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Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona IS Research Development an International.

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Presentation on theme: "Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona IS Research Development an International."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona IS Research Development an International Perspective Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. SDA Bocconi Information Systems Division Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi Nicholas.Romano@SDABocconi.it Spears School of Business Management Science and Information Systems Oklahoma State University – Tulsa Nicholas.Romano@OKState.edu Università degli Studi di Verona Facoltà di Economia

2 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Talk Outline 1.Personal Introduction 2.Business and IS Research 3.Research Defined and Ways of Knowing 4.Scientific Method and Theory 5.Research Process 6.Research Paradigms 7.Theory Construction 8.IS Research Methods

3 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona 1. Personal Introduction Nicholas C. Romano, Jr., Ph.D. – Associate Professor, MSIS Spears School OSU – Ph.D. from University of Arizona in MIS (1998) – Family Man, Husband and Father Wife Rosalina, 2 Daughters Isabella (8) Gabriela (6) 1 Son Nico (3) Dog Osa – AIS Council Member (Americas Representative – 2007-2009) Very Active in AIS and the AMCIS and HICSS Conferences – 20 years work experience, much of it in group support for teamwork and projects – Former IBMer (Dad, Brother, Sister, Brother in law, Great Uncle, Second cousin, others I am sure) – Occasional, but Terrible Golfer ( FORE!!!) – want to do it more.. 3

4 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona What is Business Research? the systematic and objective process of gathering, recording and analyzing data for aid in making business decisions ( Zikmund, Business Research Methods, 2002, p. 6 ) Systematic and Objective Distinguish Business Research Important tool for managers and decision-makers in corporate and non-corporate organizations

5 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona When is Business Research Used? Business research methods used in situations of uncertainty, when decision- makers face two or more courses of action and seek to select the best possible alternative under the circumstances Aims to improve the quality of decision-making which, in turn, benefits the organization and helps ensure its continuity and efficiency

6 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Typical Users of Business Research Methods Businesses and Corporations Public-Sector Agencies Consulting Firms Research Institutes Non-Governmental Organizations Non-Profit Organizations Independent Researchers and Consultants

7 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona General Business Conditions and Corporate Research Short- & Long-Range Forecasting, Business and Industry Trends Global Environments Inflation and Pricing Plant and Warehouse Location Acquisitions Financial and Accounting Research Forecasts of financial interest rate trends, Stock,bond and commodity value predictions capital formation alternatives mergers and acquisitions risk-return trade-offs portfolio analysis impact of taxes research on financial institutions expected rate of return capital asset pricing models credit risk cost analysis Fields Where Business Research is Often Used – (1) Management and Organizational Behaviour Research Total Quality Management Morale and Job Satisfaction Leadership Style Employee Productivity Organizational Effectiveness Structural ssues Absenteeism and turnover Organizational Climate

8 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Information Systems Research Knowledge and information needs assessment Computer information system use and evaluation Technical suppot satisfaction Database analysis Data mining Enterprise resource planning systems Customer relationship management systems Corporate Responsibility Research Ecological Impact Legal Constraints on advertising and promotion Sex, age and racial discrimination / worker equity Social values and ethics Sales and Marketing Research Market Potentials Market Share Market segmentation Market characteristics Sales Analysis Establishment of sales quotas Distribution channels New product concepts Test markets Advertising research Buyer behaviour Customer satisfaction Website visitation rates Fields Where Business Research is Often Used – (2)

9 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Value of Business Research for Managers – (1) Uncertainty Reduction and improved decision-making quality with several consequent advantages (e.g. strategic, operational) and benefits for Firms Business Research Methods can be employed in 4 stages: (1)Identification of problems and/or opportunities Useful for strategy planning, analysis of internal and external organizational environment

10 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Value of Business Research for Managers – (2) (2) Diagnosis and Assessment of problems and/or opportunities Gain insight into underlying reasons and causes for the situation. If there is a problem, it asks what happened and why? If there is an opportunity, it seeks to explore, clarify and refine the nature of the opportunity and, in the case of multiple opportunities, seeks to set priorities (3) Selection and Implementation of Courses of Action After alternative courses of action have been determined, selection of the best possible course.

11 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Value of Business Research for Managers – (3) An important consideration is the quality of forecasting which is an essential tool of research (4) Evaluation of Courses of Action Business Research Methods are used after a course of action has been implemented in order to determine whether activities have been properly implemented and have accomplished what they intended to do

12 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Value of Business Research for Managers – (4) Evaluation Research Formal objective measurement and evaluation of the extent which an activity, project or program has achieved its goal, and the factors which influence performance (e.g. audits). Formal objective measurement and evaluation of the extent to which on-going activities, projects or programs are meeting their goals (performance-monitoring research)

13 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Yes NO When Should Business Research be Undertaken? Is sufficient time available? Is information inadequate? High importance of decision? Research benefits greater than costs? Do Undertake Business Research Do not undertake Business Research

14 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Value and Costs of Undertaking Business Research

15 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Building Blocks Measurements of phenomena (e.g. sales statistics of a department store) DATA Determination of relationship amongst data with a view to facilitating understanding of the phenomena, their relationships and decision-making (e.g. past and predicted future sales trends) INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE Blend of information, experience and in-sights that provides a framework that can be thoughtfully evaluated when assessing new information or evaluating relevant situations WISDOM Blend of Knowledge information, experience and in-sights that provides a framework that can be thoughtfully evaluated when assessing new information or evaluating relevant situations

16 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Introduction Definition Ways of Knowing The Scientific Method

17 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Origin of the Word Research From French word recherche to travel through or survey.

18 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona What is Research? If research is to make the contribution to practice that is now possible, we must start with an adequate concept of the nature of research. Research is an unusually stubborn and persisting effort to think straight which involves the gathering and the intelligent use of relevant data Hamlin, H. M. (1966) What is Research? American Vocational Journal, September 14-16. See: http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/aee578/hamlin.htmlhttp://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/aee578/hamlin.html

19 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Pendulum of Scholarship in Business Management Schools Professional Learning Community Management Consulting Disciplinary Science Social System of Practice -Practitioners -Managers -Businesses -Trade Associations -Management Societies Social System of Science -Scientists -Graduate Schools -Research Institutes -Scholarly Societies Adapted From Van de Ven, Engaged Scholarship

20 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Elements of Research Not Frequently Discussed Research is not a linear process It is just written up like it is. One study leads to others Research is a social process Not because research is social but because results must enter into a social learned society (be read and cited) Research value (impact) more a question of importance than volume But volume is a wonderful, simple measure of productivity But, one good published idea is worth more than 100 articles How do you know value? CITES!!!Citation Tools [isi web of science; Google Scholar, Citeseer, SSRN, Libra, Publish or Perish]isi web of science

21 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Little Discussed Elements (II) Research is for posterity – i.e., it has a different time scale than consulting Refereed archival journals versus the Internet Research builds upon the past – …by tearing it down (theory building), – or by supporting it (replication studies; theory extension) Research not published is virtually worthless The importance is more to be read than to read! Research demands special form of writing and language

22 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Some Myths About Research Purpose of research is to Prove or Confirm a theory Research findings are presented as Complete andConclusive answers Research Scientists come to Consensus or Agreements on how things work (i.e. Global Warming; Pluto a planet) There is a hierarchy of research methodologies that places true experimental research at the top. NONE OF THESE ARE TRUE!

23 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Key Terms PhilosophyEpistemology The Love of Knowledge Distinguishing True (Real) Knowledge from False (Pseudo) Knowledge

24 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Different Ways of Knowing Authority – Because someone you respected told you so Tenacity – Because it has withstood the test of time Serendipity – discovery by accident Logic / Reason – Because you figured it out with your mind Science (Research) – Well get to that shortly…

25 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Authority How do we know that the Earth is flat? Right, but how do I know? But how do you know? Because Claudius Ptolemy said so. Because The Pope said so. (Pope Paul V) Because Im in charge and I am putting you (Galileo)in prison!

26 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Galileo Galilei (1564 1642) First to use telescope to study sky Discovered Solar spots and Jupiters satellites (Galilean moons) Believed Earth moves around Sun In 1632 he was convicted of heresy. In 1992 it was officially stated by the Pope that Galileo was right. (360 years later) Authority is SLOW to change

27 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Tenacity Grandpa, how do I know that I should drink 8 cups of water per day? But how did he know? But how did THEY KNOW?! Because thats what my father did. Because thats what his father did. Because thats what his father did! Well youre alive, arent you?

