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METODOLOGIE E DISPOSITIVI DI MISURA Linea di Ricerca A6: MISURE PER LA CARATTERIZZAZIONE DI COMPONENTI E SISTEMI Responsabile: Prof. Gregorio Andria, Politecnico.

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Presentation on theme: "METODOLOGIE E DISPOSITIVI DI MISURA Linea di Ricerca A6: MISURE PER LA CARATTERIZZAZIONE DI COMPONENTI E SISTEMI Responsabile: Prof. Gregorio Andria, Politecnico."— Presentation transcript:

1 METODOLOGIE E DISPOSITIVI DI MISURA Linea di Ricerca A6: MISURE PER LA CARATTERIZZAZIONE DI COMPONENTI E SISTEMI Responsabile: Prof. Gregorio Andria, Politecnico di Bari Siena, 5-9 settembre 2011

2 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per le Applicazioni di Signal Integrity MISURE PER LA CARATTERIZZAZIONE DI COMPONENTI E SISTEMI Prof. Andrea Ferrero Dip. Elettronica- Politecnico di Torino

3 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Summary Signal Integrity and Microwave S-parameter: so what? VNA Hardware Evolution Error Models and Calibration Techniques Interconnection and Fixture Design Calibration design for the DUT

4 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Signal Integrity and Microwave

5 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Microwave Measurements Power Measurements Time Domain Signals Frequency Domain Linear Parameters: – S parameters

6 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 6 Few Remainders

7 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 7 Few Remainders Linear Network: The ratio among voltages and currents on the n ports DOES NOT depend on signal levels thus the behaviour can be described as linear relationship ie: Where M can be any relationship among any linear combination of voltages and currents ie: – V=Z * I – I = Y * V Here Y and Z are two examples of possible M matrix but anyone is acceptable [M] [M] becomes a 4x4 matrix 1 2 3 4

8 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Scattering Paremeters Demystified Lets take the following combinations of I and V: Where Z R is a parameter called Reference Impedance than the Ohm law equivalent becomes: is called Reflection Coefficient

9 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Scattering Paremeters Demystified Lets move to n-ports everything become vectors and matricies: S is called Scattering matrix

10 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Signal Trasmission at High Frequency A structure where the Electromagnetic field can propagate along an axis with a UNIFORM transversal section is called Trasmission Line Coax cableWaveguide Bifilar LineMicrostrip ITS ALL ABOUT FIELD CONFINEMENT

11 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 11 So why S and not Z or Y? Lets take a transmission line: z I(z) V(z) Plane A Plane B V and I are complex function of the position while if: Zr = Appropriate constant of the propagation called Line Characteristic impedance then: a and b function along the line become simply: l Reflected signal Incident signal

12 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 12 Some usefull properties Note that: I(z) V(z) Z a(z) b(z)

13 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 The S-matrix of a transmission line z Port 1 Port 2 l So to completely describe the propagation along a trasmission line we will need: REFERENCE PLANES REFERENCE IMPEDANCE S-MATRIX a1a1 b1b1 a2a2 b2b2

14 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 14 Differential S-parameters What if instead of single ended voltages and currents we wish to use differential ones and associate the information to a couple of wires ? V1V1 I1I1 V2V2 I2I2 V3V3 I3I3 V4V4 I4I4 For Each Couple

15 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 WHY differential S-parameters? The differential mode Ed propagates mainly in the air thus it suffers much less of dielectric loss and anysotrtopy FR4 is a must for Digital application but FR4 is lossy and anysotropic thus… Differental propagation became a must for high speed digital systems

16 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 16 Differential S-parameters What are the propagation properties and is it usefull to have an S-parameter equivalent? Use a linear combination of V and I its just another convention but to link it to propagation became more tricky: – Which Reference impedance we need to take? – What if we wish to have some port left single ended, i.e. an Operational Amplifier? – Which are the properties of the new parameters?

