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Ancient India Present Day India Brahmaputra River - the heavy rain cause the river overflow its banks as it overflow the river leaves the rich minerals.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient India Present Day India Brahmaputra River - the heavy rain cause the river overflow its banks as it overflow the river leaves the rich minerals."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ancient India

3 Present Day India

4 Brahmaputra River - the heavy rain cause the river overflow its banks as it overflow the river leaves the rich minerals it carried down from Himalayas in the earth of the valley. Deccan Plateau - is fairly dry.There are few river, but the monsoon provide most of the water. Landforms

5 Western Ghats - the wet climate encourage the growth of the tropical plants. Eastern Ghats - the river rarely flood, but they are not safe to travel. Landforms

6 Ganges River - as result, the northern plain contain some of the most fertile farmland in the world. Himalayas Mountain – they are the highest mountain range in the world. Hindu Kush - is the trading section. Landforms

7 Invaders also used to pass although many died in the mountains unforgiving landscape. Indus River - is important source of water for the farm. Thar Desert - most of time, heat is unbearable. Landforms

8 They adapt to farming and trading in Hindu Kush because they had rivers close by them like Indus river and Ganges river. They had a lot of large bodies of water like Indus River, Sarasvati, Ganges River, Brahmaputra River. Advantages of Landforms

9 The disadvantages of landforms is that there is a good chance of dying because the snow and ice permanently over steep slopes and peaks. The invaders use it to pass,although many died in the mountains unforgiving landscape. Disadvantages of Landforms

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11  The first civilization in India was the Indus Valley Civilization around 2600 to 1700 B.C.  India lasted from 5500 B.C.E to 1000 C.E.  What caused India to rise was its trading & weights.

12  During India’s Golden Age, they created a strong government and at the same time, they granted significant independence to local leaders.  This strategy created stability and prosperity from 320 to 550 C.E.  Later, India built an empire under King Ashoka rule, but soon fell and broke into separate kingdoms.  Another kingdom arose in India.  It united the northern kingdoms together by conquering them.  The name of this empire was the Gupta Empire.

13  India did not get conquered by another civilization.  Their geographic location would not have made a difference because even if they moved to a new location, they will still have the same outcome. What I mean is that they will still have problems and have all their social classes.

14 TIME PERIORD OF INDIA  The Indian valley civilization was the first civilization in the country around 2600 to 1700 B.C.  India lasted for about 5500 to 1000 CE.  India rose as a civilization due to trading and its weights because in India they didn’t have much to do but trade goods for what they need and make new technology.

15 TIME PERIOD OF INDIA  During India's golden age, they created a strong government and at the same time, they granted significant independence to local leaders.  The strategy created stability and prosperity from 320 to 550 CE.  India’s Civilization did not fall nor was it conquered by another civilization.

16  This shows the timeline of Ancient India. 2700-1900BCE Advanced sewer system in Mohenjodaro. 1500-900 BCE The Vedas oral teachings of Hinduism, are composed. 500 BCE Sanskrit language is first written down. 262-232 BCE Ashoka rules Mauryan Empire 320-550 CE Gupta Empire’s Mahabharata poem are completed

17 GOVERNMENT

18 CONSTITUTION OF INDIA  There is 36 states and union territories in India.  Each state is governed by its own legislative assembly. Members elected for the government plus 12 people elected by president makes up the Rajya Sabha.  Rulers of India are Union Government established by Constitution of India which is the county’s supreme government.  The contributions The Constitution of India made was structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institution.

19 LAWS OF INDIA  India had different types of laws.  Some laws are family & human rights laws, which have to do with one family or person.  Others are international trade laws, environmental laws, central laws, and state laws which have to do with not only one person but whole India.

20 INDIA’S COURT SYSTEM  India’s court system has large backlogs. It will take like about 320 years to clear them.  India’s court system is divide into different courts.  At the bottom is Senior Sub-Judge (Civil Cases) and Chief Judicial Magistrate (Criminal Cases), then District & Sessions Court, after is State High Court, and at the top is Supreme Court.

21 SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES  The differences between India’s civilization and others is that India’s court system has a three- tier court system that starts from District Courts and up.  Similarities between India’s civilization and others is that all civilizations were probably invaded by alien tribes, but still their religions had lived on or sustained.

22 INDIA

23 TRADE SYSTEM  For thousands of years, traders used the Khyber Pass to enter the Indus River Valley.  Major products of trade in India were manga, Colton, jute, silk, carpets, ivory, pearls, arts & crafts.

24 SOCIAL CLASSES  Yes, the social classes were Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras & Untouchables.  Brahmins, who were priests & religious scholars studied & taught the Vedas.  Kshatriyas who were rulers & warriors.  Vaishyas were herders & merchants.  Shudras were servants & did what they were told.  Untouchables which handled garbage and dead animals.

25 SLAVERY  Slavery is part of India under the social class called the Shudras.  Slavery was not based on the race in India.  Slavery in India was not permanent.

26 INDIA’S CITIES  Cities in India were built by forced laborers.  The impact the economy had on the rise was that the rivers around India would always get flooded and leaves rich minerals behind for the soil.  The impact the economy had on the fall was that some places don’t have water but soil that can grow.  The black soil makes it hard to grow crops in India and also the temperatures.

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28 Type of Religions Hinduism origin : India It started when there was ancient India happen but they are no founders who discover it. Islam origin: Arabian Peninsula Founded in 622 C.E by Muhammad. Christianity origin: Palestine founded by Jesus Christ by 2,000 years ago.

29 Type of Religions Sikhism origin: India It was founded in 16th century Buddhism origin: India It was discover in 2,500 years ago at the east of India. Jainism origin: India

30 Religions The Vedic Religion of the Aryans became Hinduism after it became exposed to pre-Aryan religious beliefs. After which two new religious, Buddhism and Jainism were formed after rejecting some tenants of Hinduism. Indian religions keep evolving.