28 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Serendipity Columbus is the archetype of surprising discoveries In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue In quest of a passage through The Indies and the orient too He discovered America, Serendipitous through and through.

29 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Serendipity Isaac NewtonIsaac Newton's famed apple falling from a tree, led to his musings about the nature of gravitation.applegravitation In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so, that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit, whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. John Conduitt, Newton's assistant at the royal mint

30 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Serendipity The Post-it note was invented in 1968 by Dr Spencer Silver, a 3M scientist who stumbled upon a glue (Acrylate-copolymer microspheres [adhesive formula] ) that was not sticky enough.1968Spencer Silverscientist glue In 1968, Silver developed a high-quality but "low-tack" adhesive, made of tiny, indestructible acrylic spheres that would stick only where they were tangent to a given surface, rather than flat up against it. As a result, the adhesive's grip was strong enough to hold papers together, but weak enough to allow the papers to be pulled apart again without being torn. More importantly, the adhesive could be used again and again. Silver wanted to market the adhesive as a spray, or as a surface for bulletin boards on which temporary notices could be easily posted and then removed. Over the next five years, Silver tried to interest his colleagues at 3M, informally and in presentations. A marketable form of the product proved elusive however, until Arthur Fry attended one of Silver's seminars. Fry sang in his church choir. He was frustrated the paper bookmarks he used to mark the songs in his hymnal would not stay put. In a moment of insight, Fry realized that Silver's reusable adhesive would provide precisely what he needed. Fry wrote up his idea for a reusable bookmark and presented it to his supervisors. Initially, management was skeptical, but the staff could not get enough of the samples Fry was passing around. Soon, 3M gave the invention its full support. It took another five years to perfect and design machines to manufacture the product, but in 1980, Post-it® Notes were introduced nationwide. Within two years, the product became a necessity in the office, schools, labs, libraries, and even in homes.

31 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Logic and Reasoning Understanding phenomena by analyzing with our minds what we observe with our senses. Syllogism – A logical argument consisting of two premises and a conclusion. – Example: Persons who smoke cigarettes have a high rate of lung cancer. Persons who do not smoke cigarettes have a low rate of lung cancer. Therefore, smoking cigarettes causes lung cancer.

32 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona – Persons who smoke cigarettes have a high rate of lung cancer and yellow teeth. – Persons who do not smoke cigarettes have a low rate of lung cancer and yellow teeth. – Therefore, smoking cigarettes causes lung cancer and yellow teeth. Syllogism

33 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Well that sounds pretty good, Ill just use logic and reasoning for my research! Problems with limiting our knowledge to what we can discover with logic and reason: – Subjectivity (Bias) We do not observe the whole picture We have no external check on our logical thought processes – Example: I observe that all stars follow a regular pattern of motion in the sky in relation to the Earth. Therefore the Earth is stationary and at the center of the universe.

34 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Why not just rely on pure observation? What one observes: May not be Quantifiable May Change over time May not be Reality Can be based on Misinformation or Bias

35 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Why not just rely on pure observation? Count the Black Dots….How many do you see?

36 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Why not just rely on pure observation? Are the Horizontal lines parallel or do they slope?

37 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Actual building in Melbourne, Australia

38 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona How many legs does this elephant have? Why not just rely on pure observation?

39 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Are the two boys the same or different? Why not just rely on pure observation?

40 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Count the men Why not just rely on pure observation? Count the men Again Count the men one last time

41 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Is the wine glass on or off the tray? Is the water glass standing or laying down

42 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Are the three purple Shapes Squares? Are their sides parallel? Are they moving or still?

43 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Ames Room People seem to change size as they move around

44 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona How the Ames Room works

45 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. O klahoma S tate U niversity Doctoral Seminar – MSIS 6333 Wednesday August 21st, 2009 Actual Position of Person A Apparent Position of Person A Actual and Apparent Position of Person A Apparent Room shape Viewing Hole How the Ames Room works

46 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Why not just rely on pure observation? Subjectivity (Bias) – group A is nicer than group B Recall (forgetfulness – selective memory) – What did you say to me last week about topic X? Interpretations or conclusions that lack convincing support – most kids dont care what their parents say

47 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Even reason, when applied with bias, leads to irrationality and incorrect conclusions.

48 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Logical Fallacies Fallacies occur when we reach wrong conclusions based on real observations or facts. Examples: – Cum hoc ergo propter hoc (with this, therefore because of this) – Attributing causality based on correlation – Converse accident – Generalizing to a group based on an individual (or a small set of individuals) – Accident – Specifying to an individual based on a group – Post hoc ergo propter hoc (after this, therefore because of this) – Attributing causality based on temporality – See a list of 40 Fallacies at: http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/fallacies.html http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/fallacies.html

49 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona We all know that Penguins cannot fly. Logic, one more thing that Penguins are not good at. Penguins are Blank and White. Old TV shows are Blank and White. Therefore some Penguins are Old TV Shows.

50 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona So I should just accept that ignorance is bliss and that I dont know anything? Maybe if you want to sit on your porch all day doing nothing, but ……. – Authority isnt Always Inaccurate We need to rely on knowledge our parents, teachers, government tells us – Tradition is Important We all need a starting point and roots – Logic and Reason are Powerful Tools Our brains are like supercomputers We couldnt survive without Thinking Each way of knowing can only lead us so far We need a method to correct for weaknesses of other approaches

51 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Scientific Method (or methods)

52 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona How one discovers Knowledge Extent to which knowledge changes through time Extent to which Future changes in Knowledge are expected by user From ancient texts or revelations of inspired individuals. Little. None. Unchangeable except by reinterpretation by authorities, or by new inspired revelations, or by divergence of mavericks. Outrageous stereotype of user Bible-thumping fundamentalist or robe-draped monk; fond of Sunday-morning radio. Crystal-hugging wearer Of tie-dyed T-shirts; listens to new-age music. From personal insight, Or insight of others May be considerable. Can be expected, to the degree that the user Expects personal Development As user changes or as User encounters ideas of others Geek with pocket protector And calculator; watches Discovery Channel often. Considerable. By new observations or experiments, and/or by reinterpretation of existing data. From evidence generated by observation of nature or by experimentation. Science and other kinds of knowledge How knowledge changes through time Religious Knowledge Artistic/Mystic Knowledge Scientific Knowledge

53 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Science and other kinds of knowledge (continued) Religious Knowledge Artistic/Mystic Knowledge Scientific Knowledge Certainty of the user High, given sufficient faith; Can be complete. High Dependent on quality and Extent of evidence; should never be complete. Assumptions Ancient texts or Inspired revelation have meaning to modern or future conditions. personal feelings And insights reflect nature. Nature has discernible, predictable, and explainable patterns of behavior. Where users put Their Faith In the supernatural beings That they worship or in the authorities who interpret Texts and events. In their own perceptions. In the honesty of people reporting scientific data (the incomes of whom depend on generation of that data), and in the human ability to Understand nature. Sources of Contradiction Between different religions; between different texts and/or authorities within one religion; within individual texts (as in the two accounts of human origin in the Judeo Christian Genesis). Between users, who Each draw on their own Personal Insights Across time, as understanding changes; between fields, which use different approaches and materials; and between individuals, who use different approaches and materials.

54 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Religion and Science Science is based on skepticism and experiment Religion is based on faith However Many scientists are religious Also many leaders of religion have been great scientists (Mendel – father of experimental Genetics - Monk) Science and Religion are simply different parts of our lives Science cannot disprove the idea of God Religion cannot prove that Science is wrong

55 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Scientific Inquiry as a way of Knowing Science is a disciplined, systematic way to understand the nature of the universe. Science uses empirical data to test falsifiable theories via a deductive method. WHAT THE HECK DOES THAT MEAN???

56 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Science = order, explanation, rational methods, logic The main purpose of science is to trace, within the chaos and flux of phenomena, a consistent structure with order and meaning. This is called the philosophy of rationalism, rational as in conforming with reason. And the purpose of scientific understanding is to coordinate our experiences and bring them into a logical system.

57 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Science is also a Dialogue between Humankind and Nature. Science is far from a perfect instrument of knowledge, but it provides something that other philosophies fail to, concrete results. Science is a candle in the dark'' to illuminate irrational beliefs or superstitions

58 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Six General Goals of Science 1.Organize & categorize things (typologies and ontologies) 2.Explain Past Events 3.Predict Future Events 4.Control Future Events 5.Provide a Sense of Understanding 6.Generalize Results Adapted from: Reynolds, P. D. (1971). A primer in theory construction. Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill Company.