17 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 17 Mixed Mode S-parameter Traditional definitions are: BUT THESE ARE VALID ONLY IF

18 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 18 Generalized Mixed Mode In general we may have BILINEAR MATRIX TRANSFORM

19 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Impedance Measurements R ? | |, Z

20 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Impedance Measurements R ? | |, Z

21 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Lets move to microwave DownConversion and Digitizing ADC Directional Coupler a b a <-b Microwave Source

22 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 2 port Measurements

23 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 2 port Measurements S11S21 a1a1 b2b2 a1a1 b1b1

24 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 The old questions of S-parameter Measurements How can we generate microwave signals? How can we sample microwave signals? Wheres the reference plane ? Whats the reference impedance?

25 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Plus new problems… for digital Low cost application How do I keep reasonable microwave signals on non microwave substrate ? How can I make proper interconnections to measure these signals ? How much accuracy can I accept ?

26 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 26 VNA BASIC SCHEME REFLECTOMETER b m1 a m1 b m2 a m2 FOUR-CHANNEL MICROWAVE RECEIVER PORT 1PORT 2 DUT MICROWAVE SOURCE BIAS 1BIAS 2 IF Digitizer SIGNAL SEPARATION

27 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 27 VNA Source Agilent PNA Source block Synthetised Source (PLL+DDS) Very Broadband Very Fast Sweeping Power Leveled Low Phase Noise Not really Necessary High Repeatability

28 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Signal Separation MICROWAVE SOURCE b m1 a m1 b m2 a m2 Provides a and b waves separation Provides signal excitation at DUT ports It may have also bias tee and attenuators

29 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Receiver Block Typically two or three downconversion Digital vectorial measurement of mag and phase Phase lock of the internal source through receiver signals

30 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Phase Lock through its receiver Unlike the old VNA where the source was autonomuos locked and the receiver could be lock to any microwave signal, modern VNAs cannot work unless their internal source is used. As example: You cannot use a VNA to measure the signal coming out from a chip where its clock cannot be lock to an external refenrence

31 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Today VNA Hardware: 31 2-ports 2 Ref 2 Rec 4 Ports 4 Ref 4 Rec

32 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Are 4 ports VNA enough? Differential pairs are used so: 12-port data is required for channel modeling Data for a fully characterized 12-port DUT results in a completely filled 12x12 matrix Ex. Package/Socket footprint Port 1 & Port 7 Port 3 & Port 9 Port 5 & Port 11 Port 2 & Port 8 Port 4 & Port 10 Port 6 & Port 12 Ports 1-6 are on the socket bottom Ports 7-12 are on the socket top GNDs

33 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 12 ports VNA 33 2 Ref 2 Switched Rec LEFT PORTS RIGHT PORTS

34 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 12 ports VNA 2 Ref 2 Switched Rec LEFT PORTS RIGHT PORTS

35 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Interfacing Repeatibility Standard Availability Custom Fixtures

36 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 On Wafer

37 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Lets summarize up to now 1.Directional Couplers have finite directivity and frequency depend behaviour 2.Switches are not ideal and frequency dependent 3.Reference Plane position depends on cable, adapter interconnections and so on 4.DownConversion and Digitizing problems like: 1.Source Phase Noise 2.Frequency accuracy and repeatibility 3.Non linearity of mixer/sampler 4.ADC Dynamic Range & Speed 37

38 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Cause of Uncertainty Systematic Errors (85%) – Microwave Components – Interconnections – Incorrect Standard Modeling – Calibration Algorithm Random Error (10%) – Connection Repeatibility – Frequency Stability – Noise Drift (5%) 38

39 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Is Calibration fundamental? What if we would measure 30g of Ham with the scale plate of 1 ton? THIS IS THE SAME EFFECT OF 1 m cable at 10GHz if we are looking for 1 degree of phase shift on S11

40 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Raw vs. Corrected Data

41 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 How does the calibration work? An error model A Specific Algorithm A Standard Sequence

42 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Error Model Ipothesis 1.sampler (mixer),and all the other system components are linear and invariant parts 2.The two half are independent 4-port networks which talk only through the DUT 42 DUT b2b2 a2a2 a3a3 b1b1 a1a1 a0a0 b0b0 b3b3 a4a4 b4b4 Let the half 8 unknowns: a 0, b 0, a 1, b 1,a 3, b 3, a 4, b 4 The two acquire data are proportional to b 3, b 4 : a m1 =k 1 b 3, b m1 =k 2 b 4 a m1 b m1