31 Major Religious Leaders Hinduism: Ramakrishna – Was originally called Gadadhar Chatterji or Gadadhar Chattopadhyaya. He was the founder of religious thoughts that became Ramakrishna Order. Buddhism: Prince Siddhartha’s – Was also called the “Awakened One”. The truth was that Buddha discovered under the Bodhi tree are the basis of Buddhism. Sikhism: Guru Nanak - Was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the Sikh Gurus. He traveled a lot to tell everone of the belief in one God who dwells in everyone of God’s creations/enternal truth.

32 Major Religious Leaders Christianity: Jesus Christ – He refered to as Jesus of Nazarath. Central figure of Christianity whom teaches most Christian denomination hold to be the Son of God. Islam: Clerisy, Mosque & Government – Have special religious titles generally in Arabic (or sometimes in Persian). Religious leaderships may take a variety of non-formal shapes.

33 Hinduism  Word Hinduism is derived from the river Sindhu which was pronounced by Persians as Hindu.  Goal of life: To attain self- realization.  God is called SatChidAnanda: Ever existing, Ever conscious, Ever new bliss.

34 Buddhism  Buddhists go to temple, not at a special time or day, but when they can.  A Buddhist temple is called Vihara and is a place for education. In a temple, you will find a shrine room with a large Buddha and statues of his disciples. You will also find relics and manuscripts. There is also a lecture room, meditation room and a library.

35 Sikhism  Sikhism was founded by Guru Nanak Dev.  Sikhism emerged in 16th-century India in an environment heavily permeated with conflicts between the Hindu and Muslim religions.  Approximately 19 million Sikhs live in India, primarily in the state of Punjab.

36 Islam  "Islam" means "Peace through the submission to God".  "Allah" is an Arabic word that means "God". Muslims also believe that "Allah" is the personal name of God.  Muslims believe that God has revealed 99 of His names (or attributes) in the Holy Qur'an. It is through these names that one can come to know the Creator. A few of these names are: the All-Merciful, the All-Knower & Protector.

37 Christianity  Christianity is one of the most influential religions in history. It's the largest religion the world has ever known and it's responsible for the largest institution the world has ever known, the Christian Church.  It's founder, Jesus Christ, although of humble origins, impacted the world more than kings, presidents, military leaders, and politicians, even though he died in his early thirties.

38 Religions Unlike the other major ancient India religious there is not one main teacher in Hinduism. Buddhism is one of the major religions of the world today, with probably more than 3.5 million adherents. Jainism practices a form of vegetarianism that doesn’t allow practitioners to destroy the plant so certain common root vegetables are off limits, not all civilizations do this.

39 CONTRIBUTIONS

40 Inventions  buttons  carbon pigment  Calico  carding devices  Chaturanga  Chintz  Crescograph  crucible steel  dock (maritime)  incense clock  Indian clubs  Iron and mercury coherer  Kabaddi  Ludo  Muslin

41 Inventions  Mysoreans rockets  Palampore  Prayer flags  prefabricated home  Ruler  Seamless celestial globe  Shampoo  single roller  cotton gin  snakes and ladders  Stepwell  Stupa,  Suits game  Toe stirrup  Wootz steel

42 COMMUNICATIONS  India used messengers to send word to one king to another.  They also used Pigeons to transmit messages.  The latter skill was borrowed from the Sumerians.

43 COMMUNICATIONS  India used different types of scripts and stones to write.  Some scripts were Brahmi & Kharosthi.  They were developed by India to write both official and local languages.

44 DEVELOPED India was developed because India needed protection from alien tribes and invaders. This method was used by China & Mesopotamia. Many of these sates portrayed the Buddha or Hindu deites. Some showed important parts of people lives.

45 ART/ARCHITECTURE  India’s art forms can be classified into specific periods each reflecting particular religious, political and cultural developments.  The periods are Ancient Period (3900BCE-1200CE)  After is Islamic Ascendancy (1192-1757)  Next is Colonial Period (1757-1940)  Final is Independence and the Postcolonial Period (Post- 1947)  Also India’s main art forms were derived Vedic influences.

46 ART/ARCHITECTURE  India’s architecture has evolved through various ages in different regions of the country.  Evolution of Indian architecture was generally affected by the emergence and decay of great empires and dynasties in the sub-continent.  India’s architecture go’s way back to Indus Valley cities. Almost in all regions, India’s architecture is mostly temples. They are the highest standard developed in India.  Temples Chaityas, Viharas, Stupas and other religious structures have architectural remains.

47 ART/ARCHITECTURE  The arts of India can inform us about who lived there is by telling us how they did things around their.  For example, you found an artifact in a city. You don’t know for sure who lived their, you can use the artifact as a clue and do more research.  Another way is by searching for more artifacts and see if you can compare the two if they are from the same city.

48 ARTIFACTS  Shiva as Lord of Dance is an artifact of India. It explains him as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance to destroy a weary universe and make preparations for the god Brahma to start the process of creation.  Another artifact is the Vishnu sculpture. It describes Vishnu as the all-pervading essence of all beings, the master of—and beyond—the past, present and future, the creator and destroyer of all existences.

49 ARTIFACTS  Lakshmi sculpture is another artifact of India. She is the Hindu Goddess of wealth, love, prosperity (both material and spiritual), fortune, and the embodiment of beauty. Also Vishnu ‘s wife.  Last is the Rama statue. He is the seventh avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, and a king of Ayodhya in Hindu scriptures.

50 IMAGES OF INDIA

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52 ARCHITECTURE OF INDIA

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