59 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona More Specific Goals of Science Create Causal Models for phenomena of interest (Theory) Test the usefulness of our models (Experiments and other methods) Use those models to increase the likelihood people will survive and thrive. (Applications)

60 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Science – a Definition Science,... organized systematic enterprise that gathers knowledge about the world and condenses the knowledge into testable laws and principles. Diagnostic features of science that distinguish it from pseudoscience are: 1. Repeatability: The same phenomenon is sought again, preferably by Independent investigation, and the interpretation given to it is confirmed or discarded by means of novel analysis and experimentation. 2. Economy: Scientists attempt to abstract the information into the form that is both simplest and aesthetically most pleasing the combination Called Elegance while yielding the largest amount of information with the least amount of effort. 3. Mensuration: If some thing can be properly measured, using Universally accepted scales, generalizations about it are rendered unambiguous. 4. Heuristics: The best science stimulates further discovery, often in unpredictable New directions; and the new knowledge provides an additional test of the original principles that led to its discovery. 5. Consilience: The explanations of different phenomena most likely to survive are those that can be connected and proved consistent with one another. Edward O. Wilson (1998) American Scientist, 86(1) Jan/Feb P.6.

61 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Research Process 1.Pick a research topic. 2.Formulate an appropriate research question related to that topic. How do you do this? Pick an outcome you think is interesting and ask, What do think caused that outcome? and Why?

62 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Research Process 3. Refine the research question by hypothesizing relationship(s) between the variables

63 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Research Process 4. Operationalize the variables The conversion of abstract concept into concrete terms. Measurement -- how do we know anything happened?

64 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Research Process 5. Select an appropriate research technique Examples: 1. Experiments 2. Quasi-experiments 3. Surveys 4. Interviews 5. Unobtrusive Data Collection 6. Content Analysis 7.Case Studies 8.Action Research 9.Design Science 10.Simulation

65 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Research Process 6. Collect data – Measure attributes of the real world. Classifying things that actually happen in the world with your operational scheme and then recording that data. Things to consider: 1. Quantitative vs. Qualitative 2. Primary vs. Secondary 3. Sample vs. Population 4.Selection of Cases 5.Validity

66 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Research Process 7. Analyze Data Look for systematic differences STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CONTENT ANALYSIS HERMENUETICS

67 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Research Process 8. Interpretation of the results What did you find? How do your findings relate to other findings? What are the theoretical implications, how will this impact other IS research? What are the Practical implications, how will this impact IS practice?

68 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Definition of the Scope of Lit. Rev. Review of Selected Literature Identification of initial findings- Gap Gap Definition Initial Research Objective Taking the gap further.. Development of: The Value Matrix The 3rd. Dimensio n VM Hard & Soft Value Footprints Gap Asses. Tool Research Questions Value Matrix Value cube Footprints Identification of: Contributions to Knowledge and Theory Contributions to Practice Limitations of Framework/ Footprint Validation of Frameworks Answer to RQ Review of: Scientific Paradigm Research strategies Techniques among others Understanding of research methods Definition of Phenomenological Research Approach Controls Criteria to evaluate results and the whole research Research tools 8 Case Studies Counting M. Feedback : consultants &conferences Application of R. Methods Evolution of Frameworks Acceptability of Frameworks Development of: Workshop Exploratory Research Initial Literature Review Value Creation RESEARCHRESEARCH OUT COMES Why study Value? Answer Weaknesses of current solutions Unsolved issues PHASE Pre- understanding Study of Research Methods Theory Building Theory Testing Evaluation of the research Point of Departure

69 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Thus, the task is not so much to see what no one has yet seen, but to think what no one has yet thought about that which everybody sees. Arthur Schopenhauer

70 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Science tests all hypotheses, but some scientists summarily dismiss opposing views: Science has proven itself to be an infallible tool for unlocking certain areas of knowledge, but it's not logical to conclude from this that all thinking by scientists is infallible. Science can be used to discover many things, yet some scientists wrongly presume that all things can be discovered through it.

71 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona What is Science? Science = A set of facts and the theories that explain the facts. Whatevers being done by institutions carrying on scientific activity. A particular approach, the scientific method

72 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Data Data are concrete facts, records or collections of information we gather about phenomena of interest. – Usually expressed in numerical terms Data may express facts of individuals (blood pressure, disease status, response to survey questions) or geopolitical areas (crime rate, death rate, per capita income)

73 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Empiricism An empirical (observational) approach to research is one that strives to be objective. It expresses concepts in concrete, tangible ways. – Not fuzzy or abstract ways… Empiricism tests relationships between these concepts. Empiricism is closely tied to the type of data that you use.

74 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Limitations of Empirical Data Our research cannot attempt to make value judgments – Cannot answer questions such as, What is morally right? or Which drug is better? – Can analyze peoples opinions about such things Some concepts are difficult to measure with numbers – If we wanted to know if happier people lived longer, how could we measure happiness? Sometimes we just cant get the data

75 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Popular Fictions The goal of science is to accumulate facts Science distorts reality and cant do justice to the fullness of human experience. Scientific knowledge is truth. Science is concerned primarily with solving practical and social problems.

76 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Science is neither a philosophy nor a belief system. It is a combination of mental operations that has become increasingly the habit of educated peoples, a culture of illuminations hit upon by a fortunate turn of history that yielded the most effective way of learning about the real world ever conceived. Edward O. Wilson Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge So then, what is Science?

77 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Heart of the Matter Why do we see what we do and not see something else? Paradigm, Ontology, Epistemology, Axiology

78 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Paradigm

79 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Some Fundamental Paradigms Positivist Research Interpretivist Research Criticalist Research Design Research Action Research

80 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Taxonomies It is important to understand where you fit in regards to research

81 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona OntologyEpistemologyMethodologyMethodsSources Whats out there to know? What and how can we know about it? How can we go about acquiring about acquiring that knowledge? Which precise procedures can we use to acquire it? Which data can we collect? The interrelationship between the building blocks of research (Grix 2004: 66)

82 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Study of how we evaluate our investigations. Strategy or plan of action; Research Design – shapes our choice of methods and links that choice to the research outcomes. Study of values: what values does an individual or group hold and why? Study that explores the nature of knowledge: for example, on what does knowledge depend and how can we be certain of what we know? Study that describes the nature of reality: for example, what is real and what is not, what is fundamental and what is derivative? Philosophical Assumptions Ontology Basic Belief Epistemology Methodology Axiology Research Perspectives Positivist Interpretivist Design Single Reality; Knowable, Probabilistic Multiple Realities; Socially Constructed Multiple Contextually Situated alternative World States; Socio- technologically enabled Objective; Dispassionate. Detached observer of truth Subjective, i.e. values and knowledge emerge from the researcher- participant interaction Knowing through making: Objectively constrained construction within a context. Iterative circumscription reveals meaning Observational; Quantitative; Statistical Participative; Qualitative; Hermeneutical; Dialectical. Developmental; Measure artifactual impacts one the composite system Truth: Universal and Beautiful; Predictive. Understanding: Situated and Descriptive Control; Creation; Progress (i.e. improvement) Understanding Criteriology Internal validity; construct validity; external validity and reliability. Credibility: triangulation multiple data sources Confirmability Expected Functionality and performance Useful and easy to use Solves Problem at hand

83 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Behavioral vs. Design Science (Hevner, et al. 2004) Behavioural Science Research (BSR) Design Science Research (DSR) OriginNatural ScienceEngineering, Sciences of the Artificial ParadigmProblem understanding paradigmProblem solving paradigm Objective develop and justify theories which explain or predict organizational human phenomena surrounding the analysis, design, implementation, management, and use of information Systems create innovations that define ideas, practices, technical capabilities, and product through the analysis, design, implementation, management, and use of information systems Objecthuman-computer-interactionIT artefact design

84 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona IS Research Cycle Behavioral Science Research Design Science Research Understanding, Truth Design, IS Artifacts Utility, Usage in Practice Theory Building, Hypotheses Build Evaluate/ Apply Theorize Justify

85 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Reassembling the Dimensions A given research project is a point in multidimensional space. Some regions of this space are popular: These often go together as Quantitative research. These often go together as Qualitative research. Observational Interventionist BiophysicalPsychosocial SampleCase(s) Quantitative Qualitative Objective Subjective NeutralPartisan topic scope method mode ideology politics This pigeonholing doesnt apply to the novelty, technology and utility dimensions. BeforeAfter Theory

