. There are still other bacteria who do the reverse. That is, they return nitrogen to is gaseous form. After nitrogen is fixed, it can be absorbed, and used by plants, and subsequently by animals. The process of nitrogen being fixed, used by plants and animals, and later returned to the atmosphere is referred to as the nitrogen cycle. Plants use nitrogen to make proteins. Herbivores eat the plants and convert the nitrogen into proteins. During urination and when an organism dies nitrogen is released back to the soil. Bacteria also help put nitrogen back into the air. The Nitrogen Cycle

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127 Just as water moves from the sky to the earth and back in the hydrologic cycle, oxygen is also cycled through the environment. Almost all living things need oxygen. They use this oxygen during the process of creating energy in living cells. Plants mark the beginning of the oxygen cycle. Plants are able to use the energy of sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen in a process called photosynthesis. l Oxygen Cycle

128 So oxygen is created in plants and used up by animals, as is shown in the picture above. But the oxygen cycle is not actually quite that simple. Plants must break carbohydrates down into energy just as animals do. During the day, plants hold onto a bit of the oxygen which they produced in photosynthesis and use that oxygen to break down carbohydrates. But in order to maintain their metabolism and continue respiration at night, the plants must absorb oxygen from the air and give off carbon dioxide just as animals do. Even though plants produce approximately ten times as much oxygen during the day as they consume at night, the night-time consumption of oxygen by plants can create low oxygen conditions in some water habitats.

129 CONTENT STANDARD 15. Identify biomes based on environmental factors and native organisms. ELIGIBLE CONTENT 15-1. Identify terrestrial biomes including the tundra, desert, rainforest, grassland, taiga (coniferous forest), and the temperate deciduous forest. 15-2. Identify the aquatic biomes including freshwater and marine. 15-3. Identify terrestrial and aquatic biomes based on the rainfall and temperature characteristics.

130 A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community Two main types of biomes: 1.Terrestrial biomes- biomes located on land 2.Aquatic biomes- biomes composed of water Examples of terrestrial. Tundra, Taiga, Desert, Grassland, Temperate Forest, Tropical Rain Forest Two types of Aquatic biomes 1. Marine (salt water) 2. fresh water

131 Tundra Taiga Temperate Forrest Tropical Rain Forrest Grassland Desert

132 Tundra is the coldest of all the biomes. Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturi, meaning treeless plain. It is noted for its frost-molded landscapes, extremely low temperatures, little precipitation, poor nutrients, and short growing seasons. Dead organic material functions as a nutrient pool. The two major nutrients are nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen is created by biological fixation, and phosphorus is created by precipitation. Characteristics of tundra include: 1. Extremely cold climate very little precipitation 2. Low biotic diversity 3. Simple vegetation structure 4. Limitation of drainage 5. Short season of growth and reproduction 6. Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material 7. Underneath the topsoil is a layer of permanently frozen ground called permafrost. Ex. of animals in the tundra: mosquitoes and other biting insects, hawks, weasels, snowy owls, snowshoe hares

133 Taiga, represent the largest terrestial biome. Occuring between 50 and 60 degrees north latitudes, boreal forests can be found in the broad belt of Eurasia and North America: two-thirds in Siberia with the rest in Scandinavia, Alaska, and Canada. Seasons are divided into short, moist, and moderately warm summers and long, cold, and dry winters. The length of the growing season in boreal forests is 130 days. Characteristics of the Taiga 1.Temperatures are very low. 2.Precipitation is primarily in the form of snow, 40-100 cm annually. 3.Soil is thin, nutrient-poor, and acidic. 4.Canopy permits low light penetration, and as a result, understory is limited. 5.Plant life consist mostly of cold-tolerant evergreen conifers with needle-like leaves, such as pine, fir, and spruce. 6.animals include woodpeckers, hawks, moose, bear, weasel, lynx, fox, wolf, deer, hares, chipmunks, shrews, and bats.

134 Temperate forest Temperate forests occur in eastern North America, northeastern Asia, and western and central Europe. Well-defined seasons with a distinct winter characterize this forest biome. Moderate climate and a growing season of 140- 200 days during 4-6 frost-free months distinguish temperate forests. Characteristics of the temperate forest 1.Temperature varies from -30° C to 30° C. 2.Precipitation (75-150 cm) is distributed evenly throughout the year. 3.Soil is fertile, enriched with decaying litter. 4.Canopy is moderately dense and allows light to penetrate, resulting in well- developed and richly diversified understory vegetation and stratification of animals. 5.Plant life is characterized by 3-4 tree species per square kilometer. Trees are distinguished by broad leaves that are lost annually and include such species as oak, hickory, beech, hemlock, maple, basswood, cottonwood, elm, willow, and spring-flowering herbs. 6.Animals include squirrels, rabbits, skunks, birds, deer, mountain lion, bobcat, timber wolf, fox, and black bear.

