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The Shift from Trade to Rule

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1 The Shift from Trade to Rule 1707-1757
THE BRITISH IN INDIA The Shift from Trade to Rule British Trade in India Dutch dominance of spice trade made Britain turn to textiles East India Company (EIC)Started at Surat as guest of Mughal Empire. Slowly acquired other territories such as Madras, Bombay and Calcutta Its rivalries (Dutch Company) and French (Campagnie des Indes Orientales – CIO) drew the EIC into local Indian politics Emperor Farrukhsiyar granted the EIC freedom of duties on exports from Calcutta, right to settle in Bengal, no customs at Surat and Madras, right to mint its own coins at Bombay 7 year war made Britain superior – the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj resented the EIC Siraj attacked Calcutta and imprisoned English residents of Ft. St. William

2 Battle of Plassey The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daula resented the EIC
He attacked Calcutta in June 1756 and imprisoned 40 English residents of Fort St. William – died in underground prison named the “Black Hole of Calcutta” “evidence for British of Indian cruelty and barbarism” Robert Clive arrived with 10 ships from Madras – Siraj returned to Calcutta Siraj restored EIC’s privileges but Clive wanted to dethrone Siraj EIC would receive rewards at 1.2mill and Mir Jafar would be new Nawab Met at town of Plassey. Nawab’s troops (bought by financiers), turned coat and fled. Siraj was executed Result: Mir Jafar claimed throne and EIC won right of diwani – right to collect taxes from lands surrounding the area MOST IMPORTANT CONFLICT IN INDIA’S HISTORY. MOTIVATED BY BUSINESS AMBITIONS OF EIC (TO INCREASE TRADE PROFITS) – NOW EIC COULD MINT COINS AND RESULTED IN EIC TAKING POLITICAL CONTROL OF BENGAL

3 BATTLE OF BUXAR MIR JAFAR PUPPET OF EIC
IN 1765 TREATY OF ALLAHABAD, EIC HAD RIGHT TO COLLECT REVENUE AND GOVERN THE ENTIRE TERRITORY OF BENGAL NAWABS EIC BECAME A DEPUTY OF MUGHAL EMPEROR COMPANY OR GOVERNMENT? LARGE MILITARY REQUIRED TO GUARANTEE PRIVILEGES ETC. OF COMPANY - 115k MEN CALLED SEPOYS (BASED ON Persian word siphai)

4 EIC hired Hindu peasants not former military elites of the Nawabs
LAND REVENUE SYSTEM Permanent Settlement – introduced by Lord Cornwallis – fixed rate – created a class of zamindar landlords who collected revenue from peasants on their estates and turn over revenue to the colonial estate. Created a new class of landlords, much turnover, and peasant poverty Widespread corruption – led to famine in 1770

5 ¼ of population of Bengal dies
Cornwallis went back to old Mughal system Legal ownership granted to zamindars – in return, they had to pay government 90% of rent collected – lasted forever. In Madras and Bombay – ryotwari, direct relationship between Company and peasants – new officials needed

6 Idealogies of Rule Orientalism
Sir William Jones sought to preserve Indian society (Asiatic Society of Bengal) – discovered that Sanskrit, Greek, Persian, and Latin had common roots He learned Hindu Law – Orientalism sought to capture and preserve India as it was at its height

7 Utilitarianism James Mill had less respect for Indian achievements
Belief that the purpose of government was the greatest happiness of the greatest number Indian languages and law was a stagnant, superstitious, irregular system that needed to be replaced. “History of British India” 1818 Thomas Macaulay – teach Indians English – promoted Anglicism – rejecting Indian norms, practices, and language – by mid 1800s many of his codes were adopted

8 Christian Missionaries
EIC forbade missionaries from entering Baptist William Carey worked from Danish settlement nearby By 1813, colonial state was secure in its rule and relaxed its ban on missionaries

9 Colonial Expansion in the Nineteenth Century
EIC acted as a state, with executive and judicial structures, military, revenue streams, widespread trade. British expanded influence from coastal regions to central corridor of India Took over many other Indian kingdoms over period from 1799 – 1856 1840s to 1850s marked by major infrastructure projects, such as railways, the Ganges Canal, and the telegraph

10 A New Export Opium in eastern India was a staple crop Provided 15% of Company’s total revenue Smuggled it into China for great profit Indigo – another important cash crop European planters provided cash advance to peasants to grow indigo. Peasants heavily indebted to crop they could not eat – led to “Blue Mutiny” in in Bengal Weavers were swamped by manufactured textiles from England