86 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Diagnosing your research paradigm H&H p.73 (A if you agree/D if you disagree) 1.Quantitative data is more scientific than qualitative data 2.It is important to state the hypotheses before data collection 3.Surveys are probably the best way to investigate business issues 4.Unless a phenomenon can be measured reliably, it cannot be investigated 5.A good knowledge of statistics is essential for all approaches to business research

87 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Diagnosing your Research Paradigm H&H p.73 6. Case studies should only be used as a pilot project before the main research is conducted 7. Using participant observation to collect data is of little value in business research 8. Laboratory experiments should be used more widely in business research 9. It is impossible to generate theories during the course of research into business issues 10. Researchers must remain objective and independent from the phenomena they are studying

88 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Diagnosing your Research Paradigm H&H p.73 To score, count the number of As and Ds: More As than Ds – Positivist More Ds than As – phenomenological/Interpretivist/Subjectivist Equal – flexible (Post-Positivist)

89 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Science and Scientific Method Science the methodological and systematic approach to acquisition of new knowledge ( Geoffrey Marcyzk, David DeMatteo, David Festinger, Essentials of Research Design and Methodology, John Wiley & Sons, 2005, p. 4 ) Scientific method, evolved since 13 th century, concerns set of tools, techniques and procedures used by researchers to analyze and understand phenomena and support or discard prior conceptions

90 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Essence of the Scientific Method Characteristics of the Scientific Method Objectivity Systematic Analysis Logical Interpretation of Results Elements of the Scientific Method Empirical Approach Observations Questions Hypotheses Experiments Analysis Conclusion Replication Basic Research Applied Research Scientific Method Information or Ideas for alternative Courses of action General Laws

91 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona 4 Scientific Argument Types 1.Deduction: Conclusion is drawn from a set of propositions (pure logic) 2.Induction: One draws general conclusions from particular facts that appear to serve as evidence 3.Probability: Passes from frequencies within a known domain to conclusions of stated likelihood, 4.Statistical: On the average, a certain percentage of a set of entities will satisfy the stated conditions.

92 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Mathematics Computer Simulations Logical/Rational Thought Laws of Nature Deductive 4 Scientific Arguments types Temporal Data Spectral Data Images Correlations/Patterns Rules of Nature Inductive Temporal Data Likelihood Generalities of Nature Probabilistic Sets of Data Trends Predictions of Nature Statistical The fact that scientific reasoning is so often successful is a remarkable property of the Universe, the dependability of Nature.

93 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Inductivisim vs. Deductivism Exploratory Starts by observing, ends with a theory May be necessary to uncover relationships when little is known about a phenomena (i.e., AIDS in 1980s) Confirmatory Starts with a theory, ends with test results Is considered the gold standard for conducting scientific research

94 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Adapted from, Kuhn, Thomas (1961) "The Function of Measurement in Modern Physical Science." in The Essential Tension. (1977) Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 178-224. Theories Results TheoryExperiment 1.4141.418 1.7321.725 2.2362.237 Manipulation Logic and Math (X) f 1 (X) (X) f 2 (X) ………… (X) f n (X) Quantitative Confirmation Deductive Qualitative Exploration Inductive Reasonable Agreement Qualitative vs. Quantitative Observations

95 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Deductive Reasoning Theory Hypotheses Observation Confirmation and finally check to see if the data confirms (supports) our hypotheses and theory or not (Is our theory valid or not?) Deductive reasoning starts with a Given Theory as the basis for which we develop Hypotheses and then acquire Specific Data through Observation or Experimentation

96 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Inductive Reasoning Observation Pattern Tentative Hypothesis Theory As foundation for a Theory Inductive reasoning starts with a Specific Observation as the basis for which we develop a General Pattern and Tentative Hypothesis

97 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Flow of Research: Top to Bottom Approach Source: http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/strucres.htmhttp://trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/strucres.htm

98 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona To support these methods, a scientist also uses a large amount of skepticism to search for any fallacies in hypothesis or scientific arguments. Note that there is an emphasis on falsification, not verification. If a theory passes any test then our confidence in the theory is reinforced, but it is never proven correct in a mathematical sense. Thus, a powerful hypothesis is one that is highly vulnerable to falsification and that can be tested in many ways.

99 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Falsification For a theory to be scientific, its hypotheses must be falsifiable – The possibility must exist for the data to prove you wrong When collecting data one must not collect data simply to support ones hypothesis – This is essentially what an inductive approach does, as the hypothesis is based on the data Difference between science and philosophy / religion

100 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Pluto…a planet or not? In a move that's already generating controversy and will force textbooks to be rewritten, Pluto will now be dubbed a dwarf planet. But it's no longer part of an exclusive club, since there are more than 40 of these dwarfs A clear majority of researchers voted for the new definition at a meeting of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in Prague, in the Czech Republic. The IAU decides the official names of all celestial bodies. The tough decision comes after a multiyear search for a scientific definition of the word "planet." The term never had an official meaning before. What Is a Planet Today? According to the new definition, a full-fledged planet is an object that orbits the sun and is large enough to have become round due to the force of its own gravity. In addition, a planet has to dominate the neighborhood around its orbit. Pluto has been demoted because it does not dominate its neighborhood. Charon, its large "moon," is only about half the size of Pluto, while all the true planets are far larger than their moons.

101 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Tying it all Together Use theory to develop research questions Formulate specific, empirical hypotheses that are falsifiable Select variables based on theory that are empirically measurable Try to prove your hypothesis wrong – Test the falsification (null) hypothesis State the limitations of your research

102 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory and Research What is Theory? …the language that allows us to move from observation to observation and to make sense of similarities and differences. Rudestam & Newton, 2001, p. 10.

103 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory and Research Relationship between theory and research Consider the Research Process Wheel as proposed by Rudestam & Newton in Surviving Your Dissertation (2001).

104 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Deduction Induction Nomothetic Idiographic Hypothesis Testing Empirical Generalization TheoreticalGeneral/Abstract Specific/Concrete Empirical Verify Confirm Evaluate Falsify Generalized Wheel of Science

105 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Information Systems Research & Practice Theory: ideas Practice: use of ideas Leads to after Checkland & Holwell (1998)

106 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona REALLY What is a Theory? (1) Zikmund (p. 41) has defined a theory as a coherent set of general propositions, used as principles of explanation of the amount of the apparent relationships of certain observed phenomona Concepts (or constructs) are the basic building blocks of theory development. A concept (or construct) is a generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes that have been given a name. A concept (or construct) may vary in terms of the level of abstraction THEY ARE PART OF THEORY Examples: Productivity, Leadership, Morale, Assets, Inflation

107 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona What is a Theory? (2) A Proposition is a statement concerned with the relationship between concepts. It asserts a universal connection and logical linkage between concepts. Propositions are at a higher level of abstraction than concepts. THEY ARE PART OF THEORY Example: Smoking is injurious to health Hypotheses are propositions which are empirically testable. They are usually concerned with the relationships between variables. THEY ARE NOT PART OF A THEORY. Example: Increasing salary by 10% will double the production

108 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory Construction Baconian Inductivism (Interpretivist) – Start with what we observe (data) – Look for patterns among data – Create theory based on observed patterns – Empirically test predictions of the theory Problems – Not all phenomena can be observed – Depends on large number of observations

109 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory Construction, continued Hypothetico – Deductivism (Positivist) – Propose theory Either a pre-existing theory or one that logically makes sense – Generate testable hypothesis – Collect empirical data – Test hypothesis, interpret results Problems – As theories become outdated, knowledge derived from this method may become meaningless

110 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona

111 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Abstraction Ladder Observations of Objects, Events and Occurrences (Reality) Concepts / Constructs Propositions Theory Levels of Abstraction Empirical Level Abstract Level

112 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory and Research Theory functions three ways in research: 1.Theories prevent our being taken in by flukes. 2.Theories make sense of observed patterns in ways that can suggest other possibilities. 3.Theories can direct research efforts, pointing toward likely discoveries through empirical observation.

