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CHAPTER OBJECTIVES © SOUTH-WESTERN EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING THE MANAGER AS LEADER nDefine the concept of leadership and important characteristics of leaders. nIdentify five important human relations skills needed by managers. nDiscuss two viewpoints of managers about employees' attitudes toward work. nCompare three different leadership styles and determine when each is most effective. nDescribe the importance of work rules in a business and the procedures managers should follow in enforcing them. 1212
© SOUTH-WESTERN EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP nTo get work done effectively, employees must understand why the work is important and must want to do the work. nEmployees want to be an important part of the business and want managers to value their ideas as well as their work. nA manager who earns the respect and cooperation of employees to effectively accomplish the work of the organization is known as a LEADER. nLEADERSHIP is the ability to influence individuals and groups to cooperatively achieve organizational goals. nLeaders have excellent human relation skills. nHUMAN RELATIONS refers to how well people get along with each other when working together. nA group of people who respect each other and work well together will likely do better work then groups characterized by negative feelings, misunderstandings, hostility, and a lack of respect for each other. nAll managers have a responsibility for getting work done through others, so relationships are important. nNot everyone is currently an effective leader, but leadership skills can be developed which are emphasized in today’s management training programs where they focus on leadership and human relations
© SOUTH-WESTERN EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS nOne of the most important responsibilities is creating an atmosphere that encourages employees to do their best work to make the business successful. nEmployees have their own goals and needs as well. nManagers must work to satisfy important needs of each employee while also meeting the goals of the business. nLeadership characteristics are directly related to the success of the company. nLeaders help employees get work done correctly and willingly. nA good manager creates a work environment in which employees enjoy their work and want to do a good job. nLeadership characteristics are personal qualities rather than specific ways that mangers behave. nEach company, each job, and each situation is different. nLeadership characteristics prepare managers to be flexible and adjust to changes. n2 managers with the same leadership qualities will probably respond in different ways to specific situations, but will be able to work well with people to get the necessary work accomplished.
© SOUTH-WESTERN EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING INFLUENCING PEOPLE nManagers can influence people to accomplish work in both negative and positive ways. nManagers can influence employees because of their POWER ( the ability to control behavior). FOUR TYPES OF POWER 1.Position Power- comes from the position the manager holds in the organization. EX: If a manager is an employee’s boss, the manager has the power to give directions. 2.Reward Power- power based on ability to control rewards and punishments. EX: Manager determines work schedules, pay increases, etc; employees are likely to respond. 3.Expert Power- power given to the people because of their superior knowledge about the work. EX: If a worker is unsure how to perform a task, they may ask an expert. 4.Identity Power- power given to the people because others identify with and want to be accepted by them. EX: Experienced and well- liked employees have identity power.
© SOUTH-WESTERN EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING LEADERSHIP TRAITS nIntelligence nJudgment nObjectivity nInitiative nDependability nCooperation nHonesty nCourage nConfidence nStability nUnderstanding
© SOUTH-WESTERN EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING Developing Leadership Skills nFor the most part, people are not “born” leaders. nMost people can become effective leaders with preparation and practice. nManagers are not the only people who need leadership skills nMany businesses are using employee teams to plan work and make decisions. (EMPOWERMENT) nIndividual team members may assume leadership roles for specific projects. nLeaders will have expert and identity power to get projects completed. nEntire team may be given position and reward power that they can use to manage team activities and to achieve team goals. nCompanies often prefer to hire workers who have already developed many leadership traits nTraining programs introduce or reinforce team building activities
© SOUTH-WESTERN EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING HUMAN RELATIONS- managers must be able to work well with others both inside and outside the business and help employees work well together. nSelf-understanding- an awareness of your own attitudes, opinions, leadership style, decision-making process, and your relationship with other people. Use their understanding of their strengths, weaknesses, and how others perceive them to improve their skills as managers. nUnderstanding others -A manager cannot treat everyone the same way. Each person has a different background, attitude, skills, and needs. nCommunication - Managers must understand what information needs to be communicated and what methods to use. Must be skilled in written and oral communication skills but listening is the most important. nTeam building – people need to feel part of the team. Team building gets people to believe in the goals of the company and work well together. Teams take responsibility for work and pride in the results. This will reduce the time a manager must spend on monitoring the team’s work. nDeveloping job satisfaction - Can be influenced by factors such as personal characteristics, needs of employees, who they work with, and the actual work itself.
© SOUTH-WESTERN EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING MANAGEMENT VIEWPOINTS ABOUT EMPLOYEES nEmployees need to be closely managed *Used by managers for employees who are lazy and work only to get the paycheck. * Managers will likely use rewards and penalties regularly to try to influence worker performance. *Managers make all important decisions. nEmployees perform well with limited management nManagers assume that employees like responsibility and their work and will take the initiative to solve problems nManagers will ask employees for their input and allow the employees a great deal of control over their own work and do not apply immediate punishment or rewards. nManagers spend more time on management activities rather than employee supervision. nA flexible viewpoint nFlexibility in manager’s viewpoints toward employees permits flexibility in their treatment. nA combination of both limited and open supervision
© SOUTH-WESTERN EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING LEADERSHIP STYLE- general way a manager treats and supervises employees. nAutocratic leadership - one who gives direct, clear, and precise orders with detailed instructions as to what, when, and how work is to be completed. nEmployees do no make decisions; manager assumes they don’t want to or can’t make decisions. nWhen questions arise, they ask the manager; Used for efficiency nMajor disadvantage is that it discourages workers from thinking about better ways of doing their work. No problem solving experience. Employees become bored! nUsed in emergencies to get a huge order out; new or temporary employees nDemocratic leadership- one who encourages workers to share in making decisions about their work and work related problems. nManagers communicate openly with employees regarding problems and solutions nManager still makes decisions but only after discussing with employees nManager provides assistance or encouragement nMajor advantage is that it encourages employees to participate in planning work, solving work problems, and making decisions. nDisadvantage is employees don’t like to participate in decision making; manager must ask employees for their input on important decisions not unimportant ones. nOpen leadership- one who gives little or no direction to employees. nWorks best with experienced workers where few changes take place in business. nEmployees understand the work that needs to be done, but methods, details, and decisions are left to individual employees or teams. nSituational Leadership - one who understands employees and job requirements and matches his or her actions and decisions to the circumstances. nTeams of experienced workers ---OPEN leadership nTeams of inexperienced workers—AUTOCRATIC leadership
© SOUTH-WESTERN EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING HANDLING EMPLOYEE PROBLEMS nPersonal problems nManager must be understanding to situations. (sick child, transportation problem) nDO NOT ATTEMPT TO SOLVE PROBLEMS…provide assistance!!!!! nMake employees aware of services provided within company or outside. nConfidentiality and accommodations must be made. nWork rules - regulations created to maintain an effective working environment. nEx: hours of work, care of equipment, worker safety, relationships among employees and with managers. nCompany rules are for all but there are exceptions (different departments) nUnion enforced rules nOral warnings, written warnings, short suspension, then YOU”RE OUT! nEnforcing work rules nHot stove principle
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