11 OTHER IMPROVEMENTS Railways – enduring legacy of colonial rule
100,000 kilometers of track with 1.3m employees – one of largest employers in world Purpose 1) to move raw materials to ports and manufacturing centers, 2) to quickly ove troops and material in event of uprising against British rule Raised capital with private investors – 5% - profits all sent back to Britain

12 The Ganges Canal Dalhousie pushed for irrigation of agrararian land, Ganges Canal alongside the Ganges R. 500 miles of canal laid – short-term improvement, had long-term negative environmental consequences: salinazation of the soil over decades

13 Telegraph Dalhousie also completed the telegraph 1st deep-sea telegraph cable laid at Calcutta and crossed Hooghly River in 1850 India site for experimentation He also started governmental postal service. Steam power helped reduce time to communicate with England

14 Colonial apologists: Colonial critics:
Advancements brought needed development to India and integrated it into global networks of commerce Colonial critics: Argued infrastructure projects designed around British political and economic interests CLEAR INDIA’S ECONOMY WOULD HAVE IMPROVED IF LAND REVENUES AND TRADE PROFITS WERE INVESTED IN INDIA, RATHER THAN FOR EIC’S EXPENSES AND PROFIT IN INDIA

15 DIVERSE RESPONSE TO COLONIAL RULE , 1757 - 1857
Reform, Reaction, and Creativity EIC capital at Calcutta Sir William Jones tried to better understand Indian social life Worked with Indian scholars at Asiatic Society of Bengal Hindu College founded in 1818 – English Delhi College in 1825 – educate people in colonial rather than traditional sectors of economy Had both English and oriental branch – and Urdu

16 Gender Issues in Colonial India
Anglicist – critique of India Orientalist – preserve Indian religtions and customs Indian response to colonial rule also varied Sati – burning of a widow on her husband’s funeral pyre – by 1820s, seen as barbaric. In 1828, reform-minded Bengalis urged colonial state to ban it

17 The Press Newspapers a crucial outlet for public interest
Most literate Indians read at least one newspaper daily. First Indian-owned English newspaper printed in 1777. the Bombay Samachar, 1822, Asia’s longest-running newspaper

18 CONCLUSION Brought almost all of India under its control
Controlled the Indian Ocean trade and markets from Europe to China Expensive enterprise – had the advantage but never by much or for long Slowly provoked discontent across India Feeling no longer temporary or confined to only one region

19 SECTION II: INDIA BEFORE EUROPEAN COLONIZATION
EARLY INDIAN CIVILIZATIONS THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION BCE ONE OF 3 MAJOR EARLY URBAN RIVER-VALLEY CULTURES ADVANCED SOCIETY – 2 LEADING CITIES, MOHENJO-DARA AND HARAPPA – KNOWN AS HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION FLOURISHED ALONG THE INDUS RIVER IN PRESENT-DAY PAKISTAN AND NORTHERN INDIA

20 SOPHISTICATED – URBAN PLANNING – 1ST TO DEVELOP SYSTEM OF STANDARDIZED WEIGHTS AND MEASURES – METALLURGY – ITEMS OF COPPER, BRONZE, LEAD, AND TIN MANY ASPECTS OF THEIR RELIGIOUS PRACTICE EVOLVED INTO LATER RELIGIONS: HINDUISM AND BUDDHISM. MANY JEWELRY PIECES, SHELL, CERAMICS, SOAPSTONE

21 MOHENJO-DARO SITE LOCATED IN PAKISTAN – BEST PRESERVED OF IVC
WELL-PLANNED – MULTI-STORY STRUCTURES OF BAKED BRICK FIRST URBAN SANITATION SYSTEMS GREAT BATH – SERIES OF ROOMS AROUND A WATER-TIGHT SUNKEN BRICK POOL – RITUAL BATHING

22 THE ARYANS AND VEDIC AGE 1500-500 BCE
ARYANS – WAR-LIKE, NOMADIC PEOPLE SETTLED IN NORTHERN INDIA ESTABLISHED THE LANGUAGE OF SANSKRIT EPIC POEMS: AHABHARATA AND THE RAMAYANA VEDAS = RELIGIOUS POEMS, HYMNS, RITUALS BECAME FIRST SCRIPTURES OF HINDUISM – HENCE CALLED THE VEDIC PERIOS WE LEARN ABOUT ARYAN WAY OF LIFE, BASIS OF INDIAN CULTURE AND TRADITION