113 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory as Explanation Research questions call for explanations Answers or Explanations come from theorie

114 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Vocabulary Concept: a word or a symbol to represent an idea

115 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Vocabulary Theory: concepts and their interrelationships

116 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Vocabulary Model: imitation of an existing object

117 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Logics {Good, Fair, Poor} Approximation Denotation {True, False} (supported or not) World Model Theory

118 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Vocabulary Hypothesis: testable statement based on theory Prediction about what Patterns we will see in the world if our theory is correct

119 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Vocabulary Operational Definition: (variable) concept at a level that is testable (measurable)

120 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona concept THEORY Hypotheses Operational Definition (variables)

121 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory Based on well established facts, testable hypotheses are formed. The process of testing "leads scientists to accord a special dignity to those hypotheses that accumulate substantial observational or experimental support." This "special dignity" is denoted by the granting of the title "theory," which, when it "explains a large and diverse body of facts" is considered "robust" and if it "consistently predicts new phenomena that are subsequently observed," it is "reliable."

122 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona What Theory is NOT 1. References are not theory. 2. Data are not theory 3. Lists of Variables or Constructs are Not Theory 4. Diagrams are Not Theory 5. Hypothesis (or predictions) are not theory 6. Theory is not something one "adds" to data, or something that one transforms from weaker to stronger by means of graphics or references, or can be feigned by flashy conceptual performance. Sutton, R. I. and Staw, B. M. (1995) What theory is not. ASQ 40:371-384. Weick, Karl, E. What Theory is Not, Theorizing Is, ASQ, 1995, 40:385-390.

123 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona TEN MYTHS OF SCIENCE: REEXAMINING WHAT WE THINK WE KNOW Myth 1: Hypotheses Become Theories Which Become Laws Myth 2: A Hypothesis is an Educated Guess Myth 3: A General and Universal Scientific Method Exists Myth 4: Evidence Accumulated Carefully Will Result in Sure Knowledge Myth 5: Science and its Methods Provide Absolute Proof Myth 6: Science Is Procedural More Than Creative Myth 7: Science and its Methods Can Answer All Questions Myth 8. Scientists are Particularly Objective Myth 9: Experiments are the Principle Route to Scientific Knowledge Myth 10: All Work in Science is Reviewed to Keep the Process Honest. See: http://amasci.com/miscon/myths10.html

124 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona I grant you evolution was a theory to begin with… but it evolved into a fact a long time ago!

125 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory Observations Develop Hypothesis To Explain Observations Test Hypothesis Hypothesis Test Theory Law Theory Fail Pass Pass Many Tests Fail Hypotheses; Theories; Laws

126 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory Hypotheses Phenomenon of Interest? Small dots represent observations Large dots represent Experimental Results Scientific Theories are relatively large, general concepts. Scientific Laws are smaller, mathematically precise concepts. Scientific Law Scientific Law Scientific Law Collections of Data Observations by other scientists Inductive Reasoning applied (Specific to General) to develop General hypotheses Experiments designed Through deductive reasoning (General to Specific) Controlled experiments provide new data that is tested statistically for significance and falsification Results of statistical tests on new data Add evidence to support, modify or falsify the theory (or more rarely the scientific law)

127 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory C Scientific Law Scientific Law Theory B Theory A

128 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory A Causal Model of the phenomenon-of-interest Drives all subsequent Scientific Activity Hypotheses Experimental/Research Design Measures Analysis Conclusions Interpretations Limitations

129 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Anything Missing? TruthTruth

130 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Positivist Perspective Science = Useful Science <> True

131 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona A Useful Model is often Better Than Truth

132 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona No scientific inquiry is ever complete, and no scientific theory is ever final Nor need it be to be useful – A scientific theory in its current state can be very useful in the present even though it may later be or improved upon or even superceded

133 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Connecting outputs to outcomes is a challenge I think you should be more explicit here in Step Two. My Theory

134 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Useful Is Better Than True

135 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Name the Phenomenon Nickezite Block

136 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Describe the Phenomenon Nickezite Block A B

137 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Explore the Phenomenon Bobezite Block A B

138 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Explore the Phenomenon A B

139 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona NickeziteBlock A Describe Phenomenon Dynamics B

140 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona A Useful Theory One Gear

141 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Truth (Reality) Many Gears Belts and pulleys

142 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The model becomes useful when you want to do something new

143 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Therefore For matters of cause-and-effect A useful model (Theory) Is/Can Be better than Truth (Reality)

144 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona What is a Theory? A set of interrelated constructs (variables), definitions, and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among constructs, with the purpose of explaining natural phenomena. Kerlinger, F. N. (1979) Behavioral Research: A conceptual Approach. New York, NY, USA: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. To this add Theoretical Rationale Specifying how and why the constructs and relational statement are interrelated. Labovitz and Hagedorn (1971) Introduction to Social Research. New York, NY, USA. McGraw-Hill.

145 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona A Good Theory Should explain existing data Explain a range of related observations Allow statements to be made about the world Allow predictions about the future Have meaningful implications Taken from Davey et al. (2004)

146 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona What is a Theory? Causal Model Internally Consistent Explains and/or predicts Proposes mechanisms of causation Testable

147 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Structure of a Theory Axioms (Assumptions) Propositions (Causes and Effects)

148 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Substruction A strategy to help you understand the theory and methods (operational system) in a research study Applies to empirical, quantitative research studies There is no word, Substruction, in the dictionary. It has an inductive meaning, constructing and a deductive meaning, deconstructing Heuristic

149 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Substruction Theory (Theoretical system) Construct Concept Deductive (Qualitative) Methods (Operational System) Measures Scaling/Data analysis (Quantitative) Inductive

150 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Substruction: Building Blocks or Statements of Relationships Construct Pain Axiom Construct Quality of Life Concept Intensity Proposition Concept Functional status Measure 10 cm scale Hypothesis Measure mobility scale Theoretical Model Measurement Model

151 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Statements of Relationships Construct: Postulate: Statement of relationship between a construct and concepts Pain consists of three concepts Concepts: Intensity Location Duration

152 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Basic Concepts Hypothesis – States a relationship between two, or more, concepts and suggests that one has an impact on the other (Grix 2004:42) – An Hypothesis is a provisional idea whose merit is to be evaluated. A hypothesis requires more work by the researcher in order to either confirm or disprove it. In the hypothetico- deductive method, a hypothesis should be falsifiable, meaning that it is possible that it be shown false, usually by observation. Note that, if confirmed, the hypothesis is not necessarily proven, but remains provisional.hypothetico- deductive methodfalsifiableobservation (Wikipedia)

153 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Propositions Functional Statements of cause-and-effect that must be logically true if the axioms are true Examples – P1: Effort toward group goal is a function of goal congruence – P2. Group Productivity is an inverse function of distraction Basic Concepts

154 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Propositions must be... Causal Composed of Constructs Without empirical content Logically derivable from axioms

155 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Propositions of Direct Causation Proposition 1: Productivity is a function of effort Proposition 2: Effort is a function of goal congruence Proposition 3: Effort is an inverse function of distraction Productivity Effort Distraction Goal Congruence + - + 12 3

156 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory Explication Example: What determines musical Taste?

157 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Important Terms Theory Concept Variable – Independent – Dependent – Antecedent – Intervening – Mediating

158 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Independent Concept (Construct) Dependent Concept (Construct) The Simplest Diagram of a Theory Relationship

159 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona A Simple Theory Peer Group Musical Taste Influences

160 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Adding an Antecedent Construct Socioeconomic status Affects Peer Group Musical Taste Influences

161 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Socioeconomic status Affects Peer Group Musical Taste Influences Adding a Mediating Construct Gender Impacts

162 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Adding an Intervening Construct Influences Self image Leads to Socioeconomic status Affects Peer Group Musical Taste Gender Impacts

163 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Peer groupMusical taste A Third Construct Explanation Parental influence X

164 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Deriving Theory and Hypotheses Derived in part from Bacharach (1989). Constructs Variables Axioms and Postulates Variables Logical Foundation for Propositions Hypotheses Theory Empirical test of Theory

165 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Team Autonomy culture Individual Usage Axiom 1 (-) Degree of Freedom Independence Discretion Usage Intensity Usage Scope P1 (-) P2 (-) P4 (-) P3(-) P5 (-) P6 (-) Frequency of use Duration of use Percentage of system features used regularly Proportion of use Eight-item scale adapted from Langfred Score H1a (-) H1b (-) H1c (-) H1d (-) Theoretical Model Measurement Model (Empirical test of Theory)

