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Continuity and Change in Popular Culture: The development of an Australian Identity (1945 - the Present)?

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Presentation on theme: "Continuity and Change in Popular Culture: The development of an Australian Identity (1945 - the Present)?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Continuity and Change in Popular Culture: The development of an Australian Identity (1945 - the Present)?

2 You will take Cornell notes Everything in Red must be written exactly Everything in blue you must write in your own words Everything in black is for your information NOTES

3 Continuity Uninterrupted duration or continuation especially without essential change. The unbroken and consistent existence or operation of something over time. Change To make or become different in some particular way. This can be a complete change, or a partial change. Identity Sameness of character, the distinguished character or personality of a individual or group. DEFINITIONS

4 Continuity and Change in Popular Culture: The development of an Australian Identity (1945 - the Present)? Popular culture embraces the behaviours and values shared by a large group or groups within society at a particular period of time. Popular culture is continually evolving; that is it changes over time. Its dynamic nature can be because of generational change, or because of technological developments, or because of major world events. Those aspects of the past that remain the same over certain periods of time are referred to as continuities. Continuity and change are evident in any given period of time and can be witnessed in the evolution of popular culture.

5 Content & Context: The centre picture shows the moment when the American President, George W. Bush was told by White House Chief of Staff, Andrew Card, that a second plane had struck the World Trade Centre. It was September 11th 2001. Bush was conducting a reading seminar at the Emma E. Booker Elementary School in Florida. At this time in his presidency Bush was considered a “lame duck President.” His support was falling. When he heard about the first plane he wasn’t sure if this was simply an accident. When he was told about the second plane he knew it was a planned act. Bush famously maintained his composure, did not react in front of the media that was present or act in a way to scare the children. The terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001 led the Bush administration to invade Afghanistan and then go to war against Iraq, based on the idea (later proven false) that Iraq was behind the attacks and was working on WMDs (weapons of mass destruction) to supply to terrorist. The attacks on September 11th were an act of terrorism. Bush’s response was to go to war. Continuity & Change: What could be seen as continuing after this event and what where the changes? Consider How Bush was viewed by supporters and distractors. Consider American ideals of ‘Freedom’ and ‘everyman is equal’ and the change to the way they now view particular groups of people. From these wars there would significant change. Bush went from a lame duck to a “war time” President and hence gain a second term. Al-Qaeda became the new enemy, with Osama bin Laden as the new face of evil. Saddam Hussein was toppled as dictator of Iraq. The Blair government, in the UK, lost credibility in the face of lies about the war in Iraq. It is now commonplace to live in fear of “terrorism”. As of November 2011 Australian forces have suffered 32 combat deaths as a result of the conflict in Afghanistan; 214 ADF members have been wounded in action in Afghanistan. CONTINUITY AND CHANGE

6 Looking at Continuity and Change gives us the ability to understand that some concepts, ideas, beliefs, and other historical factors have remained constant and that others have evolved or become different, changed. We are also able to see how these changes have come about and what has impacted them. WHY DO WE LOOK AT THIS FOR HISTORY?

7 Who has heard of the Pledge off Allegiance? Let's have a look at this short clip, I would like you to take particular note of the actions and the words of President Obama and those around him. THE PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE

8 The 'Pledge' was written by Francis Bellamy in the late 1800's and was designed originally for American youth, it was written to recognise the 400 th anniversary of the expeditions of Christopher Columbus; It has become a part of the identity of Americans. Let's now look at the way that it has changed. THE ‘PLEDGE’

9 When making the pledge, students were to stand and face the flag, place their hand on their heart, and then extend that hand outward—palm facing the flag—and recite the words: “I pledge allegiance to my Flag and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and Justice for all.” THE FIRST 'PLEDGE'


11 The 1920s saw the first major revisions to the Pledge. Emerging from the Great War, the United States was plagued by domestic concerns about the influence of anarchists and Communists. This fear fed a generalised xenophobia about immigrants. THE 1920'S

12 Paralleling the legislative efforts to restrict immigration, was an alteration to the pledge. Still performed with the (hand raised)Bellamy salute, the words were altered to reflect the changes in the purpose of pledging allegiance: “I pledge allegiance to the (my) Flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”

13 A year after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, President Franklin Roosevelt pressured Congress to change the (raised hand) Bellamy Salute. During the 1930s, both Italian Fascists and the Nazi Party in Germany had adopted national salutes similar to the Bellamy flag salute. In an effort to differentiate American democracy from European fascism, the U.S. Congress altered the Flag Code. On December 22, 1942, the Bellamy salute was replaced with the right hand over the heart. 7 TH DEC 1941-JAPAN ATTACKS PEARL HARBOUR.

14 1942

15 The 1950s provided Americans with the Pledge that students have recited their entire school lives. In the depths of the Cold War, the phrase under God was added to the Pledge to distinguish the United States, and its support for religious freedom, from the Soviet Union, where religion was officially banned by the state (Ellis 2007). Thus a simple function of American students’ daily routine becomes the platform for understand an important element of historical thinking—the concept of change and continuity over time. 1950'S

16 “I pledge allegiance to the (my) Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.” THE PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE TODAY

17 pledge-of-allegiance-history.shtml BIBLIOGRAPHY

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