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Organisations – Groups and Teams

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1 Organisations – Groups and Teams
Management Organisations – Groups and Teams

2 Useful vocabulary traditional view of conflict
group forming stage storming stage norming stage performing stage adjourning stage role norms groupthink status social loafing group cohesiveness conflict traditional view of conflict human relations view of conflict interactionist view of conflict functional conflicts dysfunctional conflicts work teams problem-solving team self-managed work team cross-functional team virtual team social network structure

3 Today’s lecture We will:
Define groups and the stages of group development Describe the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction Explore conflict management Define teams and best practices influencing team performance Discuss contemporary issues in managing teams

4 Groups

5 What is a group? Group - two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals. Groups tend to come together for a specific purpose but members work independently. A group may have a leader, but the roles and functions of the other group members are not well defined.

6 Types of groups Formal groups
Work groups defined by the organisation’s structure that have designated work assignments and tasks Informal groups Groups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members

7 Formal groups - examples

8 Activity Please give examples of each of these groups from your experiences: Formal: Command Task Self managed Cross function Informal: Interest

9 5 stages of group development
Forming Members feel much uncertainty, are just getting together Storming Lots of conflict between members of the group Norming Stage Members have developed close relationships and work together Performing Stage The group is finally fully functional and achieves Adjourning Stage The ending of a group and finishing activities The forming stage is filled with uncertainty as group members figure out their roles and the group norms. The storming stage occurs as the roles are continued to be developed and conflict arises between group members. As members develop closer relationships and a sense of cohesiveness they move into the norming stage. When the group is functioning well together and achieving their goals they are in the performing stage. If it is a temporary group they will wrap up activities and adjourn in the final stage. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.

10 4 stages of group development (4)

11 Critique of the Five-Stage Model
Assumption: the group becomes more effective as it progresses through the first four stages Not always true – group behavior is more complex High levels of conflict may be useful to high performance The process is not always linear Several stages may occur simultaneously Groups may regress Ignores the organisational context (ie, the organisation setting may mean the group do not need to go through the 5 stages) Although the five-stage development model is widely accepted there are some critiques of the model. The assumption that the group becomes more effective through each of the stages is somewhat suspect. The process is not always that linear and several stages may occur at the same time. Also, groups may regress into early stages at some point in the process. Also, the model ignores the organisational context. We have seen in our study of earlier theories that context can have a large impact on behavior. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.

12 Group performance and satisfaction

13 Group performance (1) A. External conditions: Factors inside the organisation but outside the group, eg, organisation strategy, rules, authority, technology B. Group member resources: Skills, knowledge and personalities of the group members

14 Group performance (2) C. Group structure:
Roles: the roles individuals play in the group (eg, leader, negotiator, innovator) Norms: the unwritten rules of the group (eg, dresscode, working late) Conformity: Behaving in the same way as the rest of the group. (eg Groupthink, Asch experiment)

15 Group performance (3) C. Group structure (cont.)
Size: Ideally 5-7 people, small groups get things done, large groups create more ideas. Risk of social loafing where some people do no work! Cohesiveness: When a group get on and all share the group’s goals. Best productivity is when cohesiveness = high and goals = desirable.

16 Group cohesiveness and productivity

17 Activity When have you experienced these structures in groups you have worked in? What happens when you have a group task and the group is too big? How do you deal with people who will not work hard?

18 Group performance (4) D. Group processes: Processes that happen in a group (eg, communication) Two of the most important are: Decision making Conflict management

19 Creative group decision making

20 Activity Try out brainstorming as a group.
How many different uses can you think of for a pen? (the last group I did this with got 20!)

21 What is conflict? Conflict - perceived incompatible differences that result in interference or opposition. Can you give me an example?

22 Conflict management (1)
Traditional view of conflict - the view that all conflict is bad and must be avoided Human relations view of conflict - the view that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group Interactionist view of conflict - the view that some conflict is necessary for a group to perform effectively

23 Conflict management (2)
Functional conflicts - conflicts that support a group’s goals and improve its performance Dysfunctional conflicts - conflicts that prevent a group from achieving its goals

24 Conflict management (3)
Task conflict - conflicts over content and goals of the work (functional or dysfunctional) Relationship conflict - conflict based on interpersonal relationships (usually dysfunctional) Process conflict - conflict over how work gets done (functional or dysfunctional)

25 Conflict and group performance

26 Conflict management techniques

27 Group performance and satisfaction (5)
E. Group tasks: The task the group has to complete. It can be: Simple: routine and standardised, requires little group discussion Complex: new and not routine, requires a lot of group discussion

28 Teams

29 What is a work team? Work teams are:
groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills They outperform individuals and can be more flexible than a traditional department

30 Advantage of using teams
Teams outperform individuals. Teams provide a way to better use employee talents. Teams are more flexible and responsive. Teams can be quickly assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.

31 Types of work teams (1) Problem-solving team - a team from the same department or functional area that’s involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems. Self-managed work team - a type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment.

32 Types of work teams (2) Cross-functional team - a work team composed of individuals from various functional specialties. Virtual team - a type of work team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.

33 Characteristics of effective teams (1)
Have a clear understanding of their goals Have competent members with relevant technical and interpersonal skills Exhibit high mutual trust in the character and integrity of their members Are unified in their commitment to team goals Have good communication systems Possess effective negotiating skills Have appropriate leadership Have both internally and externally supportive environments

34 Characteristics of effective teams (2)

35 Team or group? What are the differences between a team and a group?
Give examples of a team Give examples of a group

36 Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams
Work groups and work teams differ in their goals, level of synergy, accountability, and skills. Their function is different. Work groups share information where work teams work together for a collective performance. The synergy in groups is neutral where work teams have a positive synergy. Accountability can be individual in both but it is more often mutual in teams. The skills in a group will be varied where the skills on a team need to be complementary. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.

37 Importance of social networks
The patterns of informal connections among individuals within groups (eg, socialising) The Importance of Social Networks Relationships can help or hinder team effectiveness. Relationships improve team goal attainment and increase member commitment to the team.

38 Global Teams

39 Networking Guanxi in China Networking in UK and USA LinkedIn
What other networking sites?

40 Summary Today: Groups Conflict Managent Teams Tomorrow:
Organisational culture

41 Reading Please read Chapter 2 before tomorrow’s lecture.
The Dabbawalahs are a highly effective team You can read more about them here:

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