166 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Shared Cognition Heedful Interrelating Group Awareness P1 (+) P2 (+) P4 (+) P3(+/-) Implicit Coordination Theory (ICT) Causal Process Model Task Performance (-) Parallelism Response Bias P6(+) A4(+) A1(+) A3(+) A2(+) P7(+) Measurement Model : Independent Variables False Alarm Rate (Non-Errors identified as errors/ Total Non-Errors) Experimental Control : Dependent Variable Discriminability (Sensitivity) Response Criterion Implicit Coordination Hit Rate (Detected Errors/ Total Errors) Theoretical Assumptions Supported Constructs, Postulates and Axioms Theoretical Proposals Proposed Constructs and Propositions Shared Interface Self-Scribing Ability H1(+); H5(+) H2(-); H6(-) H3(+); H7(+) H4(+); H8a(+) SDT Givens Formalized Group Memory P5 (+) (-) 166

167 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Qualities of a Good Theory Parsimony ( simple, small ) Explanatory/Predictive Bounded

168 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough. Albert Einstein

169 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Pragmatic Theory Usually start with propositions and work backward to axioms Usually start poorly and get better Use someone elses theory whenever you can Technology has No Place in your theory ( if you tie technology to your theory, what will happen when technology changes? )

170 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Pragmatic Theory A good theory will get you to the moon and back safely on the first try Good theory will do more to save you from drawing bone-headed conclusions than any other discipline of positivism Good theory will make you look like a genius

171 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Explanation in Science CAUSAL EXPLANATION 1.Common variation The cause X and effect Y should vary together 2.Order X precedes Y 3.Third Factors The common variation of X and Y should not be due to a third factor Z 4.Empirical Connection The connection between X and Y is empirical 5.Theory The connection between X and Y should be deduced from a general theory 6.Mechanism The mechanism that connects X to Y should be known

172 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Scientific Method (Deductive) Phenomenon Observe Record Analysis (Previous Theory) Synthesize (Cause -> Effect) Peculiar? Hypotheses Construct Theory Unify/Simplify Understand Underlying Domain

173 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory Interest Idea Conceptualization Specify the meaning Of the concepts and Variables to be studied Choice of Research Method Experiments Surveys Field Study Content Analysis Secondary data analysis Comparative Evaluation Design Population and Sampling Whom do we want to be able to draw conclusions about? Who will be observed for that purpose Operationalization How will we actually measure the variables under study? Observations Collecting data for Analysis and interpretation Data Processing Transforming the data collected into a form appropriate to manipulation and analysis Analysis Analyzing data and Drawing conclusions Application Reporting results and assessing their implications Scientific Method (more detail)

174 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Cycle of Research and Theory-Building People notice phenomena. They gather information about the phenomena. They build a theory which explains and predicts it. They share their theory with other people. The theory is strengthened. People use the theory to write hypotheses. Are the hypotheses supported? The theory is weakened. People conduct studies. The researchers may suggest modifications. Yes No

175 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Worldview Theoretical Framework (Conceptual Scheme, Principles, mode of representation, Template) Empirical Methods Problem Theoretical Methods Body of Data Theoretical Model Comparison Possible Actions: Revise Model Reassess data Redefine Problem Reconsider Empirical Methods Review Theoretical Methods Reconstruct Framework Rethink Worldview Cycle of Research and Theory-Building Detailed

176 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona An Experiment without a theory is meaningless

177 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Phenomena: Large, Odd-Smelling Boxes

178 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Scientific Instrument: Drill

179 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Collecting Data Without A Theory

180 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Collecting Data With a Theory

181 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona A Physicist Uses the Elephant Theory + = Fission!

182 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona A Farmer Uses the Elephant Theory Fertilizer!

183 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona There is nothing more useful than A Good Theory

184 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona So, what is Science? Theory must be founded on natural laws. Theory must be falsifiable. Theory must produce hypotheses that are corroborated by evidence. Disconfirmation is overblown. Most research progresses by solving puzzles using the ideas within the hard core of a research program. – Rewards go to those who solve particularly hard puzzles.

185 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Conditions of Science continued Predictions of new facts that are then corroborated by evidence is the ideal. Scientific revolutions or paradigm shifts are rare. Challenging or amending the hard core is not what science is usually about. Changing how we think about the universe occurs at several levels, from resolving particularly difficult puzzles to developing a new paradigm.

186 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Lessons for Your Research Since science is a social enterprise, your work counts only by how it is received by the scientific community. This reception is partly subjective. You must argue your case in the face of sometimes conflicting and ambiguous criteria. Even though we may agree on the conditions that make a theory better, we can still disagree and, therefore, argue over which particular theory best fits those conditions. ( and still respect each others work and be friends.)

187 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Valid Scientific Arguments You are solving a genuine and significant puzzle within the field. The evidence corroborates your theory and hypotheses. – This is a question of research design. The better your research design, the stronger your argument will be. Your amendment to the hard core is progressive. Resolving the puzzle uncovers additional implications that are also empirically corroborated.

188 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Scientific Arguments continued Since multiple theories may exist in the protective belt or positive heuristic, your theory is more elegant, broader in the range of phenomena its predicts/explains, and supported better by the evidence than its plausible rivals. In rare cases, you have sufficiently altered the hard core that you have created a new research program.

189 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona AYER - LOGICAL POSITIVISM Theories confirmed & areas sewn up New areas investigated Less to investigate in each generation End of Science! Consequences for Information Growth

190 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona POPPER - FALSIFICATION Theories not disproved All results contingent Each generation re-investigates results Exponential growth of science Consequences for Information Growth Philosophical underpinnings of science drive it forward and predispose it to exponential growth

191 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Mertons Norms Mertons social norms of scientific conduct – Universalism: new work is assessed by universal impersonal criteria – Communality: scientific knowledge should be common property – Disinterestedness: prime concern is the advancement of knowledge – Organized scepticism: knowledge should be continually subjected to critical scrutiny Reflects stated values rather than actual behaviour: what they do is not what they say. See Watsons The Double Helix, for example

192 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona IS Research Methods

193 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. O klahoma S tate U niversity Doctoral Seminar – MSIS 6333 Wednesday August 21st, 2009 Addressing Research Questions (explanation or understanding) Positivism Focus on generalizeability and Causal Explanation Interpretativm Focus on relativism and understanding Survey Experiment Questionnaire Structured Observation Quantitative Analysis Case Study Discourse analysis Life History Ethnography phenomenology Participant Observation Focus Group Interviewing Grounded theory Action Research Hypothesis Testing (Aiming to establish, explain, Predict causal links Between key variables Hermeneutic Inquiry (Thick description And in-depth Understanding) Epistemological Paradigms Methodologies/ Research Strategies Methods (data collection And analysis) Methodological field

194 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona The Research Process Onion Sampling Secondary data Observation Interviews Questionnaires Research Philosophy Positivism Realism interpretivism Research Approaches Deductive Inductive Research Strategies Experiment Survey Case study Grounded theory Ethnography Action research Time Horizons Cross sectional Longitudinal Data Collection Methods

195 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Alternative Motivations for Research Pure Research' because its there contribute to abstract, theoretical understanding Applied Research' I have hammer, so find a nail Instrumentalist Research I see a problem, so find a solution

196 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Basic (pure)Applied Purpose Context Methods Expand Knowledge Academic Setting Single Researcher Less Time/Cost Pressure Internal Validity Cause Single Level of Analysis Single Method Experimental Direct Observations Understand Specific Problem Real-World Setting Multiple Researchers More Time/Cost Pressure External Validity Effect Multiple Levels of Analysis Multiple Methods Quasi-Experimental Indirect Observations Research Type

197 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Nature of Research Outcomes Descriptive Depiction of a behavior or a domain Explanatory Systemic explanation of how behaviors arise ascription of causes to occurrences in the domain Predictive Statement of: what behavior will arise, and how; what occurrences will arise within the domain; what effect will particular interventions have Normative Declaration of interventions to a desired outcome

198 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Three Types of Research Descriptive research – finding out (What, Where, When) Explanatory research – explaining ; identifying causality; theory/model; prediction (HOW/WHY) Evaluative research – evaluation of strategies, policies, programs, practices (Value)

199 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Types of Research Spectrum To become familiar with phenomena; to gain new insights; to formulate a more specific research problem or research hypothesis. To portray accurately the incidence, distribution, and characteristics of a group or situation. (Usually not begun with specific hypothesis.) To investigate relationships between variables. (Begins with specific hypotheses.) To test hypotheses of causal relationships between variables. (Begins with specific hypotheses.) Descriptive Research Survey Research Independent variables (X) not controlled by investigator Independent Variables Correlational/Ex Post Facto (Explore)(Describe)(Explain - Predict)(Control) Independent Var. (X) controlled by investigator Exp./Quasi-Exp.

