Presentation on theme: "Il Telerilevamento in AMRA: Realtà e Prospettive legate alle Attrezzature Gianfranco Fornaro Istituto per il l Rilevamento Elettromagnetico dellAmbiente."— Presentation transcript:
Il Telerilevamento in AMRA: Realtà e Prospettive legate alle Attrezzature Gianfranco Fornaro Istituto per il l Rilevamento Elettromagnetico dellAmbiente (IREA) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via Diocleziano, 328, Napoli
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento 1.Overview of the remote sensing systems; 2.Optical systems; 3.Microvawe systems; 4.Le attrezzature in AMRA; Summary
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Remote sensing
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento The Photon Radiation contain photons (units in the EM force field). The photon is the physical form of a quantum, the basic particle studied in quantum mechanics. It is also described as the messenger particle for EM force or as the smallest bundle of light. This subatomic massless particle comprises radiation emitted by matter when it is excited. It also can become involved as reflected or absorbed radiation. Photons move at the speed of light and they also move as waves and hence, have a "dual" nature. E=hf h is Planck's constant ( x Js) The amount of energy characterizing a photon is determined using Planck's general equation:
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento The distribution of all photon energies over the range of observed frequencies is embodied in the term spectrum. A photon with some specific energy level occupies a position somewhere within this range, i.e., lies at some specific point in the spectrum When any target material is excited by internal processes or by interaction with incoming EM radiation (a collection of photons), it will emit photons of varying wavelengths whose radiometric quantities differ at different wavelengths in a way diagnostic of the material. Photon energy is received at detectors. The plot of variation of power with wavelength gives rise to a specific pattern or curve that is the spectral signature.
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento The Electromagnetic Spectrum Depending of the frequency (wavelength) we distinguish: Optical sensors; Infrared sensors; Microwave sensors. UV sensors;
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Radiometric Quantities Radiant energy (Q), transferred as photons, is said to emanate in short bursts (wave train) from a source in an excited state. This stream of photons moves along lines of flow (also called rays) as a radiant flux ( ) which is defined as the time rate at which the energy Q passes a spatial reference (dQ/dt). [J/sec = W]. Radiant flux density is just the energy per unit volume/surface (d /dA or d /dV). [Wm -3 or Wm -2 ]. Flux density as applied to radiation coming from an external source to the surface of a body is referred to as irradiance (E); if the flux comes out of that body, it's nomenclature is exitance (M). Radiant intensity (I=d /d ) is given by the radiant flux per unit of solid angle ω (in sr - a cone angle in which the unit is a radian or 57 degrees, 17 minutes, 44 seconds) [Wsr -1 ] d The radiance (L=dI/dA/cos ) [Wsr -1 m -2 ] is defined as the radiant flux per unit solid angle leaving an extended source (of area A) in a given direction per unit projected surface area in that direction. Radiance is closely related to the concept of brightness as associated with luminous bodies. What really is measured by remote sensing detectors is radiances at different wavelengths leaving extended areas (which can "shrink" to point sources under certain conditions) d d
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Radiant fluxes that come out of sources (internal origin) are referred to as radiant exitance (M) or sometimes as "emittance" (now obsolete). Radiant fluxes that reach or "shine upon" any surface (external origin) are called irradiance. Thus, the Sun, a source, irradiates the Earth's atmosphere and surface. Most wave trains are polychromatic, meaning that they consist of numerous sinusoidal components waves of different frequencies. The bundle of varying frequencies constitutes a complex or composite wave. Any complex wave can be broken into its components by Fourier Analysis which extracts a series of simple harmonic sinusoidal waves each with a characteristic frequency, amplitude, and phase. All the above radiometric parameters can be specified for any given wavelength; this spectral radiometric quantity (which has a value different from those of any total flux of which they are a part [unless the flux is monochromatic] is recognized by the addition to the term of a subscript λ, as in L λ. EM radiation can be incoherent or coherent. Waves whose amplitudes are irregular or randomly related are incoherent; polychromatic light fits this state. If two waves of different wavelengths can be combined so as to develop a regular, systematic relationship between their amplitudes, they are said to be coherent; monochromatic light generated in lasers meet this condition.
AMRA- Sezione di TelerilevamentoInteraction Any beam of photons from some source passing through medium 1 (usually air) that impinge upon an object or target (medium 2) will experience one or more reactions :
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Blackbody emission Fundamental laws of emission: Planck (W/m 2 / m), Stefan-Boltzman and Wien equations
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Solar irradiance The primary source of energy that illuminates natural targets is the Sun. Solar irradiation (also called insolation) arrives at Earth at wavelengths which are determined by the temperature of the sun (peaking near 5600 °C). The main wavelength interval is between 200 and 3400 nm (0.2 and 3.4 µm), with the maximum power input close to 480 nm (0.48 µm), which is in the visible green region. As solar rays arrive at the Earth, the atmosphere absorbs or backscatters a fraction of them and transmits the remainder.
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Processes in atmosphere Most remote sensing is conducted above the Earth either within or above the atmosphere. The gases in the atmosphere interact with solar irradiation and with radiation from the Earth's surface. Although the incoming irradiation is a single source of excitation of atoms and molecules in the air and any materials found at the surface, that EMR irradiation will experience varying degrees of transmission, absorption, emittance, and/or scattering depending on whatever wavelengths are considered. Here is a general diagram showing the "fate" of this irradiation.
