Presentation on theme: "City States of Ancient Sumer"— Presentation transcript:
1 City States of Ancient Sumer Chapter 2 Section 3
2 The Fertile CrescentSumer arises in the rich lands of the Fertile Crescent, along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in MesopotamiaMesopotamia- means “Between Two Rivers” in Greek
3 Floods and Irrigation The Tigris and the Euphrates frequently flooded Like the Nile, this deposited silt for great crop landWould often destroy the Sumerian’s mud-brick villagesThe people had to work together to control the river and survive
4 Cities and ZigguratsAncient Sumer was made up of independent City-States, similar to Greece, who battled for control of the lands and waterThe Cities were rectangular with high, wide walls using mud-bricksZiggurats were the largest buildings, Pyramid temples that held a shrine to the god or goddess of the city at its top.
5 Trade and Movement Sumerians depended on trade for wealth Traded with far-away civilizations like Egypt and IndiaCreated the first wheeled vehicles to carry trade goods
6 Cuneiform Oldest form of writing in the world, developed in 3200 BC Name means “wedge-shaped”Pictographic language written in clay with a reed StylusEventually evolves into a symbolic language instead of pictographicUsed to record Harvest, Prayers, Laws, and Contracts
7 City Life and Government Each City turned to war leaders who were strong enough to stand up to other city states, maintain city walls and irrigation systems, and lead their armiesEventually became hereditary leaders, a “ruling family” like Great Britain today
8 City Life and Government Each City had it’s own Hierarchy or system of ranksThe Highest class:Ruling Family, Leading officials, and High PriestsThe Middle Class:Merchants, Artisans, and Lesser Priests and ScribesThe Lowest Class:Peasant farmers
9 Women in Sumer Generally high status “Pay heed to the word of your mother as though it was the word of God” – Ancient Sumerian ProverbWife of the king sometimes ruled while he was awayOne female tavern owner rose to become a ruler herself in the city-state of KishAs time goes on women become more dependent on menStill keep their rights, women could trade, borrow and loan money, and own property
10 Sumerian Religion Polytheistic People believed the Gods behaved like humansEating, drinking, married, raised familiesGods were much more destructive and unpredictableEach City-State had it’s own God that represented it and the whole city would worship it.View on the afterlife was very darkFloods of the Tigris and Euphrates were MUCH more infrequent and destructive than the Nile, so they develop a more violent and negative view.
11 Advances in Learning Developed basic algebra and geometry Based their number system on sixesDivided hour into 60 minutesDivided circle into 360 degreesStill used in time and geometry today
12 Farming, Weaving, and special jobs Trading with other Nations EgyptSumerGeographySandy hills, plains, nile river, and fertile soil, barren deserts, deltaFertile crescent, desert, Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and the Persian GulfReligionPolytheistic Believed in a good afterlife Pharaohs were treated as Gods on EarthPolytheistic Controlled all aspects of life especially forces of nature Had a dark view of the afterlife, unlike the EgyptiansEconomyFarming, Weaving, and special jobs Trading with other NationsTrade brought riches to the city-states Barter EconomyGovernmentPharaohs ruled every aspect of Egyptian lifeUsed Vizier to advise PharaohIndependent city-states War leaders led people and maintained cities Hereditary RuleSocial StructurePharaohs ruled, priests served gods, and nobles fought wars, peasants farmedRuling family / High Priests Merchants PeasantsAchievementsBuild the Pyramids, Invented calendars, Hieroglyphics, TradeCuneiform writing, Wheeled vehicles, Coins, Alphabet, Iron working, mathematics