200 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research generates knowledge in order to: Action Change Within A System Pave The Way For Change Build Broader Understanding Basic Or Pure Research Action ResearchCritical / Radical Ethnography Applied / Evaluative Research Participatory/ Emancipatory Technical/ Practical Emancipate Through Action Expose And Change The Dominate System

201 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Approaches – Two main classes of approaches: Theory testing – apply theory to read the data Theory emergent – look for patterns, understanding emerges from the data (Hirschheim, 2002)

202 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Combining Approaches Case study/action research leads to Research question leads to Theory building leads to Theory testing with lab. experiments and Theory testing with field experiments leads to Theory extension and feedback loop to Theory testing

203 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Approaches – Mathematical approaches – Approaches studying reality Research stressing what is reality – Conceptual-analytical approaches – approaches for empirical studies » theory-testing approaches » theory-creating approaches Research stressing utility of artifacts – artifact-building approaches – artifacts-evaluating approaches (Järvinen & Järvinen, 1999)

204 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Alternative Research Methods – Constructivist Methods (Design) conceptual development and technical development – Nomothetic Methods (Confirmatory) field research, surveys, lab experiments … using the hypothetico-deductive method – Idiographic Methods (Exploratory) case studies and action research (Hirschheim, 2002)

205 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Methods Non-Empirical Techniques Scientific Research Techniques Interpretivist Research Techniques Research Techniques at the Scientific/Interpretivist Boundary Engineering Research Techniques (Design Fits here as well)

206 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Methods Non-empirical Techniques The following techniques are detached from real-world data. This is not to say that they are necessarily totally remote or irrelevant, but rather that they are once-removed, depending on synthetic data, or on conceptual thinking about abstractions. The primary techniques are: Conceptual research. This is based on opinion and speculation, and comprises philosophical or 'armchair' analysis, and argumentative/dialectic analysis; theorem proof. This applies formal methods to mathematical abstractions, in order to demonstrate that, within a tightly defined model, a specific relationship exists among elements of that model; simulation. This is the study of a simplified, formal model of a complex environment, in order to perform experimentation not possible in a real-world setting; futures research, scenario-building, and game- or role-playing. Individuals interact in order to generate new ideas or gather new insights into relationships among variables. A specific instance that is often applied in the information systems discipline is the delphi technique (Delbecq et al., 1975); review of existing literature, or 'meta-analysis'. The literature examined in such research may include the opinions and speculations of theorists, the research methods adopted by empirical researchers, the reports of the outcomes of empirical research, and materials prepared for purposes other than research.

207 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Methods Scientific Research Techniques The following are common techniques that can be applied by information systems researchers within the scientific tradition: Forecasting. This technique involves the application of regression and time-series techniques, in order to extrapolate trends from past data; Field experimentation and quasi-experimental designs. Opportunities are sought in the real-world which enable many factors, which would otherwise confound the results, to be isolated, or controlled for (Cook & Campbell 1979); Laboratory experimentation. This involves the creation of an artificial environment, in order to isolate and control for potentially confounding variables (Hersen & Barlow 1976, Jarvenpaa et al. 1984, 1985, Jarvenpaa 1988, Benbasat 1990a, 1990b, DeSanctis 1990).

208 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Methods Interpretivist Research Techniques The following are techniques which are unequivocally interpretivist in their style: descriptive/interpretive research. In this techniques, empirical observation is subjected to limited formal rigour. Controls over the researcher's intuition include self-examination of the researcher's own pre-suppositions and biases, cycles of additional data collection and analysis, and peer review; focus group research. This involves the gathering of a group of people, commonly members of the public affected by a technology or application, to discuss a topic. Its purpose is to surface aspects, impacts and implications that are of concern. See Stewart & Shamdasani (1990) and Clarke (1999);Clarke (1999) action research. The researcher plays an active role in the object of study, e.g. by acting as a change-agent in relation to the process being researched. See Clark (1972), Susman & Evered (1978), Mansell (1991), Stringer (1996, 1999), Myers (1997a) and Baskerville & Wood-Harper (1998);Myers (1997a ethnographic research. This technique applies insights from social and cultural anthropology to the direct observation of behaviour. See Harvey & Myers (1995) and Myers (1997a);Myers (1997a) grounded theory. This is a specific technique that it is claimed enables the disciplined extraction of a theory-based description of behaviour, based on empirical observations. See Glaser & Strauss (1967), Strauss & Corbin (1990) and Myers (1997a).Myers (1997a)

209 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Methods Research Techniques at the Scientific/Interpretivist Boundary Several techniques can be applied within either a scientific or an interpretivist context. field study. The object of study is subjected to direct observation by the researcher (Klein & Myers 1999); questionnaire-based survey. This involves the collection of written data from interviewees, or the collection of verbal responses to relatively structured questions. See Straub (1989), Kraemer (1991), Kraemer & Dutton (1991), Pinsonneault & Kraemer (1993), and Newsted et al. (1998);Newsted et al. (1998) interview-based survey. This involves the recording of verbal data from interviewees, which arises in relatively unstructured interviews or meetings; case study. This involves the collection of considerable detail, from multiple sources, about a particular, contemporary phenomenon within its real-world setting. For guidance on the use of case studies within the scientific tradition, see Yin (1984, 1994), Benbasat et al. (1987) and Lee (1989); and for guidance on their use in an interpretivist manner, see Walsham (1995b) and Myers (1997b);Myers (1997b) secondary research. Rather than producing new data, this technique analyses the contents of existing documents. Commonly, this is data gathered by one or more prior researchers, and it is re-examined in the light of a different theoretical framework from that previously used. The documents may also include materials prepared for purposes other than scientific research.

210 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Methods Engineering Research Techniques Information systems research conducted within the computer science and engineering context uses two categories of research technique: construction. This approach involves the conception, design and creation (or 'prototyping') of an information technology artefact and/or technique (most commonly a computer program, but sometimes a physical device or a method). The new technology is designed to intervene in some setting, or to enable some function to be performed, or some aim to be realised. The design is usually based upon a body of theory, and the technology is usually subjected to some form of testing, in order to establish the extent to which it (and, by implication, the class of technologies to which it belongs) achieves its aims; destruction. In this case, new information is generated concerning the characteristics of an existing class of technologies. This is typically achieved through testing the technology, or applying it in new ways. The design is usually based upon a body of theory.

211 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Types and Methods Type/ MethodTests, Measurements InterviewsObservationsSurveysDocuments Experimental PAA Quasi-experimental PAA Causal-comparative PAA Correlational PAA Descriptive AAPA Evaluation PAAAA Ethnographic APA Action APA Case study APAA P = primary method used; A = additional method that may be used.

212 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Object/ Level of Analysis Theorem Proof Laboratory Experiment Field Experiment Case Study Survey Forecasting and Future Research Simulation and Game/Role Playing Subjective/ Argumentative Descriptive/ Interpretive Action Research Society Organization/ Group Individual Technology Methodology Theory Building Theory Testing Theory Extension Taxonomy of Research Methods and Appropriate Objects/levels of Analysis No No No No No No No No Possibly (Small Groups) Yes Modes for Traditional Empirical Approaches (Observations) Modes for Newer Approaches (Interpretations) YesYes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Possibly Possibly Possibly PossiblyPossibly Possibly Possibly Possibly Possibly Possibly PossiblyPossibly Possibly Possibly Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes YesYes No Yes Yes Possibly Possibly Possibly No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PossiblyPossibly Possibly Possibly Possibly Possibly Possibly No No No No No (Galliers 1990)

213 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona International IS Research Methods

214 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Design Science IS Research Framework Information Systems (IS) are complex, artificial, and purposefully designed. IS are composed of people, structures, technologies, and work systems. Two Basic IS Research Paradigms – Behavioral Research – Goal is Knowledge – Design Research – Goal is Utility Source Al Hevner

215 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona IS Research Cycle Adapted from Hevner Design Science Research Behavioral Science Research

216 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Theory Building Conceptual frameworks Mathematical models Methods Observation Case studies Survey studies Field studies Systems Development Prototyping Product development Technology transfer Experimentation Computer simulations Field experiments Lab experiments Adapted from Nunamaker, Chen and Purden JMIS (1991) 7(3). Systems Development in Information Systems Research

217 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Arizona SW Engineering Methodology THEORY CONCEPT MODEL PROTOTYPE Experimentation OBSERVATION FIELD STUDY Adapted from Nunamaker

218 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Arizona SW Engineering Research Cycle Theory, Concept, Model Prototypes Field and Lab Research Product Adapted from Nunamaker