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Trasmission in atmosphere At some wavelengths the irradiation is partly to completely transmitted; at others those photons are variably absorbed by interaction with air molecules. Here is a generalized diagram showing relative atmospheric radiation transmission and absorption at different wavelengths.
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Imaging Systems Imaging sensors are systems, typically mounted on-board satellites or airborne that are used to sense the properties of an object without being in contact with it. Depending on the used radiation (information transport media) there are two main categories: passive active and three main characteristics: spatial resolution radiometric resolution spectral resolution
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Sensor Technology Most remote sensing instruments (sensors) are designed to measure photons. The fundamental principle underlying sensor operation centers on what happens in a critical component - the detector. This is the concept of the photoelectric effect: there will be an emission of negative particles (electrons) when a negatively charged plate of some appropriate light-sensitive material is subjected to a beam of photons.
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Sensor Technology (cnd) Most remote sensing instruments (sensors) are designed to measure photons. The fundamental principle underlying sensor operation centers on what happens in a critical component - the detector. This is the concept of the photoelectric effect: there will be an emission of negative particles (electrons) when a negatively charged plate of some appropriate light-sensitive material is subjected to a beam of photons.
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Floods monitoring 24/9/92 before flood1/8/93 flood peack Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) on a portion of the Missouri River Floodplain close to Glasgow, Missouri.
AMRA- Sezione di TelerilevamentoLakes Landsat multispectral images of Ciad Lake (Central Africa). Bands 4, 2 e 1 del Landsat, Ciad lake extension between 1973 (left) and 1987 (right).
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Optical High spatial resolution Optical image, 1 m resolution of Sydney (Australia): IKONOS - 2/7/2000
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Spectral Signatures For any given material, the amount of solar radiation that reflects, absorbs, or transmits varies with wavelength. This important property of matter makes it possible to identify different substances or classes and separate them by their spectral signatures (spectral curves). For example, at some wavelengths, sand reflects more energy than green vegetation but at other wavelengths it absorbs more (reflects less) than does the vegetation. In principle, we can recognize various kinds of surface materials and distinguish them from each other by these differences in reflectance.
AMRA- Sezione di TelerilevamentoSpectroscopy Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral remote sensing, consists of the simultaneous acquisition of images in many narrow, contiguous, spectral bands. Each pixel in the remotely acquired scene has an associated spectrum similar to the spectra of a material obtained in the laboratory. As a result hyperspectral data offers a more detailed examination of a scene than other type of multispectral remote sensing data, which is collected in broad, widely separated bands.
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Spectral resolution The resulting hyperspectral data offers a more detailed view of the spectral properties of a scene than the more conventional broad (spectral) band data, which is collected in wide, and sometimes non-contiguous bands. Hyperspectral data can be considered as an oversampling of the spectrum, which provides a great increase in information. Many remote sensing tasks which are impractical or impossible with a multispectral imaging system can be accomplished with hyperspectral imaging.
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Example of Spectroscopy
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento 224 Band AVIRIS (Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, developed at JPL) Datacube.AVIRIS x and y axes represent spatial data (1024 x 614) as a 3 band colour composite image (R = band 43, G = 17, B = 10). The z axis represents spectral data as 224 contiguous bands from 0.4mm (foreground) to 2.5mm (background) in pseudocolour (rainbow).Spectroscopy
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento AVIRIS hyperspectral image of some circular fields in the San Juan Valley of Colorado. The colored fields are identified as to vegetation or crop type as determined from ground data and from the spectral curves plotted for the crops indicated. These curves were obtained from the AVIRIS data directly. Vegetation classification
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Geologic application The left image shows the area mapped as rendered in a near natural color version; the center image utilizes narrow bands that are at wavelengths in which certain minerals reflect energy related to vibrational absorption modes of excitation; in the right image, modes are electronic absorption. Shown here without the mineral identification key, the reds, yellows, purples, greens, etc. all relate to specific minerals.
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento An example on fires VIS NIRFIR
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento COMPETENZE Modelli di trasferimento radiativo in atmosfera: Ricostruzione di profili atmosferici di temperatura, umidità, concentrazione di componenti chimici Classificazione di immagini multi- e iper- spettrali: riconoscimento di nuvole, campi agricoli
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Satellite R( ) ds s Surface Equazione del Trasferimento Radiativo (RTE) dz z Trasmittanza Coefficiente di assorbimento monocromatico per la molecola n ma Densità della molecola n ma Radianza
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Modelli di trasferimento radiativo Visualizzazione di Jacobiani dellequazione di trasferimento radiativo ad altissima risoluzione spettrale (<0.001 cm -1 ) Parametrizzazione degli Jacobiani
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento
Animation file To speed-up radiative transfer models, it is important to parameterize optical depth as a function of temperature for wavenumbers at a resoluzione cm-1
AMRA- Sezione di Telerilevamento Clouds recostruction Sensor MODIS (Multispectral) Spatial resolution: up to 250m Number of channels: 36 A scene of 1000x600 Km brings about 350 Milions of data