Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-1 Chapter8 Groups Behavior and Teamwork.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-1 Chapter8 Groups Behavior and Teamwork."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter8 Groups Behavior and Teamwork

2 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The existence of groups can alter a person’s motivation or needs and can influence the behavior of people in an organizational setting.

3 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Introduction Groups and teams are not the same Group – two or more individuals interacting with each other to accomplish a common goal Teams – mature groups with a degree of member interdependence and motivation to achieve a common goal

4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Teams and Groups Share Many Common Characteristics: 1.They can be formed when two or more individuals interact 2.Both teams and groups provide structure for the work and interaction of its members 3.Their members can perform specific technical, leadership, problem-solving, and emotional roles 4.Members of groups and teams share a common goal(s)

5 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Group Versus Team Differences Formal Work GroupTeam Works on common goalsTotal commitment to common goals Accountable to managerAccountable to team members Skill levels are often randomSkill levels are often complementary Performance is evaluated by leaderPerformance is evaluated by members as well as leaders Culture is one of change and conflictCulture is based on collaboration and total commitment to common goals Performance can be positive, neutral, or negative Performance can be greater than the sum of members’ contribution or synergistic (e.g., = 5) Success is defined by the leader’s aspirations Success is defined by the members’ aspirations

6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Types of Groups Formal Groups Command Group Task Group Team Formal Groups Command Group Task Group Team Informal Groups Interest Group Friendship Group Informal Groups Interest Group Friendship Group

7 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Why People Form Groups Attraction Goals Economics Need Satisfaction Proximity

8 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Forming Group forms and situation is uncertain and disorganized Stages of Group Development 2. Storming Turbulence, disruption, and frustration is at highest level 3. Norming 4. Performing 5. Adjourning Share vision, values, goals, and expectations; deviations are not welcome Roles are specific, goals are clear, and results are noted Disbands in an orderly way

9 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Stages of Group Development (1 of 3) Stage 1: Forming The beginning stage of group development Individuals are brought together as a functioning unit Agree to rules of conduct and the goals of the team Stage 2: Storming Most turbulent stage of group development The group confronts conflicts and discovers ways to keep the group focused

10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Stages of Group Development (2 of 3) Stage 3: Norming The group establishes its long-term vision of how it will function over time This agreement is referred to as shared values The group’s norms are the unwritten rules of correct behavior and decorum

11 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Stages of Group Development (3 of 3) Stage 4: Performing Reached when the group is able to begin performing the task it was designed to address The group begins to fine-tune its work patterns Stage 5: Adjourning A functioning group or team is able to disband once the work tasks are completed

12 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Norms Leadership Cohesiveness Status Hierarchy Roles Composition Characteristics of Groups

13 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Composition The extent to which group members are alike Homogeneous group – members share a number of similar characteristics Heterogeneous group – members have few or no similar characteristics Group composition can influence outcomes

14 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Status Hierarchy Status – the rank, respect, or social position that an individual has in a group Individuals in leadership roles possess status because of their roles The individual’s skill in performing a job as a factor related to status Expertise in the technical aspects of the job is a factor related to status

15 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Roles Expected Role Perceived Role Enacted Role

16 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Norms Norms – the standards shared by members of a group Formed only with respect to things that have significance to the group Accepted in various degrees by group members May apply to every group members, or may apply to only some group members

17 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Norm Conformity Why employees conform to group norms is an issue of concern to managers Variables which influence conformity to norms: personal characteristics of the individual situational factors inter-group relationships cultural factors

18 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Leadership In the formal group the leader can exercise legitimately sanctioned power i.e., the leader can reward or punish members who do not comply with the orders or rules Sometimes a formal group has no single formal leader autonomous work groups self-managed teams

19 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Characteristics of Informal Group Leaders (1 of 2) 1.The leadership role is filled by the individual who possesses the attributes that members perceive as being critical for satisfying their needs 2.The leader embodies the values of the group able to perceive those values able to organize them into intelligible philosophy able to verbalize them to nonmembers

20 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Characteristics of Informal Group Leaders (2 of 2) 3.The leader is able to receive and interpret communication relevant to the group able to effectively communicate important information to group members

21 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Group Cohesiveness Cohesiveness – the extent that group members are attracted to each other and to the group values and accept group goals It is the pressure on the individual member to remain active in the group and resist leaving it As the cohesiveness of a work group increases, the level of conformity to group norms also increases

22 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Group Cohesiveness: Sources of Attraction to a Group (1 of 2) 1.The goals of the group and the members are compatible and clearly specified 2.The group has a charismatic leader 3.The reputation of the group indicates that the group successfully accomplishes its tasks

23 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Group Cohesiveness: Sources of Attraction to a Group (2 of 2) 4.The group is small enough to permit members to have their opinions heard and evaluated by others 5.The members support one another and help one another overcome obstacles and barriers to personal growth and development

24 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Strategies for Increasing Group Cohesion (1 of 2) 1.Inducing agreement on group goals 2.Making the group more homogeneous in its composition 3.Increasing the frequency of interaction among group members

25 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Strategies for Increasing Group Cohesion (2 of 2) 4.Making the group smaller 5.Physically and/or socially isolating the group from other groups 6.Allocating rewards to the group rather than to the individual

26 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Groupthink A decision-making process sometimes utilized by groups Irving Janis defines groupthink as the: “deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment” in the interest of group solidarity

27 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Training Communications Empowerment Rewards Factors Influencing Team Effectiveness

28 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Skills for Team Members to Be Effective: Open-mindedness Emotional stability Accountability Problem-solving abilities Communication skills Conflict resolution skills Trust Open-mindedness Emotional stability Accountability Problem-solving abilities Communication skills Conflict resolution skills Trust


Download ppt "McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-1 Chapter8 Groups Behavior and Teamwork."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google