23 HERDSMEN, CENTER OF LIFE WAS FAMILY UNIT
CASTE SYSTEM DEVELOPED BY ARYANS CASTE = DIVIDING POPULATION INTO DISTINCT SOCIAL GROUPS – WHAT YOU EAT, YOUR OCCUPATION, CLOTHES, WHO YOU MARRY 4 MAJOR GROUPS: BRAHMIN(PRIESTS), KSHATRIYAS(WARRIORS), VAISHYAS(FARMERS& TRADERS, SHUDRAS (LABORERS)

24 MAURYAN EMPIRE BCE AT END OF VEDIC PERIOD INDIA DIVIDED INTO 16 MAJOR STATES AND KINGDOMS LARGEST, WAS MAGADHA (RULED BY BIMBISARA) IN 322, MAURYA (WARRIOR) CONQUERED ARYAN AND UNITED NORTH AND CENTRAL INDIA – MAURYAN EMPIRE ASOKA (GRANDSON) MOST FAMOUS RULER

25 MAURYAN EMPIRE - ASOKA ASOKA RENOUNCED WAR AND CONVERTED TO BUDDHISM
HELPED POOR – MESSAGE OF PEACE AND NON-VIOLENCE. ON ASOKA PILLAR (TOPPED WITH 4-HEADED LION) AND A CHAKRA (WHEEL) AT CENTER - BUDDHIST PRINCIPLES INSCRIBED ON THIS PILLAR IS INDIA’S NATIONAL SYMBOL – FEARLESSNESS AND DILIGENCE CREDITED WITH BUILDING THOUSANDS OF SHRINES (STUPAS) THROUGHOUT THE LAND

26 THE GUPTA EMPIRE 185 BCE – 550 CE
LAST MAURYAN KING ASSASSINATED IN 185BC INDIA DIVIDED INTO SMALLER KINGDOMS – TURMOIL FOR NEXT 500 YEARS 320BCE, CHANDRA GUPTA, RULER FROM NORTHERN TERRITORIES BROUGHT INDIA UNDER HIS CONTROL REVERTED TO MAURYAN PRINCIPLES AND TRADE, MATHEMATICS, ASTRONOMY SCIENCE LITERATURE PROSPERED

27 GUPTA EMPIRE LITERATURE SPREAD INTO OTHER PARTS OF WORLD
KALIDASA WAS GREATEST FIGURE IN CLASSICAL SANSKRIT LITERATURE “INDIAN SHAKESPEARE” ARABIC NUMBERS ORIGINATED IN INDIA FIRST TO USE NEGATIVE NUMBERS, DECIMAL AND ZERO. ARYABHATTA PROPOSED THE EARTH WAS A ROTATING SPHERE (BEFORE COLUMBUS) – 365 DAYS AJANTA CAVES – PAINTING OF BUDDHA (FAMOUS ) –ALSO 18’ STATUE OF HINDU GOD SHIVA COLLAPSED IN 550CE – (INVASION OF HUNS FROM CHINA) SPLIT INTO INDEPENDENT KINGDOMS RULED BY RAJAS

28 1206 A MUSLIM KINGDOM, THE DELHI SULTANATE, WAS ESTABLISHED IN NORTHERN INDIA
CONFLICT IN INDIAN SOCIETY AROSE BETWEEN THE HINDUS AND MUSLIMS

29 EARLY MODERN PERIOD (MEDIEVAL INDIA)
VIJAYANAGARA – CITY OF VICTORY IN SOUTHERN INDIA ON DECCAN PLATEAU- HINDU RULERS – GREAT PATRONS OF ART AND CULTURE BORROWED TECHNOLOGY FROM ITS RIVALS – MOUNTED HORSE WARFARE ADVANTAGE OVER MUSLIM SULTANS(RULERS)

30 KRISHNA DEVA RAYA EXPANDED AND STRENGTHENED VIJAYANAGARA
1565 ALLIANCE OF 4 MUSLIM SULTANS ATTACKED V IN BATTLE OF TALIKOTA END OF VIJAYANAGARA DOMINANCE