43 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Error Model Definition II 43 4 port equation Reflection Coefficients of the downconversion part and reading vs. wave 8 eq. with 10 unknowns. ( a 0, b 0, a 1, b 1, a 3, b 3, a 4, b 4, V m1, V m2 ): Let use V m1 e V m2 as independent variables and called them: a m1 =V m1, b m1 =V m2, a 1 = a 1DUT e b 1 = b 1DUT we find the following model

44 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Error Model Definition III 44

45 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Error Model Definition IV 45 If we call a m1 and b m1

46 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 The famous error box 46 Shuffle the last 2 Equations and rename as

47 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 The birth of the famous error box 47 a m1 a1a1 Ideal VNA b m1 Error Box E b1b1 DUT Since we are in the S-parameter world the LINEAR RELATIONSHIP WHICH LINKS THE MEASUREMENT TO THE ACTUAL WAVES WILL BE

48 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Error Box Property Its not an actual network but only a linear system model Every parameter is frequency dependent but time invariant Since the E parameters are more or less link with some specifications of the coupler they are also called: 48

49 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Two Port Error Model 49 To apply this model, 4 independent readings on each source position are required NOT POSSIBLE Two error boxes on the right and left 2-ports Measured S-matrix

50 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 FULL 2-Ports Error Model 50 T A, T B are the transmission matrix equivalent of the two E matrices of left and right side while Tm is the transmission matrix equivalent of S m 8 error terms, but 7 UNKNOWS TO GET Tdut

51 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 51 Most USED 2-port Calibrations TSD-TRL (Thru, Short, Delay or Thru, Reflect, Line) LRM (Line, Reflect, Match) SOLR (Short, Open, Load, Reciprocal) SOLT (Short, Open, Load, Thru) MANDATORY FOR 3 samplers VNAs

52 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 52 SOLT The old good cal: S hort, O pen, L oad and T hru It measures 3 standards at port 1, 3 at port 2 and the THRU. It obviously overdetermed with the 8 port model (10 equations for 8 unknows)but its the proper choice for the 3-sampler architecture

53 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 53 Thru Reflect Line The Thru and Line must have the same geometry I.e. REFERENCE IMPEDANCE Normally the Reference plane its placed in the middle of the THRU The system Reference impedance IS THE Characteristic impedance of the LINE Known 1 port Standard TSD Unknown 1 port standard -> TRL

54 54 TSD-TRL II The length diff from the THRU and the LINE should avoid and its multiple To have broadband TRL more line are usefull (different line lenght) Side Result: The propagation constant of the line comes from free

55 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 55 Coax On-Board Simple Calibration Structures Thru and Line Structures Reflect and Match Structures

56 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011

57 VNA Noise THE GOOD OLD 8510:RAW DATA NOISE -50dB ->

58 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Repeatability an example:APC7mm 58 A close look to the connector

59 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Repeatibility Model

60 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Multifinger On wafer probes Probe landing repeatibility Probe Coupling

61 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Standard Accuracy Standard Model Model Identification Parameter Accuracy

62 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Standard Model: Open How do we get Cj ? FEM Methods which are based on mechanical dimensions

63 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Apc7mm Open Repeatability effects

64 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Standard Model: 40ps line

65 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Multiport VNA Calibration A new errror model is necessary Multiport standard may be required Calibration Algorithm must be found Cannot be a simple extension of the 2 port ones

66 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Multiport Calibration We do not have multiport standards We cannot connect one port to any others We may not have Thrus

67 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Classical multiport error model 67 zComplete reflectometer multiport architecture: two directional couplers @ each port zError box extension as 4 n -1 unknowns

68 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Partial Reflectometer error model 68 zPartial reflectometer multiport architecture: two directional couplers @ each port are not always available zThis architecture has the advantages of costs (n-2 couplers are saved) and speed zThe model for these case must be: yof general validity (i.e. not valid for only one calibration algorithm and scalable) ycompatible with the complete reflectometer one yeasy to be calibrated