135 Tropical forest Tropical forests are characterized by the greatest diversity of species. They occur near the equator, within the area bounded by latitudes 23.5 degrees N and 23.5 degrees S. One of the major characteristics of tropical forests is their distinct seasonality: winter is absent, and only two seasons are present (rainy and dry). The length of daylight is 12 hours and varies little. Characteristics of tropical forest 1.Temperature is on average 20-25° C and varies little throughout the year: the average temperatures of the three warmest and three coldest months do not differ by more than 5 degrees. 2.Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with annual rainfall exceeding 2000 mm. 3.Soil is nutrient-poor and acidic. Decomposition is rapid and soils are subject to heavy leaching. 4.Canopy in tropical forests is multilayered and continuous, allowing little light penetration. 5.Plant life is highly diverse: one square kilometer may contain as many as 100 different tree species. Trees are 25-35 m tall, with buttressed trunks and shallow roots, mostly evergreen, with large dark green leaves. Plants such as orchids, bromeliads, vines (lianas), ferns, mosses, and palms are present in tropical forests. 6.Animals include numerous birds, bats, small mammals, and insects.

136 The desert biome Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth's surface and occur where rainfall is less than 50 cm/year. Although most deserts, such as the Sahara of North Africa and the deserts of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, and Australia, occur at low latitudes, another kind of desert, cold deserts, occur in the basin and range area of Utah and Nevada and in parts of western Asia. 1.Plants are mainly ground-hugging shrubs and short woody trees. Leaves are "replete" (fully supported with nutrients) with water-conserving characteristics. They tend to be small, thick and covered with a thick cuticle (outer layer). In the cacti, the leaves are much-reduced (to spines) and photosynthetic activity is restricted to the stems. Some plants open their stomata (microscopic openings in the epidermis of leaves that allow for gas exchange) only at night when evaporation rates are lowest. These plants include: yuccas, ocotillo, turpentine bush, prickly pears, false mesquite, sotol, ephedras, agaves and brittlebush. 2.Soils often have abundant nutrients because they need only water to become very productive and have little or no organic matter. 3.There are relatively few large mammals in deserts because most are not capable of storing sufficient water and withstanding the heat. Deserts often provide little shelter from the sun for large animals. 4.The dominant animals of warm deserts are nonmammalian vertebrates, such as reptiles. Mammals are usually small, like the kangaroo mice of North American deserts.

137 Grasslands biome 1. Grasslands are characterized as lands dominated by grasses rather than large shrubs or trees. 2. An area that receives between 25 - 75 cm of precipitation annually. 3. Occupies more area than any other terrestrial biome. 4. Known as the bread basket of the world 5. Ex. of animals: Bison/Buffalo, prairie dogs, foxes, ferrets, insects, birds, reptiles, zebra, elephant

138 There are two main divisions of grasslands: 1. Savanna - Savanna is grassland with scattered individual trees. Savannas of one sort or another cover almost half the surface of Africa and large areas of Australia, South America, and India. Climate is the most important factor in creating a savanna. Savannas are always found in warm or hot climates where the annual rainfall is from about 50.8 to 127 cm (20-50 inches) per year. 2. Temperate grassland Temperate grasslands are characterized as having grasses as the dominant vegetation. Trees and large shrubs are absent. Temperatures vary more from summer to winter, and the amount of rainfall is less in temperate grasslands than in savannas.

139 Aquatic biomes- biomes located in oceans, lakes, streams, ponds, or other bodies of water.

140 Marine biome Marine regions cover about three-fourths of the Earth's surface and include oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries. Marine algae supply much of the world's oxygen supply and take in a huge amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The evaporation of the seawater provides rainwater for the land. Estuaries Estuaries are areas where freshwater streams or rivers merge with the ocean. This mixing of waters with such different salt concentrations creates a very interesting and unique ecosystem. Microflora like algae, and macroflora, such as seaweeds, marsh grasses, and mangrove trees (only in the tropics), can be found here. Estuaries support a diverse fauna, including a variety of worms, oysters, crabs, and waterfowl.

141 Freshwater is defined as having a low salt concentration — usually less than 1%. Plants and animals in freshwater regions are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration (i.e., ocean). There are two abiotic factors that limits life in deep lakes: – Temperature – Light Population density is lower in deeper waters. There are different types of freshwater regions: 1.Ponds and lakes 2.Streams and rivers 3.wetlands Freshwater Biomes

142 CONTENT STANDARD 16. Identify density-dependent and density-independent limiting factors that affect populations in an ecosystem. ELIGIBLE CONTENT Identify the limiting factors that affect populations in an ecosystem as either density-dependent or density-independent including natural disasters, space, food, water, air, abiotic and biotic factors, human activity, disease, and succession.

143 Density- dependent limiting factors -reduce population growth with an impact that depends on current population size - All populations are affected by density-dependent factors - these are biotic factors and include things like predation, disease, feeding relationships, competition etc. - Density-dependent limiting factors: 1.Depends upon the number of living things in an area 2.Are usually biological in nature (competition, disease, predation). 3.Are more important for large organisms (which are buffered from physical environment). 4.Are more important in physically benign and constant environments. 5.Can interrupt exponential growth or cause declines, and CAN regulate a population near a stable population size. Density-independent limiting factors. 1.Populations are also affected by density-independent factors - these are abiotic factors and include things like climate, physical environment etc. 2.Can also be caused by humans such as clearing the land for homes, roads, etc.


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