31 TIMURID EMPIRE NEW CENTRAL ASIAN CONQUEROR TIMURLANE (MONGOL-TURKISH TRIBE) SET OUT TO RESTORE GENGHIS KHAN (CLAIMED TO BE DESCENDANT) CONQUERED S.E. ASIA INCLUDING DELHI STRETCHED FROM MIDDLE EAST TO INDIA DIED IN CHINA – EMPIRE COLLAPSED 5 GENERATIONS LATER DIVIDED INTO EMIRATE

32 MUGHAL EMPIRE MUGHAL COMES FRO TERM MONGOL (BASIS FOR ENGLISH WORD MOGUL) GREW FROM CENTRAL ASIAN TRIBAL STRUCTURE – 2 CENTURIES IN INDIA IMPOSING EXQUISITE MONUMENTS (RED SANDSTONE AND MARBLE) MOST FAMOUS IS TAJ MAHAL (SHAJ JAHAN’S MONUMENT TO HIS WIFE, IN CITY OF AGRA

33 BABUR “THE TIGER” DESCENDANT OF GENGHIS KHAN AND TIMURLANE – 1ST RULER OF MUGHAL EMPIRE LEADER OF TRIBE LOCATED IN PRESENT-DAY AFGHANISTAN INVADED INDIA –CAPTURED DELHI - MUSLIM. RELIGIOUS TOLERATION, WON TRUST OF HINDU POPULATION

34 HUMAYUN SON OF BABUR PASHTUN NOBLE, SHER SURI, SEIZED MUGHAL TERRITORIES AND RULED FOR 5 YEARS AFTER HIS DEATH, 1545, HUMAYUN REGAINED CONTROL – CULTURE OF MUGHAL COURT INFLUENCED BY PERSIAN ART, LANGUAGE, ARCHITECTURE

35 AKBAR 1556-1605 GREATEST MUGHAL RULER, BABUR’S GRANDSON)
BLENDING OF ART, ARCHITECTURE, MUSIC, AND DANCE OF HINDU AND MUSLIM UNITED ALL OF INDIA INDIA’S FIRST PRIME MINISTER, JAWAHARLAL NEHRU: “DARING AND RECKLESS, AN ABLE GENERAL, YET GENTLE – UNITED INDIA”

36 AKBAR BY END OF “AKBAR’S REIGN, WESTERN AND EASTERN (INCLUDING NORTH) UNDER MUGHAL RULE REFINED THE MUGHAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM – MANSABDARI SYSTEM – MANSAB=RANK, EACH MANSABDAR TO PROVIDE MEN AND HORSES TO MUGHAL STATE PRACTICED UNIVERSAL TOLERATION”SULH-I KUL” CREATED THE DIN-I-ILAHI(RELIGION OF G-D) – BIND NOBLES IN COMPLETE LOYALTY TO EMPEROR

37 JAHANGIR AKBAR’S SON ENCOURAGED PERSIAN CULTURE
MUGHAL GARDENS, LOVE OF PAINTING SCHOOLS SPECIALIZING IN MINIATURE PAINTINGS

38 SHAH JAHAN 5TH FULER OF MUGHAL DYNASTY
REACHED PEAK IN PROSPERITY – MASSIVE CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS – TAJ MAHAL MOTHER HINDU – ORDERED ALL HINDU TEMPLES TO BE TORN DOWN EMPIRE WENT BANKRUPT – LEADING TO DECLINE OF MUGHAL EMPIRE

39 AURANGZEB HE IMPRISONED HIS OWN FATHER IN AGRA FORT TO TAKE THE THRONE
DEVOUT MUSLIM, BANNED MUSIC IN COURT, INTRODUCED POLL TAX CALLED JIZYA ON NON-MUSLIMS IN 1679 HINDU WARRIOR CLASS MARATHAS – UNREST SHIVAJI BHONSLE, LEADER JOINED WITH DECCAN SULTANATES

40 AURANGZEB MOVED CAPITAL TO AURANGABAD IN DECCAN
AURANGZEB MOVED CAPITAL TO AURANGABAD IN DECCAN. DEFEATED 2 DECCAN KINGS AND SHIVAJI’S SON HEAVY TAXES, LABORERS AND PEASANTS BECAME BONDED SERVANTS. BY 1719, MUGHALS HAD TO GIVE UP CONTROL TO THE MARATHAS

41 MUHAMMAD SHAH AND THE DECLINE OF MUGHAL POWER
1707, INSTABILITY UNTIL MUHAMAD SHAH TOOK CONTROL SEVERAL KINGDOMS HAD BROKEN AWAY BY THEN SIKHISM NORTH INDIA, PUNJAB – RELIGION OF 20 MIL GURU NANAK, FOUNDER – AFTER 10, GONE HEAD OF RELIGION = HOLY TEXT, ADI GRANTH