219 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Lab & Field Study Objectives Develop new Process and Tool Uses Develop Metrics for Process and Tool Use Evaluate usefulness of new Processes and Tools Identify Process and Tool Improvements Confirm Lab Results in the Field Gain best Practice from Lab and Field Use Source Nunamaker

220 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Research Road Map Through the Last Research Mile Identify a Real Problem 1.Proof-of-Concept Prototype 2.Proof-of-Value Prototype 3.Proof of Self-Sustaining Use (Production System) Travel the Last Mile Real Problem 1. POC 2. POV 3. POU Adapted from Nunamaker

221 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Design Science Design is a Artifact (Noun) – Constructs – Models – Methods – Instantiations Design is a Process (Verb) – Build – Evaluate Design is a Wicked Problem – Unstable Requirements and Constraints – Complex Interactions among Subcomponents of Problem and resulting Subcomponents of Solution – Inherent Flexibility to Change Artifacts and Processes – Dependence on Human Cognitive Abilities - Creativity – Dependence on Human Social Abilities - Teamwork Source Al Hevner

222 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Constructs Models Methods Instantiations Algorithms and Practices that define processes and provide guidance on how to solve problems, that is, how to search the solution space. Implemented and Prototype systems that show that constructs, models, or methods can be implemented in a working system. They demonstrate feasibility, enabling concrete assessment of an artifacts suitability to its intended purpose Vocabulary and Symbols that provide the language in which problems and solutions are defined and communicated. IS Design theories seek to prescribe effective development practices (methods) and a type of system solution. (instantiation) for a particular class of user requirements. (models) Knowledge Base Abstractions and Representations that use constructs to represent a real world situation-the design problem and its solution space Foundations Theories Frameworks Instruments Constructs Models Methods Instantiations Methodologies Data Analysis Techniques Formalisms Measures Validation Criteria Rigor Design Science IS Research Framework (Hevner et. al., MISQ, 2004) USA Develop/Build IS Research Justify/Evaluate AssessRefine Theories Artifacts Analytical Case Study Experimental Field Study Simulation Applicable Knowledge Environment People Roles Capabilities Characteristics Organizations Strategies Structure and Culture Process Technology Infrastructure Applications Communications Architecture Development Capabilities Additions to the Knowledge base Achieved by appropriately applying existing foundations and methodologies. Business Needs Relevance Implementable, synthesize an existing body of research, [or] stimulate critical thinking. among IS practitioners. Application in the Appropriate Environment

223 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Three Cycles of DS Research Environment Knowledge BaseDesign Science Build Design Artifacts & Processes Evaluate Design Cycle Application Domain People Organizational Systems Technical Systems Problems & Opportunities Relevance Cycle Requirements Field Testing Rigor Cycle Grounding Additions to KB Foundations Scientific Theories & Methods Experience & Expertise Meta-Artifacts (Design Products & Design Processes) Adapted from Hevner

224 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Software Engineering User Interface Design Reference Modeling Method Engineering …. Consortial Research Method (St Gallen Switzerland) Research Outline: Need Gap, Goal Consortium Agreement Research Plan State of Instantiations State of Models & Methods State of Theories & Constructs Domain Analysis Design Evaluation Diffusion Scientific Publication Practitioner Publication Teaching Materials Roll-out Plan Review Workshop Function Test ExperimentSimulation Pilot Application Scientific Knowledge Instantiations Models Methods Theories Constructs Practical Knowledge Business Models Processes & Structures Information Systems Information Technology

225 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Organisational Forms of Knowledge Creation Knowledge Creation InternalExternal With Exclusive Exploitation Rights Without Exclusive Exploitation Rights With Exclusive Exploitation Rights Without Exclusive Exploitation Rights Industrial Research 1 Collaborative Research 2 With Customers Or Suppliers 2a With Neutral Partners 2b With Competitors 2c Contract Research 3 (adapted from Brockhoff 1999)

226 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona 226

227 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona A Research Framework for the Organizational laboratory Prediction Change Adapted from Braa and Vidgen =1997) The Points represent Intended Research Outcomes: Understanding Points are Ideal Types; That is Weberian abstractions That are not attainable in practice. Research Praxis is represented by the constrained space of the triangle. intervention Reduction Interpretation The framework is represented by a triangle Dotted lines inside the triangle represent research dynamics as movements towards (and away from) the ideal types. Prediction is the outcome of positivist modes of enquiry; although a good theory does indeed have explanatory power, the more significant outcome of positivist theories is the ability to control and predict. Understanding is the outcome of Interpretivist modes of enquiry; successful Interpretations bring out insider rationality and promote understanding. Change is the outcome of interventionist modes of enquiry; successful interventions lead to improvements in the problem situation. One implication for research praxis is that all three dynamics (reduction, interpretation, and intervention) are, regardless of the research method adopted, co-present, albeit with differing mixes and emphasis. As the researcher moves towards the prediction point through a process of formalized reduction there should be greater explanatory and predictive power. The traditional approach to explanation and prediction is experimental method. Movement toward the understanding point through a process of interpretation is associated with greater richness of insight into the role of IS in organizational settings. Understanding is achieved typically through case studies informed by schools of sociological thought such as phenomenology, hermeneutics and ethnography. Movement toward the change point is achieved through a process of intervention as typified by action research. For example: interpretivist research methods involve a reducing of the infinite range of factors that might be considered relevant to a particular inquiry, although such a reduction is not rationalized through the application of the systematic procedures of positivism.

228 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Quasi experiment Field Experiment Mapping Research Methods into the Framework Prediction (Reduction) Understanding (Interpretation) Change (Intervention) Adapted from Braa and Vidgen =1997) ActionResearch Soft Case Hard Case Action case An experimental design which does not meet the three criteria of multiple treatments (or one treatment and a control group), randomization, and experimental control; but rather attempts to preserve as many of the properties of true experimentation as possible, given the constraints of the research setting. These are much more common than True experiments. Action research is a way of building theory and descriptions within the context of practice itself. Theories are tested through intervention in the organizational laboratory, that is, through experiments that bear the double burden of testing hypotheses and effecting some desirable change in the situation. Action research comes in many avours, ranging from formal approaches through to less formalized, more reective and personal approaches. an extension of laboratory experiments into an organizational context. There are lots of factors which the researcher cannot control but which could affect the outcomes. Field experiments aim at controlling a small number of variables which may then be studied intensively. A major advantage is that the experiment is conducted in a real-life setting. A major problem however is the difficulty of finding organizations prepared to be experimented on. Experimental control is essential and involves taking appropriate steps to eliminate nuisance variables, which are factors other than the independent variables that might be responsible for observed changes in the dependent variable. true experimental design which meets the criteria of multiple treatments (or one treatment and a control group), randomization, and experimental control; Empirical inquiry that investigates a contem­porary phenomenon within its real-life context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident. Can be used in three modes: explanatory, descriptive, and exploratory. Applicable where the research question is of a how or why nature, where control over behavioural events is not needed, and where there is a focus on contemporary events. Allow reality to be captured in detail and many variables to be analyzed; from a positivist stance, problems with case studies include the difficulty of generalization, lack of control over variables, and different interpretations by different stakeholders A hybrid between interpretation and intervention. A trade-off between being an observer who can make interpretations (understanding) and a researcher involved in creating change in practice. when doing case studies researchers contribute to change by questioning events and applying new concepts. On the other hand, full-scale action research projects are often not appropriate due to organizational constraints or the nature of the topic to be inves­tigated. Small scale intervention with a deep contextual understanding is one way of balancing this dilemma. Interpretivist approach is concerned with gaining understanding; generalization is the movement from a concrete situation to the social totality beyond the individual case. A soft case study based on ethnographic methods can involve a variety of data collection techniques, such as videotape, and data analy­sis might involve, for example, techniques from grounded theory From an interpretive position, the validity of an extrapolation from an individual case or cases depends not on the representativeness of such cases in a statistical sense, but on the plausibility and cogency of the logical reasoning used in describing the results from the cases, and in drawing conclusions from them.

229 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Adapted from Baskerville and Stage DIAGNOSING Identifying or Defining a problem ACTION PLANNING Considering alterative Courses of Action To Solve a Problem ACTION TAKING Selecting a Course of Action EVALUATING Studying Consequences Of an Action SPECIFIC LEARNING Identification of General Findings Development of a Client- System Infrastructure Cycle Process of Action Research

230 Nicholas C. Romano, Jr. IS Research an International Perspective 21 Maggio 2010 Università degli Studi di Verona Questions?


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