2 Culture The combination of: Material Culture/constructed artifacts Art, houses, clothing, sports, dance, foodsThis chapter deals with material artifactsNonmaterial CultureLanguage (Ch. 5)Values- religious beliefs (Ch. 6), ethnicity (Ch. 7)Political institutions (Ch. 8)
3 How do we know it’s a “Culture”? If the group calls themselves a cultureLocal cultures see themselves as a community who share experiences, customs and traits and work to preserve those traits in order to claim uniqueness and distinguish themselves from others.Other people label a certain group as a cultureHowever, when defining and characterizing peoples into cultures, it is more important to now how the people define themselves, not how we define them.
4 Material Culture Two basic categories: folk/local and popular culture Folk/local cultureUsually practiced by small, isolated, homogeneous groups in rural areas where tradition dominates life and they are resistant to changePopular cultureCharacterized by large, heterogeneous groups of people who share common habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
6 Where Do Cultures Originate? Origin of folk and popular culturesFolk culture = hearth area/originators are usually unknownPopular culture = hearth area comes from more developed countries (MDCs)People in MDCs have disposable income and leisure time that allow for use of new innovationsGolf, cars, gaming systems, TVs etc.
7 Where Do Cultures Diffuse? Diffusion of folk and popular cultureFolk culture diffuses slowly, primarily through migration, and at a small scale; clusteredExample: Diffusion of Amish culture- what role does the environment play?Popular culture diffuses rapidly, mostly via hierarchical diffusion, and over a large scaleExample: Sports, fashion
8 Hierarchical diffusion: $65,000 to $3500 in 48 hours!
9 Making local/folk culture “popular”– how could this hurt local/folk cultures?
13 Diffusion of Pop Cultures Rapid diffusion (through globalization) reduces the local diversity of folk cultures (i.e. their customs).Pop culture vs. folk/local cultures = Globalization vs. local diversity
15 Quick WriteExplain how popular culture could be a threat to local cultures.Explain the differences between local/folk and pop culture.
16 How are local cultures sustained? By clusteringBy being isolatedBy practicing customs/traditions in the face of globalization
17 Influence of the physical environment Folk culture = close connection to the environmentMost folk cultures are rural and agriculturalClothing is often tied to environmental conditionsExample: Wooden clogs in the Netherlands
19 Food PreferencesTerroir- effects of local environment on food (soil’s effect on wine)Folk- certain foods eaten because of natural propertiesSee case study for examplesFood customs are affected by availability of products worldwideFood preferences are adapted to the environmentIn Asia, rice is grown in milder, wetter environments; wheat is grown in colder, drier environments1:08 mark of Movie
20 Food Preferences Food taboos may be especially strong People avoid certain foods because of negative associations with that foodPreferences developed for environmental (protect endangered animals) and cultural (religion) reasonsExamples- no pork for Jews or Muslims; popular culture doesn’t eat bugs like some folk cultures doCoca Cola
23 Some Kosher Laws- Of the "beasts of the earth" (which basically refers to land mammals with the exception of swarming rodents), you may eat any animal that has cloven hooves and chews its cud. Any land mammal that does not have both of these qualities is forbidden.All blood must be drained from meat and poultry or broiled out of it before it is eaten.Fruits and vegetables are permitted, but must be inspected for bugsGrape products made by non-Jews may not be eatenMeat (the flesh of birds and mammals) cannot be eaten with dairy. Fish, eggs, fruits, vegetables and grains can be eaten with either meat or dairy. (According to some views, fish may not be eaten with meat).Utensils (including pots and pans and other cooking surfaces) that have come into contact with meat may not be used with dairy, and vice versa.Utensils that have come into contact with non-kosher food may not be used with kosher food. This applies only where the contact occurred while the food was hot.
25 Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? Isolation promotes cultural diversityExamples:Unique cultural landscapesBeliefs and folk house formsSacred spacesU.S. folk housing
26 Sacred Spaces Determines layout of folk housing Ex: Java- front door faces south; Madagascar- important people are seated against the north wall
27 All sleep same direction- East Do not want to face neighbor's feet, parallel w/ street, perpendicular w/ streamAll sleep same direction- East
28 Folk Housing in USMigrants took memories of housing styles and built them as the moved throughout the US, they also built what was “in style” from the hearth at the timeThree hearthsLower Chesapeake and TidewaterMiddle AtlanticNew England
30 Rural Local Cultures Little Sweden, USA Have an easier time maintaining local cultures because of their isolationRurality allows local cultures to define their space to practice their beliefs and customs- creating their own rural landscapeLittle Sweden, USALindsborg, KansasCelebrating of Swedish ancestorsEconomic motives?