69 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 The new formulation 69 zThe partial reflectometer multiport system has two states, for each i port: STATE A STATE B

70 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 The cal equation becomes And the de-embedding is: 70 A Novel Calibration Algorithm for a Special Class of Multiport Vector Network Analyzers,Ferrero, A.; Teppati, V.; Garelli, M.; Neri, A. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Volume 56, Issue 3, March 2008 6 n -1 unknowns Based on S parameters Always defined for any standards Can be used to find H,L,M,K,F,G during the cal As well as to find dut S matrix during the measurement

71 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Dynamic Calibration Since no constrains are given on the standard type and the math can combine whatever sequence, the calibration becomes dynamic i.e. the software can generate the standard sequence which gives a set of enough linear independent equations as well as it accomplished for: – Connectors at each ports – Available standards USE ONLY 1 or 2 ports ONES !! – User interconnection description – Use of particular two port pairs self calibration 71

72 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Example: Design CAL for the DUT 72 P_1 P_2 P_3 P_4

73 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 An Example a Socket Measurement

74 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 8-ports Socket Setup

75 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Calibration Design P1P5 P2P6 P3P7 P4P8 LSM Rec

76 8-Port LRM/LSM Multi-Calibration Matrix with Reciprocal Thrus Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 4 Port 5 Port 6 Port 7 Port 8 Port 1 XRecipXX2P_LSMXXX Port 2 RecipXXXX2P_LSMXX Port 3 XXXRecipXX2P_LSMX Port 4 XXRecipXXXX2P_LSM Port 5 2P_LSMXXXXXXX Port 6 X2P_LSMXXXXRecipX Port 7 XX2P_LSMXXRecipXX Port 8 XXX2P_LSMXXXX Calibration Procedure:Calibration Procedure: – Thru Port 1, 5 – Thru Port 2, 6 – Thru Port 3, 7 – Thru Port 4, 8 – Recip 1, 2 – Recip 3, 4 – Recip 6, 7 – Reflect Port 1, Reflect Port 5 – Reflect Port 2, Reflect Port 6 – Reflect Port 3, Reflect Port 7 – Reflect Port 4, Reflect Port 8 – Load Port 1, Load Port 5 – Load Port 2, Load Port 6 – Load Port 3, Load Port 7 – Load Port 4, Load Port 8 Structure 1 Structure 2 Structures 3 Structures 4 4 separate 2-port LSM/LRM calibrations linked with reciprocal thru standards No wasted probe touchdowns Never move probe tips in x or y direction Full characterization of every port Could provide more accurate calibrations

77 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Probe Touchdown 4 GNDSIGTERM 8-Port LRM/LSM Standards (Probe tip Calibration) Minimize probe tip Xtalk 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Probe Touchdown 1 X Length 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Probe Touchdown 3 X Length 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Probe Touchdown 2

78 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Socket/Board Setup Close-up Cal Standards On Socket PROBES Land Places On Socket PROBES Land Places On Board PROBES Land Places On Board PROBES Land Places

79 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Socket-Board Data SDD11-SDD22-SDD33-SDD44

80 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Socket-Board Data SDD12 - SDD34

81 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Socket-Board Data SD14 – SD23 (Far End Xtalk)

82 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Socket-Board Data SD13 – SD24 (Near End Xtalk) Bottom Board Top Board

83 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Conclusion Modern Calibration Technology solves many issues in multiport structure S parameter measurements Proper design of the measurement bench dramatically improves data accuracy Modern Software are today available to handle the measurement complexity 83

84 Le Misure ad Alta Frequenza per la Applicazioni di Signal Integrity. A. Ferrero- Scuola di Dottorato I.Gorini 2011 Acknoledgements Valeria Teppati, Serena Bonino Politecnico of Torino Marco Garelli HFE Brett Grossmann, Tom Ruttan, Evan Fledell Intel Corp Jon Martens Anritsu Corp Dave Blackham Agilent


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