Presentation on theme: "Organisations – Groups and Teams"— Presentation transcript:
1Organisations – Groups and Teams ManagementOrganisations – Groups and Teams
2Useful vocabulary traditional view of conflict groupforming stagestorming stagenorming stageperforming stageadjourning stagerolenormsgroupthinkstatussocial loafinggroup cohesivenessconflicttraditional view of conflicthuman relations view of conflictinteractionist view of conflictfunctional conflictsdysfunctional conflictswork teamsproblem-solving teamself-managed work teamcross-functional teamvirtual teamsocial network structure
3Today’s lecture We will: Define groups and the stages of group developmentDescribe the major components that determine group performance and satisfactionExplore conflict managementDefine teams and best practices influencing team performanceDiscuss contemporary issues in managing teams
5What is a group?Group - two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals.Groups tend to come together for a specific purpose but members work independently.A group may have a leader, but the roles and functions of the other group members are not well defined.
6Types of groups Formal groups Work groups defined by the organisation’s structure that have designated work assignments and tasksInformal groupsGroups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members
8ActivityPlease give examples of each of these groups from your experiences:Formal:CommandTaskSelf managedCross functionInformal:Interest
95 stages of group development FormingMembers feel much uncertainty, are just getting togetherStormingLots of conflict between members of the groupNorming StageMembers have developed close relationships and work togetherPerforming StageThe group is finally fully functional and achievesAdjourning StageThe ending of a group and finishing activitiesThe forming stage is filled with uncertainty as group members figure out their roles and the group norms. The storming stage occurs as the roles are continued to be developed and conflict arises between group members. As members develop closer relationships and a sense of cohesiveness they move into the norming stage. When the group is functioning well together and achieving their goals they are in the performing stage. If it is a temporary group they will wrap up activities and adjourn in the final stage.(c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
11Critique of the Five-Stage Model Assumption: the group becomes more effective as it progresses through the first four stagesNot always true – group behavior is more complexHigh levels of conflict may be useful to high performanceThe process is not always linearSeveral stages may occur simultaneouslyGroups may regressIgnores the organisational context (ie, the organisation setting may mean the group do not need to go through the 5 stages)Although the five-stage development model is widely accepted there are some critiques of the model. The assumption that the group becomes more effective through each of the stages is somewhat suspect. The process is not always that linear and several stages may occur at the same time. Also, groups may regress into early stages at some point in the process. Also, the model ignores the organisational context. We have seen in our study of earlier theories that context can have a large impact on behavior.(c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
13Group performance (1)A. External conditions: Factors inside the organisation but outside the group, eg, organisation strategy, rules, authority, technology B. Group member resources: Skills, knowledge and personalities of the group members
14Group performance (2) C. Group structure: Roles: the roles individuals play in the group (eg, leader, negotiator, innovator)Norms: the unwritten rules of the group (eg, dresscode, working late)Conformity: Behaving in the same way as the rest of the group.(eg Groupthink,Asch experiment)
15Group performance (3) C. Group structure (cont.) Size: Ideally 5-7 people, small groups get things done, large groups create more ideas. Risk of social loafing where some people do no work!Cohesiveness: When a group get on and all share the group’s goals. Best productivity is when cohesiveness = high and goals = desirable.
20Activity Try out brainstorming as a group. How many different uses can you think of for a pen?(the last group I did this with got 20!)
21What is conflict?Conflict - perceived incompatible differences that result in interference or opposition.Can you give me an example?
22Conflict management (1) Traditional view of conflict - the view that all conflict is bad and must be avoidedHuman relations view of conflict - the view that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any groupInteractionist view of conflict - the view that some conflict is necessary for a group to perform effectively
23Conflict management (2) Functional conflicts - conflicts that support a group’s goals and improve its performanceDysfunctional conflicts - conflicts that prevent a group from achieving its goals
24Conflict management (3) Task conflict - conflicts over content and goals of the work (functional or dysfunctional)Relationship conflict - conflict based on interpersonal relationships (usually dysfunctional)Process conflict - conflict over how work gets done (functional or dysfunctional)
27Group performance and satisfaction (5) E. Group tasks: The task the group has to complete.It can be:Simple: routine and standardised, requires little group discussionComplex: new and not routine, requires a lot of group discussion
29What is a work team? Work teams are: groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skillsThey outperform individuals and can be more flexible than a traditional department
30Advantage of using teams Teams outperform individuals.Teams provide a way to better use employee talents.Teams are more flexible and responsive.Teams can be quickly assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.
31Types of work teams (1)Problem-solving team - a team from the same department or functional area that’s involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems.Self-managed work team - a type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment.
32Types of work teams (2)Cross-functional team - a work team composed of individuals from various functional specialties.Virtual team - a type of work team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
33Characteristics of effective teams (1) Have a clear understanding of their goalsHave competent members with relevant technical and interpersonal skillsExhibit high mutual trust in the character and integrity of their membersAre unified in their commitment to team goalsHave good communication systemsPossess effective negotiating skillsHave appropriate leadershipHave both internally and externally supportive environments
35Team or group? What are the differences between a team and a group? Give examples of a teamGive examples of a group
36Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams Work groups and work teams differ in their goals, level of synergy, accountability, and skills. Their function is different. Work groups share information where work teams work together for a collective performance. The synergy in groups is neutral where work teams have a positive synergy. Accountability can be individual in both but it is more often mutual in teams. The skills in a group will be varied where the skills on a team need to be complementary.(c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
37Importance of social networks The patterns of informal connections among individuals within groups (eg, socialising)The Importance of Social NetworksRelationships can help or hinder team effectiveness.Relationships improve team goal attainment and increase member commitment to the team.