31 Is this authentic culture or “Disneyesque” fakery used to attract tourists? Top: LindsborgBottom: Sweden
32 Urban Local CulturesSuccessfully built their own “place” to practice their customs within a major city by constructing ethnic neighborhoods/enclaves = able to maintain their distinctness among members of the popular cultureJews in BrooklynItalians and Irish in BostonAre constantly threatened by nonmembers of the local culture moving into their neighborhoods (global vs local diversity)
35 People are forced to migrate primarily because of which factor? A) economicB) environmentalC) internationalD) culturalE) mobility
36 Which of the following is not presently one of the three largest migration flows in the world? A) to Europe from AsiaB) to Africa from AsiaC) to North America from AsiaD) to North America from Latin America
37 Europeans migrated to the United States primarily because of A) decreased economic opportunities as European countries experienced rapid population growth.B) decreased political stability as European countries were wracked by revolutions.C) religious freedom in the United States as European countries oppressed their citizens.D) discoveries of gold in California and Alaska
38 The most prominent type of intraregional migration in the world is A) north to south.B) region to region.C) urban to rural.D) city to city.E) rural to urban.
39 Reterritorialization of Pop Culture Certain aspects of pop culture (music, food) will take on new forms when presented in new placesReterritorialization- Taking something not from your “territory” and re-making it so it becomes unique to only your “territory”Reterritorializatoin of Hip Hop- Example of reverse hierarchical diffusion (inner cities to global)European Hip Hop in France and Germany mixed with local cultures, experiences, and places making it unique to each localeSampling/mixing things from own culture into Hip Hop music
40 Why Is Popular Culture Widely Distributed? Remember: Pop culture requires disposable income and leisure timePopular culture varies more in time than place
41 Pop Culture: Diffusion of Food Popular foods and beverages display regional variation in popularity depending on what can be locally producedMore snack food and alcohol- why?
42 Diffusion of ClothingDressing for occupation/current trends rather than environmentRepresents social class in societyJeans as a form of rebellionTechnology has increased diffusionTwo-way diffusion: MDCs and LDCs coming into contact with each other.
43 Diffusion of Pop Housing Reflects fashion trends on what a house “should look like”—since WWII (1945).Suburban sprawl (spread out) of LevittownsLimited housing style choices allowed houses to be built faster to keep up with demandFolk culture house styles becoming “popular”?
46 Explain what we mean when we say that popular culture varies more in time than in space. Differentiate this from what you know about folk culture.
47 Losing the Local?Pop culture itself can seem like an assimilation policyUS, West Europe, Japan, South Korea, India are all hearths of pop culture that produce different aspects of pop cultureFrench radio policies- (saving the local)
48 Threats to Folk Culture Loss of traditional valuesWearing suits symbolizes success in the WestJeans vs. chador in Islamic regionsRole of womenEmpowerment? (Increased dowries in India)Prostitution in LDCs
52 Assimilation v. Acculturation Acculturation (still has the word culture in it!)Minority culture adopts traits of major culture but KEEPS most of their own beliefsOccurs when local culture lives among members of the major culture and ACCEPT certain aspects of major cultureAssimilationMinority culture learns and absorbs major culture to the point that the original culture IS LOSTMinor culture comes to resemble the major group; makes acceptance easier
53 Adopt traits, but keeps own, too. Acculturation-Adopt traits, but keeps own, too.Assimilation-Adopted traits “take over”
54 Assimilation v. Acculturation Examples:Second-language learning at school, but speaks first language at home stillSushi becoming popular in USNaturalization process for immigrantsImmigrant parents choosing “American” names for childrenForcing Native American’s in Boarding Schools and forbidden to speak language
58 Clash of Cultures (Pop vs Folk/Local) Local cultures try to:Keep other cultures out, Keep own culture inAvoid cultural appropriation – when other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for own benefitCommodifying local culture (Katy and Russell); Little Sweden? TOASTER STRUDEL!Commodification- to treat something that cannot be owned or that everyone has a right to like a product that can be bought and sold
