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Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria.

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Presentation on theme: "Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria."— Presentation transcript:

1 Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria MINOR BODIES Back in time to the Origin of Solar System

2 Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria Why do we study comets Cometary material has been submitted to the lowest level of processing: it contains information on the physical and chemical processings prevailing during the early stages of the Solar System Comets probably played an important role in the evolution of Earth, bringing water and organic matter Physical and chemical processes taking place in the coma are still poorly understood We have only few images of the a nucleus surface The interior of the nucleus is completely unknown And then we have now Kuiper Belt Objects completing the inventory of Solar System bodies…

3 Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria Why do we study asteroids There are surprising differences between them: Asteroids range from small rocky fragments to big differentiated bodies like 4 Vesta; they can be binary and can have satellites… There is a continuous change in composition going from the inner to the outer Solar System. We have samples of their matter (meteorites), but the link between some types of meteorites and the bodies from which they originated (parent body) is not clear.

4 Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria How do we study minor bodies From all the points of view… Theoretical Observational Space mission participation Comet nucleus modeling Statistical analysis (classification) Mineralogical characterization of asteroids through near infrared spectroscopy Coma composition through high resolution spectroscopy in the visible range Rosetta to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko… DAWN to 4 Vesta …

5 Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria Theoretical models of the thermal evolution and differentiation of a nucleus must be used to link coma observations with real nuclei characteristics and properties. At the IASF a nucleus model has been developed; many real comets have been simulated, as well as Kuiper Belt Objects. We participated in an international team, located at ISSI in Bern, that defined a standard model. Our model is also used as a help in the planning of the instrument operations of VIRTIS, our imaging spectrometer on Rosetta mission. The theoretical point of view: nucleus modeling

6 Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria Space missions: theRosetta journey Space missions: the Rosetta journey The ESA cornerstone mission Rosetta is set to a rendezvous with Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, orbiting around it and making observations as it journeys towards the Sun. A lander will be deposited on the surface of the comet. The mission is aimed to study the origin of comets, the relationship between cometary and interstellar material and its implications with regard to the origin of the Solar System. It carries instruments for remote sensing, composition analysis, nucleus large- scale structure, dust flux and mass distribution, comet plasma environment and solar wind interaction, radio science. Launch date: 26 Feb 2004 Perihelion passage: 2015

7 Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) combines a double capability: moderate-resolution visible and infrared imaging in the m range (VIRTIS-M channel) high-resolution spectroscopy in the 2-5 m range (VIRTIS-H channel). VIRTIS maps and studies the nature of the solids and the temperature on the surface of the nucleus. Also identifies comet gases, characterises the physical conditions of the coma and helps to identify the best landing sites. Radiator Baseplate (S/C Interface) VIRTIS-H VIRTIS-M Cold box VIRTIS on ROSETTA

8 Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria INAF IASF, IFSI Padua, Lecce and Perugia Universities Capodimonte and Arcetri Observatories VIRTIS on ROSETTA Spectral resolution Spectral sampling nm 9.44nm 0.6nm -M visible –M IR -H VIRTIS international consortium The instrument has been successfully integrated and tested and is ready for the launch P.I. Angioletta Coradini Paris-Meudon Observatory IAS, Orsay DLR Berlin Galileo Avionics, Florence (prime contractor) TecnoSystem, Neaples Laben, Milan Kayser Trade, Munich

9 Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria La missione Dawn: cose Scienza Space missions: theDAWN journey Space missions: the DAWN journey The NASA Discovery mission DAWN will be launched in 2006 and will orbit Vesta for one year, in 2010; it brings a framing camera, a mapping spectrometer and a gamma ray/neutron spectrometer. The spectrometer is VIR, a re-build (a twin) of the mapper channel of VIRTIS. VIRTIS-M VIR A. Coradini is mission Co.I. and instrument P.I.

10 Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaIstituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario Roma, 5-6 novembre 2003 Relatore: Maria Teresa Capria Vesta is: one of only four bodies for which we have samples (HED meteorites). perhaps the only surviving member of the class of planetesimals that accreted to form the terrestrial planets. Vesta… differentiated 4.5 billion years ago under conditions distinct from Earth, Moon, Mars has a heterogeneous surface of various crustal rocks and possibly excavated mantle rocks. Why Vesta? Thin section of HED meteorite On Vesta we could: better constrain planet formation by understanding their protoplanetary building blocks test our ideas about the thermal, physical, chemical and mineralogical evolution of planetesimals, presently crafted from the incompletely sampled rubble of disrupted asteroids (meteorites) Vesta, Space Telescope


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