42 SIKHISM IMPORTANT ROLE IN SOUTH ASIAN HISTORY AND POLITICS
SIMPLE MESSAGE OF EACE AND JUSTICE FOUND IN REVELATIONS OF WAHEGURU(THE SIKH TERM FOR GOD) OPEN TO ALL – ALL CASTE, GENDER & RACE LANGAR – COMMUNAL MEAL FOR ALL

43 EARLY FOLLOWERS OF SIKHISM CAME FROM KHATRIS (HIGH CASTE) TO JAT (PEASANTS)
10 GURUS LIVED DURING MUGHAL EMPIRE MUGHAL EMPERORS SAW SIKHS AS A MILITARY THREAT KHALSA = MILITARY BLOC WITHIN SIKHISM – CREATED THE 5 K’S KESH (UNCUT HAIR), KARA (STEEL BRACELET, KANGA (COMB), KACCHA (COTTON ) KIRPAN(STEEL SWORD) REGIONAL POWER CAUSED BY SIKHISM WAS A THREAT

44 INDIA AND THE WORLD THE ARRIVAL OF THE PORTUGUESE IN INDIA
BARTHOLEMEU DIAZ LOOKED FOR WATER ROUTE TO INDIA – NAMED SOUTHERN TIP OF AFRICA “CAPE OF STORMS” KING CHANGED IT TO “CAPE OF GOOD HOPE” – 1497 VASCO DE GAMA SUCCEEDED – LANDED IN CALICUT CALICUT AT CENTER OF 3 CIRCUITS ARABIAN SEA, MEDITERRANEAN, AND EUROPE

45 PORTUGUESE CONTROLLED SRI LANKA, ALACCA AND HORMUZ BY 1515
PERSIAN GULF TO INDIA’S EAST COAST SOUTH EAST ASIA TO CHINA PORTUGUESE CONTROLLED SRI LANKA, ALACCA AND HORMUZ BY 1515 DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY REPLACED PORTUGUESE EMPIRE IN 1602 VOC STRETCHED FRO CAPE TO STRAITS OF MAGELLAN – LEADER OF SPICE TRADE

46 EAST INDIA COMPANY 1600, QUEEN ELIZABETH CHARTERED THE EIC AS A JOINT STOCK COMPANY MONOPOLY ON ENGLISH TRADE IN INDIES THAT LASTED 15 YEARS FIRST TWO TRIPS TO SUMATRA (PEPPER) 3RD TO SURAT – 25K PIECES OF GOLD AND LETTER TO EMPEROR JAHANGIR - DISMISSED

47 EAST INDIA COMPANY 2ND ENGLISH IN 1612 ALSO IGNORED
IN 1612, ENGLISH DEFEATED PORTUGUESE AT BATTLE OF SWALI OFF THE PORT OF SURAT VICTORY OPENED THE DOOR TO MUGHAL COURT

48 AREAS OF TRADE ALONG THE COAST
GUJURAT SURAT “THE BLESSED PORT” WAS MUGHAL PORT IN GUJARAT TEXTILES, INDIGO PURCHASED – BARTERED WITH DUTCH AND PORTUGUESE FOR SPICES LIKE NUTMEG, CLOVES, AND CINNAMON 1613, EIC BUILT A FACTORY (PLACE TO STORE GOODS BEFORE SHIPMENT) AT SURAT TEAK, BAMBOO, SPICES, SILVER, AND CAMELS

49 COROMANDEL COAST SOUTHERN INDIAN KINGDOMS – LOW TAXES ON IMPORTS
TRADING CURRENCY GOLD (NORTH WAS SILVER) FINE, DELICATE CLOTH WITH INTRICATE DESIGNS SPICE ISLANDS (INDONESIA) IMPORTED 400,000 PIECES OF CLOTH

50 BENGAL MUGHAL BENGAL KNOWN FOR THIN MUSLIN AND SILK
WEAVERS IN CITIES OF DHAKA AND MURSHIDABAD 500 YEARS LATER EIC IMPORTED 2.8 MILLION PIECES OF TEXTILE FROM INDIA TEXTILE TRADE DEVELOPED INTO A LARGE TERRITORIAL AND BUREAUCRATIC EMPIRE


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