Presentation on theme: "Cooperative Learning. What is Cooperative Learning? Cooperative Learning refers to instructional methods in which pairs or small groups of learners work."— Presentation transcript:
What is Cooperative Learning? Cooperative Learning refers to instructional methods in which pairs or small groups of learners work together to accomplish a shared goal. The aim of this cooperation is for learners to maximize their own and each other's learning, with members striving for joint benefit. By deliberately applying cooperative techniques, educators aim to correct the unconscious societal and educational bias that favours competition.
Essential Elements of Cooperation 1 Positive interdepen dence Learners realize that they are connected to each other in a way where one cannot succeed unless everyone succeeds- each one is dependent on the contribution of all the others within the group. Face to face promotive interaction Students need to work together in such a way that they contribute to each other's success by sharing resources, helping, supporting, and inspiring one another. This involves "orally explaining how to solve problems, teaching one's knowledge to others, checking understanding, discussing concepts learned, connecting present with past learning". Individual and group account- ability The group must be accountable for achieving its goal. Each individual must be accountable for his/her contribution
Essential Elements of Cooperation 2 Interperso nal and small group skills Social skills do not automatically develop during the course of group work, it must be purposefully be taught to students. Group processing Exists when group members discuss whether they are achieving their goal satisfactorily. It includes discussion of the effectiveness of the working relationships.
Summary of Differences between Cooperative and Collaborative Learning Cooperative learning Collaborative learning Stress product of collaboration Accentuate process of working together Closely controlled by educator Once task is set, instructor transfers all authority to group Task is closed/ closable and content specific Task is open-ended Based on creation, analysis and systematic application of structures (patterns for student interaction) Distrust structure. Teaching centered: heterogeneous groups, structuring positive interdependence, teach cooperative skills Allow student more say in forming friendship and interest groups. Resolve conflict with "Student talk" Interpersonal skills developed through discovery and contextual approaches
Summary of Differences between Cooperative and Collaborative Learning 2 Teacher centeredStudent centered Use quantitative methods to look at achievement Use qualitative analysis e.g. analyzing student talk in response to piece of literature. Authority for testing and determining appropriateness of product rest with first the small group, then the plenary group and finally the requisite knowledge community Traditional canonical knowledge Ties into social constructivist movement Best means to master foundational knowledge Used with students who have foundational knowledge, who can now discuss and assess
A Cooperative learning event is characterized by: Educationalist's role: –Planning dynamic lessons for transfer of learning –Teaching students to learn –Developing student responsibility –Promoting active learning –Facilitating student self evaluation –Encouraging –Extending participation –Motivating high level thinking –Directly teach social skills –Balancing interactions: teacher to student, student to material, student to student Learning groups: –Positive interdependence –Individual accountability –Heterogeneous membership –Shared leadership –Responsible for each other –Group discusses and evaluates its work and interactions –Size varies from 2-6 members, the less time available, the smaller the group should be –Teacher selected groups often function better than student selected groups –Maximize heterogeneity ( High-, medium- and low-ability students within same group) –Basic composition of groups:
Summary of Cooperative Groups Primary Use Make-upSelectionDuration Informal Task Groups Review & processin g of academic content Quick, random groupings Turn to your neighbour Until end of acad- emic review/ processi ng activity Formal Task Groups Daily classroom work& Special research projects Heterogene ous ability groups & Homogeno us interest groups Teacher makes group based on student interest and ability Until end of lesson/ unit/ project
Summary of Cooperative Groups Base Groups Support/ Bonding activities & Social skill Practice Homog- eneous peer relations hips & Heterog eneous personali ty characte ristics Based on student peer relations Whole quarter/ semest er/ year
Conditions Any instructional activity is suitable Room is arranged to support small group collaboration and easy movement of teacher Material are arranged according to purpose of lesson Academic Task is explained in detail Structure a positive goal interdependence by asking groups to produce a single product. Material, information and social interdependence is created Roles are assigned to group members: e.g.. summarizer, checker, accuracy coach, researcher, recorder, encourager Prolonged and intense interaction among students All members contribute and master the assigned material Teacher monitors and intervenes in learning groups to teach collaborative skills Evaluation is done according to pre- determined criteria
Positive Aspects of Cooperative Learning Develops interdependence Students develop pro-social behaviour Improved self-esteem and appreciation of school Greater psychological health Students develop positive peer relationships. Social & communication skills are developed. Improved intrinsic motivation Groups provide an academic and personal support system Reflective and metacognition abilities of learner are developed as student seek to clarify, explain and justify their stand Promote greater competencies in critical thinking Cognitive "rehearsal" results in enhanced short- and long-term memory. Learner learns to accommodate various perspectives on an issue. Positive attitudes toward the subject areas studied.Higher achievement and greater productivity
Criticisms against Cooperative Learning Introverts suffer Students with poor self-confidence, poor daring and fear for rejection suffer Peer pressure can undermining students who want to do more "Free rides" by less able members More able students do less to avoid being "suckers" High-ability members take over leadership roles at the expense of others. Group effort is characterized by self-induced helplessness Responsibility is diffused and social loafing occurs Group gangs up against a task Destructive conflict occurs