59 Drawbacks of Cultural Appropriation Shouldn’t it be a compliment?Usually done for economic benefitCommodification affects local cultures in many waysMaterial and nonmaterical culture can be commodified by nonmembersThe culture itself can be commodified- “observing” the Amish cultureStereotypes / replicas mistaken for authenticSome Amish DO use technology
60 Authenticity of Places Local cultures strive to make each place their own by infusing their customs, beliefs and traits into the landscapeTheme parks and other entertainment venues look to copy the “mysticism” of local culturesUnsuspecting tourists may mistake the “mysticism” as authenticCorporations try to commodify the mystique of local cultures to intrigue customers/make profit, Ex: Irish Pub Company/GuinnessGlobalize the mystique of the traditional Irish pub*Spain, US, Italy and France have more than Ireland
61 Authenticity of Places With commodification, usually one image or experience is typecast as the “authentic” image/experience of that culture.It is that image/experience that the tourist or buyer desires.People need to experience the complexity of a place/culture directly, rather than a stereotype of it.An “authentic” culture is complex, not categorized or stereotyped
62 Authenticity of Places Commodifying local cultures freezes customs in place and timeLocal cultures, both urban and rural, are touched by outside influences over the years and therefore are dynamic (always changing)The search for an “authentic” local culture perpetuates (keeps going) the myths/sterotypes about local cultures
63 Did these buildings ever exist this way Did these buildings ever exist this way? Did people really dress like that?Are these stereotypes of the “mystique”/uniqueness of a culture? Or are they authentic representations? Is this how the culture “characterized” here still is?
64 Busch Gardens would love to sell you some authentic “Africa”!
69 Amish for Sale!November 4, 2007, we purchased Flaby's Amish Tour business. We thought it would be fun to carry on Flaby's professional Amish tours. Vern, Eric, Rory, and Joan are our excellent, knowledgeable, and friendly hosts that guide the tours“certified guides”--Unique, intimate visit to 3 Amish properties --- a farm at milking time to observe how the Amish milk cows and cool milk without electricity (oooh, aahhh)
70 Commodifying a nameIs this the inside of an “authentic” Irish pub or an exported copy?
71 Am I being too critical?Possibly. Some cultures may embrace people coming to “look at/study” them because it could educate and raise awareness. They may want/need that economic benefit.Problems arise when:cultural artifacts/customs/traditions are exploited (abused or misused), especially by nonmembersWe “think” we know about a culture from what has been portrayed to use by popular culture—movies, magazines, etc.Both of these problems will lead to stereotypes and perpetuate the myths in search for the “authentic” culture
72 Western Control of Media West (US, GB, Jap) controls majority of mediaTV programming diffuses western ideas/cultureGlorifies consumerism, violence, sexuality, and militarismNews coverageMDCs are unlikely to focus or provide third world perspective on issues important in the LDCs.LDCs rely on BBC, AP, and Reuters
80 Environmental Impact of Pop Culture Negative ImpactsIncreased demand/depletion of natural resourcesAnimal consumption (chicken, beef) leads to grain depletion (feed) = inefficient use of food!!!PollutionPop culture produces waste (Garbage can Ghana)
84 Environmental Impact of Pop Culture Uniform LandscapesCreates homogeneity“placelessness”- loss of uniqueness of placesProduct/name/brand recognitionBrings familiarity to a “strange” placeBuildings designed for recognition of functionHotels, gas stations, grocery stores
85 3 ways to get “placelessness” 1. Certain planning and architectural forms have diffused around the worldSkyscrapers in downtowns2. Businesses and products are so widespread that they leave distinctive “stamps” on the landscape of far flung placesSigns: Pizza Hut, McDonalds, etc.3. Borrowing of idealized landscape images blurs places togetherTransplanting landscape features even it doesn’t fitLas Vegas strip
99 Distance Decay vs Time-space Compression Distance decay- diffusion less likely the further from the hearth you are = slower, old method of diffusion from hearthTSC- depends on the connectedness among places due to communication and transportation networks (world becoming smaller) = faster, modern method of cultural diffusion; no more distance decay problems?Today, the world is as connected as ever and those without connections are even more removed